OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 22 — Oct. 22, 2012
  • pp: 24600–24606
« Show journal navigation

Ultralow-power all-optical processing of high-speed data signals in deposited silicon waveguides

Ke-Yao Wang, Keith G. Petrillo, Mark A. Foster, and Amy C. Foster  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 22, pp. 24600-24606 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.024600


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1582 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Utilizing a 6-mm-long hydrogenated amorphous silicon nanowaveguide, we demonstrate error-free (BER < 10−9) 160-to-10 Gb/s OTDM demultiplexing using ultralow switching peak powers of 50 mW. This material is deposited at low temperatures enabling a path toward multilayer integration and therefore massive scaling of the number of devices in a single photonic chip.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) is a highly promising material for power efficient nonlinear photonic devices due to its ultrahigh optical nonlinearity [1

1. B. Kuyken, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Emplit, S. Massar, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “On-chip parametric amplification with 26.5 dB gain at telecommunication wavelengths using CMOS-compatible hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 552–554 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6

6. S. Suda, K. Tanizawa, Y. Sakakibara, T. Kamei, K. Nakanishi, E. Itoga, T. Ogasawara, R. Takei, H. Kawashima, S. Namiki, M. Mori, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “Pattern-effect-free all-optical wavelength conversion using a hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguide with ultra-fast carrier decay,” Opt. Lett. 37(8), 1382–1384 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and low nonlinear loss. Recently, using an a-Si:H nanowaveguide we measured the nonlinear refractive index to be an order of magnitude larger than the value of single-crystal silicon (c-Si) [5

5. K.-Y. Wang and A. C. Foster, “Ultralow power continuous-wave frequency conversion in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 37(8), 1331–1333 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Furthermore, Kuyken et al [2

2. B. Kuyken, H. Ji, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, H. Hu, M. Pu, M. Galili, P. Jeppesen, G. Morthier, S. Massar, L. K. Oxenløwe, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Nonlinear properties of and nonlinear processing in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(26), B146–B153 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] measured a nonlinear figure of merit (FOM) of 2.2 for a-Si:H, which is four times higher than the FOM for c-Si indicating that the impact of two-photon absorption is significantly reduced relative to c-Si. Due to these encouraging nonlinear properties, a-Si:H can considerably decrease the power requirements for nonlinear photonic devices. For example, the maximum effective nonlinearity of a-Si:H nanowaveguides is greater than 3000 W−1m−1 [5

5. K.-Y. Wang and A. C. Foster, “Ultralow power continuous-wave frequency conversion in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 37(8), 1331–1333 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]; a value that is five orders of magnitude larger than highly nonlinear optical fiber [7

7. M. Hirano, T. Nakanishi, T. Okuno, and M. Onishi, “Silica-based highly nonlinear fibers and their application,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 103–113 (2009). [CrossRef]

] and an order of magnitude larger than ultrahigh-nonlinearity c-Si [8

8. M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Nonlinear optics in photonic nanowires,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1300–1320 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and chalcogenide waveguides [9

9. B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).

]. This extremely large effective nonlinearity indicates that comparable nonlinear efficiency can be achieved in a-Si:H nanowaveguides with greatly reduced power requirements in more compact devices.

A further advantage of this material platform includes the low-temperature deposition of a-Si:H, making it back-end compatible with multilayer integration using current complementary–metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) fabrication processes [10

10. A. Harke, M. Krause, and J. Mueller, “Low-loss singlemode amorphous silicon waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 41(25), 1377–1379 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. In contrast, c-Si requires epitaxial growth or wafer bonding to define the photonic layer thereby limiting integration of photonic components to solely the base layer of a multilayer integrated circuit. The ability to integrate a-Si:H devices into any layer or multiple-layers within an integrated circuit is critical for resource-intensive ultrafast nonlinear photonic systems as it allows for integration of a larger number of photonic devices within a smaller footprint and facilitates tight integration with CMOS electronics.

Nonlinear photonic systems such as those required to demultiplex high-speed optical time-division multiplexed (OTDM) signals are typically extremely resource intensive in terms of size, power and cost. To minimize the resource requirements, integrated nonlinear photonic devices are highly attractive due to the potential for ultra-compact chip-scale systems and their high effective nonlinearity relative to fiber systems. Specifically, chalcogenide (As2S3) waveguides have been used to demultiplex 1.28 Tb/s and 160 Gb/s data streams using peak optical control powers of 4 W and 4.4 W and waveguide lengths of 7 cm and 5 cm, respectively [11

11. T. D. Vo, H. Hu, M. Galili, E. Palushani, J. Xu, L. K. Oxenløwe, S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. P. Bulla, M. D. Pelusi, J. Schröder, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic chip based transmitter optimization and receiver demultiplexing of a 1.28 Tbit/s OTDM signal,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17252–17261 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,12

12. M. D. Pelusi, V. G. Ta'eed, M. R. E. Lamont, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Ultra-high nonlinear As2S3 planar waveguide for 160-Gb/s optical time-division demultiplexing by four-wave mixing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(19), 1496–1498 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. Additionally, c-Si nanowaveguides were used to perform demultiplexing of 1.28 Tb/s and 160 Gb/s data streams to 10 Gb/s channels using peak powers of 2 W and 0.5 W and waveguide lengths of 5 mm and 1.1 cm, respectively [13

13. H. Ji, M. Pu, H. Hu, M. Galili, L. K. Oxenløwe, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, and P. Jeppesen, “Optical waveform sampling and error-free demultiplexing of 1.28 Tb/s serial data in a nanoengineered silicon waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(4), 426–431 (2011). [CrossRef]

,14

14. F. Li, M. Pelusi, D. X. Xu, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, and D. J. Moss, “Error-free all-optical demultiplexing at 160Gb/s via FWM in a silicon nanowire,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3905–3910 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA) have been successfully used in demultiplexing [15

15. E. Tangdiongga, Y. Liu, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, A. M. J. Koonen, H. J. S. Dorren, X. Shu, and I. Bennion, “All-optical demultiplexing of 640 to 40 Gbits/s using filtered chirp of a semiconductor optical amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 835–837 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] with low optical switching powers, but the device itself requires additional power for amplification. Using slow light photonic crystals, the enhancement of the nonlinearity can greatly reduce the length of the waveguide, but the power requirement is still relatively high (~0.9 W) [16

16. B. Corcoran, M. D. Pelusi, C. Monat, J. Li, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, and B. J. Eggleton, “Ultracompact 160 Gbaud all-optical demultiplexing exploiting slow light in an engineered silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1728–1730 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Silicon nano-crystals can achieve a very high nonlinearity (n2 > 1012 cm2/W) and have been investigated in slot waveguide geometries, however these structures typically exhibit much higher propagation losses (20 dB/cm) [17

17. A. Martínez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galán, J. García-Rupérez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernández, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, J. Martí, and R. Spano, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1506–1511 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Lower switching energies have been achieved in photonic crystal resonant cavities [18

18. K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Sub-femtojoule all-optical switching using a photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 477–483 (2010). [CrossRef]

] and ring structures [17

17. A. Martínez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galán, J. García-Rupérez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernández, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, J. Martí, and R. Spano, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1506–1511 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], but the operating bandwidth is inherently limited due to the resonant cavity structure. An additional approach using a silicon-organic hybrid structure can potentially overcome the two photon absorption (TPA) induced free carrier absorption (FCA), but the high propagation loss and complex fabrication limit the device performance [19

19. C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguidesx,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009). [CrossRef]

] and as a result, error free operation has not yet been demonstrated.

2. Device design and fabrication

In our a-Si:H device, all-optical switching relies on the third-order nonlinear parametric process known as four-wave mixing (FWM). In order to achieve broad-bandwidth FWM, the nanowaveguide is designed to obtain phase matching by having low anomalous group-velocity dispersion (GVD) or near-zero group-velocity dispersion (ZGVD) at the operating wavelength [20

20. M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, R. Salem, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band continuous-wave parametric wavelength conversion in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12949–12958 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The cross-section and quasi-transverse electric (TE) mode profile of the designed nanowaveguide is modeled by the finite difference method [21

21. A. Fallahkhair, K. S. Li, and T. E. Murphy, “Vector finite difference modesolver for anisotropic dielectric waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(11), 1423–1431 (2008). [CrossRef]

] and is shown in Fig. 1(a)
Fig. 1 Calculated GVD of the designed a-Si:H waveguide. The waveguide is designed to have low anomalous GVD at 1550 nm for efficient and broadband four-wave-mixing. Inset: (a) Cross-sectional schematic and simulated quasi-TE mode profile of the a-Si:H waveguide. The designed waveguide is 198 nm thick and 500 nm wide. (b) SEM image of the fabricated waveguide with ~100-nm silicon dioxide hard mask on top.
. The designed waveguide is about 198 nm thick by 500 nm wide. The GVD value for the TE mode of the dispersion-engineered waveguide is calculated to be ~10 ps/(nm∙km) at a wavelength 1550 nm with a dispersion slope of −0.43 ps/(nm2∙km) (Fig. 1); corresponding to a FWM conversion bandwidth of more than 150 nm [5

5. K.-Y. Wang and A. C. Foster, “Ultralow power continuous-wave frequency conversion in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 37(8), 1331–1333 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The ZGVD wavelengths for the designed waveguide are 1500 nm and 1565 nm.

The a-Si:H nanowaveguide is fabricated using standard microelectronics fabrication techniques. The a-Si:H film is deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on a silicon wafer with 3 µm buried oxide (BOX). The substrate is maintained at 300°C during the deposition. A thin layer of silicon dioxide (~100 nm) is deposited as a hard mask to reduce effects from direct etching with organic resists. Electron-beam lithography followed by chlorine-based inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching is used for waveguide patterning. A thick silicon dioxide layer (~1 µm) was deposited over the waveguide for cladding and for environmental protection. Inverse adiabatic tapers on both ends of waveguide are made for optical coupling [22

22. V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Nanotaper for compact mode conversion,” Opt. Lett. 28(15), 1302–1304 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the fabricated waveguide (Fig. 1 inset (b)) shows the near-rectangular shape and smooth sidewalls to reduce scattering losses in the waveguide. Additionally, all of the fabrication steps utilize CMOS techniques and are back-end-of-the-line (BEOL) CMOS compatible. Using the cut-back method, the coupling and propagation loss of the waveguides are extracted to be 8 dB per facet and 3.5 dB/cm for the quasi-transverse electric (TE) mode, respectively. Additionally, the effective nonlinearity of the waveguide is measured using the method described in [5

5. K.-Y. Wang and A. C. Foster, “Ultralow power continuous-wave frequency conversion in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 37(8), 1331–1333 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] to be approximately 3000 W−1m−1.

3. Experiment

We demonstrate OTDM demultiplexing from a 160 Gb/s on-off-keying (OOK) data stream to 10 Gb/s with the a-Si:H nanowaveguide device using the experimental system shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental setup for 160-to-10 Gb/s all-optical demutiplexing using an a-Si:H waveguide (MLFL: mode-locked fiber laser. EOM: electro-optical modulator. TBPF: tunable bandpass filter. MUX: Mach-Zehnder multiplexer. PC: polarization controller. HNLF: highly nonlinear fiber. WDM: wavelength division multiplexer. PD: photo-detector. BERT: bit-error rate tester.). Inset (lower left): auto-correlation traces of 160-Gb/s signal and 10-GHz pump at the input of the waveguide.
. An erbium-doped harmonically mode-locked fiber laser (MLFL) set to 1560 nm with a repetition rate of 10 GHz generates both the OTDM test source and the control pulses. An 80/20 coupler splits the test signal and pump sources, respectively. An electro-optic modulator (EOM) encodes the test signal with a 231-1 pseudorandom bit sequence (PRBS) and is then multiplexed up to 160 Gb/s using four highly asymmetric fiber Mach-Zehnder multiplexer (MUX) stages prior to being combined with the control pulses. The MUX stages are set to preserve a 29-1 PRBS sequence in the resulting OTDM signal. During the demux experiment, no change in the BER performance was observed when modulating at either 29-1 or 231-1 PRBS. The 20% side of the 80/20 coupler is spectrally broadened through self-phase modulation in 800 m of highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF) and subsequently filtered at a central wavelength of 1551 nm with a 4-nm bandwidth to generate the control pulses. A tunable delay (ΔT) and polarization controllers (PC) allow the test source and control pulses to be aligned in time and to be matched to the TE polarization of the waveguide. Compressing fibers are inserted at each arm to keep the control and test pulses transform-limited. The control and test sources are then combined using a wavelength division multiplexer (WDM). At the input of the waveguide, a lensed fiber is used for fiber-to-chip coupling. The waveguide output is sent into a receiver assembly, which consists of a 100-GHz optical filter centered at 1541 nm and optical amplifier followed by a second identical bandpass filter and an avalanche photo-detector. The generated idler pulses are isolated and amplified prior to detection. The second bandpass filter is used to reduce the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) from the amplifier. The detected signal is sent into a bit-error-rate tester (BERT) for error rate measurement. A 10% tap is implemented before the photo-detector for monitoring the received power during the BER measurement. During testing, an optical spectrum analyzer captures the spectrum before and after the waveguide. In the back-to-back (B2B) measurement, the mode-locked fiber laser is tuned to the idler wavelength (1541 nm), and the MUX stages are bypassed. These laser pulses are then sent directly into the receiver assembly of the experiment.

The optical spectra before and after the waveguide are shown in Fig. 3(a)
Fig. 3 (a) Input and output spectra of the demultiplexing process in the 6-mm-long a-Si:H waveguide showing the input 160-Gb/s signal, the 10 GHz pump, and the generated 10 Gb/s idler. (b) The BER measurement of the 160 Gb/s to 10 Gb/s demultiplexing of all 16 channels and 10 Gb/s back-to-back (B2B). Error-free operation (10−9) is achieved with 4- to 5-dB power penalty. Inset: demuxed eye diagram.
. The data stream and pump laser are separated in wavelength by 10 nm. The average power for pump and signal inside the waveguide are 1.2 mW (0.8 dBm) and 0.8 mW (−0.9 dBm), respectively. The pulse widths of the pump and data pulses are measured through autocorrelation to be 1.9 ps and 2.1 ps (Inset of Fig. 2), respectively, corresponding to 63 mW peak power for the pump in the waveguide assuming a Gaussian shape pulse. At the output of the waveguide, the 160 Gb/s data is demultiplexed to 10 Gb/s at a wavelength of 1541 nm through FWM. The on/off conversion efficiency of the four-wave mixing process is measured to be −13 dB, a value competitive with state-of-the-art demonstrations in c-Si. The on/off conversion efficiency is defined by the ratio between idler output power with the pump on and signal output power with the pump off, taking into account the duty cycle difference between the signal (160 Gb/s) and the idler (10 Gb/s) of 12 dB. The BER performance of this device for all 16 channels is shown in Fig. 3(b) demonstrating error-free operation with a BER of less than 10−9 and a power penalty ranging from 4 to 5 dB relative to the back-to-back (B2B) measurements. For reference, a demultiplexed eye diagram when the BER = 10−9 is shown in the inset of Fig. 3(b).

4. Conclusion

Here we demonstrate 160 Gb/s to 10 Gb/s all-optical demultiplexing via four-wave mixing in a 6-mm long highly nonlinear hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguide with error free operation at telecommunication wavelengths using ultralow peak pump powers of 50 mW. This represents the first demonstration of OTDM demultiplexing in a a-Si:H device and the switching power of our device is, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest among all CMOS-compatible platforms demonstrated to date. Excitingly, this material platform can also directly benefit from recent advancements in OTDM demultiplexing such as slow-light enhancement to further reduce the device size [16

16. B. Corcoran, M. D. Pelusi, C. Monat, J. Li, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, and B. J. Eggleton, “Ultracompact 160 Gbaud all-optical demultiplexing exploiting slow light in an engineered silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1728–1730 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and direct OTDM-to-WDM (wavelength division multiplexing) conversion to reduce the number of physical switches [24

24. K. G. Petrillo and M. A. Foster, “Scalable ultrahigh-speed optical transmultiplexer using a time lens,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14051–14059 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26

26. E. Palushani, H. C. H. Mulvad, M. Galili, H. Hao, L. K. Oxenløwe, A. T. Clausen, and P. Jeppesen, “OTDM-to-WDM conversion based on time-to-frequency mapping by time-domain optical fourier transformation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 681–688 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. Furthermore, the low deposition temperature of the a-Si:H material used here allows such devices to be fabricated at the back-end-of-the-line of a CMOS process, enabling their seamless integration with microelectronics. The demonstrated ability to manipulate ultrahigh data-rate signals using ultralow powers in a low temperature deposited waveguide offers exciting prospects for sophisticated multilayer on-chip all-optical signal processing circuits.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by start-up funds from The Johns Hopkins University. The sample fabrication is carried out in part at the Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology’s NanoFab at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. KYW and ACF acknowledge support from the DARPA Young Faculty Award program under award number N66001-12-1-4248. KGP and MAF also acknowledge support from the DARPA Young Faculty Award program under award number N66001-11-1-4153.

References and links

1.

B. Kuyken, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Emplit, S. Massar, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “On-chip parametric amplification with 26.5 dB gain at telecommunication wavelengths using CMOS-compatible hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 552–554 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

B. Kuyken, H. Ji, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, H. Hu, M. Pu, M. Galili, P. Jeppesen, G. Morthier, S. Massar, L. K. Oxenløwe, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Nonlinear properties of and nonlinear processing in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(26), B146–B153 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

K. Ikeda, Y. M. Shen, and Y. Fainman, “Enhanced optical nonlinearity in amorphous silicon and its application to waveguide devices,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17761–17771 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

K. Narayanan and S. F. Preble, “Optical nonlinearities in hydrogenated-amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(9), 8998–9005 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

K.-Y. Wang and A. C. Foster, “Ultralow power continuous-wave frequency conversion in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 37(8), 1331–1333 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

S. Suda, K. Tanizawa, Y. Sakakibara, T. Kamei, K. Nakanishi, E. Itoga, T. Ogasawara, R. Takei, H. Kawashima, S. Namiki, M. Mori, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “Pattern-effect-free all-optical wavelength conversion using a hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguide with ultra-fast carrier decay,” Opt. Lett. 37(8), 1382–1384 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

M. Hirano, T. Nakanishi, T. Okuno, and M. Onishi, “Silica-based highly nonlinear fibers and their application,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 103–113 (2009). [CrossRef]

8.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Nonlinear optics in photonic nanowires,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1300–1320 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).

10.

A. Harke, M. Krause, and J. Mueller, “Low-loss singlemode amorphous silicon waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 41(25), 1377–1379 (2005). [CrossRef]

11.

T. D. Vo, H. Hu, M. Galili, E. Palushani, J. Xu, L. K. Oxenløwe, S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. P. Bulla, M. D. Pelusi, J. Schröder, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic chip based transmitter optimization and receiver demultiplexing of a 1.28 Tbit/s OTDM signal,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17252–17261 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

M. D. Pelusi, V. G. Ta'eed, M. R. E. Lamont, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Ultra-high nonlinear As2S3 planar waveguide for 160-Gb/s optical time-division demultiplexing by four-wave mixing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(19), 1496–1498 (2007). [CrossRef]

13.

H. Ji, M. Pu, H. Hu, M. Galili, L. K. Oxenløwe, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, and P. Jeppesen, “Optical waveform sampling and error-free demultiplexing of 1.28 Tb/s serial data in a nanoengineered silicon waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(4), 426–431 (2011). [CrossRef]

14.

F. Li, M. Pelusi, D. X. Xu, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, and D. J. Moss, “Error-free all-optical demultiplexing at 160Gb/s via FWM in a silicon nanowire,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3905–3910 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

E. Tangdiongga, Y. Liu, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, A. M. J. Koonen, H. J. S. Dorren, X. Shu, and I. Bennion, “All-optical demultiplexing of 640 to 40 Gbits/s using filtered chirp of a semiconductor optical amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 835–837 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

B. Corcoran, M. D. Pelusi, C. Monat, J. Li, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, and B. J. Eggleton, “Ultracompact 160 Gbaud all-optical demultiplexing exploiting slow light in an engineered silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1728–1730 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

A. Martínez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galán, J. García-Rupérez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernández, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, J. Martí, and R. Spano, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1506–1511 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Sub-femtojoule all-optical switching using a photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 477–483 (2010). [CrossRef]

19.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguidesx,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009). [CrossRef]

20.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, R. Salem, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band continuous-wave parametric wavelength conversion in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12949–12958 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

A. Fallahkhair, K. S. Li, and T. E. Murphy, “Vector finite difference modesolver for anisotropic dielectric waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(11), 1423–1431 (2008). [CrossRef]

22.

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Nanotaper for compact mode conversion,” Opt. Lett. 28(15), 1302–1304 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

D. L. Staebler and C. R. Wronski, “Optically induced conductivity changes in discharge-produced hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 51(6), 3262–3268 (1980). [CrossRef]

24.

K. G. Petrillo and M. A. Foster, “Scalable ultrahigh-speed optical transmultiplexer using a time lens,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14051–14059 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

H. Christian, H. Mulvad, E. Palushani, H. Hu, H. Ji, M. Lillieholm, M. Galili, A. T. Clausen, M. Pu, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, P. Jeppesen, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “Ultra-high-speed optical serial-to-parallel data conversion by time-domain optical Fourier transformation in a silicon nanowire,” Opt. Express 19(26), B825–B835 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

E. Palushani, H. C. H. Mulvad, M. Galili, H. Hao, L. K. Oxenløwe, A. T. Clausen, and P. Jeppesen, “OTDM-to-WDM conversion based on time-to-frequency mapping by time-domain optical fourier transformation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 681–688 (2012). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(190.4380) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, four-wave mixing
(190.4390) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, integrated optics

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optics

History
Original Manuscript: August 13, 2012
Revised Manuscript: October 3, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: October 3, 2012
Published: October 12, 2012

Citation
Ke-Yao Wang, Keith G. Petrillo, Mark A. Foster, and Amy C. Foster, "Ultralow-power all-optical processing of high-speed data signals in deposited silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 20, 24600-24606 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-22-24600


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. B. Kuyken, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Emplit, S. Massar, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “On-chip parametric amplification with 26.5 dB gain at telecommunication wavelengths using CMOS-compatible hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett.36(4), 552–554 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. B. Kuyken, H. Ji, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, H. Hu, M. Pu, M. Galili, P. Jeppesen, G. Morthier, S. Massar, L. K. Oxenløwe, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Nonlinear properties of and nonlinear processing in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express19(26), B146–B153 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. Ikeda, Y. M. Shen, and Y. Fainman, “Enhanced optical nonlinearity in amorphous silicon and its application to waveguide devices,” Opt. Express15(26), 17761–17771 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. Narayanan and S. F. Preble, “Optical nonlinearities in hydrogenated-amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express18(9), 8998–9005 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K.-Y. Wang and A. C. Foster, “Ultralow power continuous-wave frequency conversion in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett.37(8), 1331–1333 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Suda, K. Tanizawa, Y. Sakakibara, T. Kamei, K. Nakanishi, E. Itoga, T. Ogasawara, R. Takei, H. Kawashima, S. Namiki, M. Mori, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “Pattern-effect-free all-optical wavelength conversion using a hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguide with ultra-fast carrier decay,” Opt. Lett.37(8), 1382–1384 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Hirano, T. Nakanishi, T. Okuno, and M. Onishi, “Silica-based highly nonlinear fibers and their application,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(1), 103–113 (2009). [CrossRef]
  8. M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Nonlinear optics in photonic nanowires,” Opt. Express16(2), 1300–1320 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics5, 141–148 (2011).
  10. A. Harke, M. Krause, and J. Mueller, “Low-loss singlemode amorphous silicon waveguides,” Electron. Lett.41(25), 1377–1379 (2005). [CrossRef]
  11. T. D. Vo, H. Hu, M. Galili, E. Palushani, J. Xu, L. K. Oxenløwe, S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. P. Bulla, M. D. Pelusi, J. Schröder, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic chip based transmitter optimization and receiver demultiplexing of a 1.28 Tbit/s OTDM signal,” Opt. Express18(16), 17252–17261 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. D. Pelusi, V. G. Ta'eed, M. R. E. Lamont, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Ultra-high nonlinear As2S3 planar waveguide for 160-Gb/s optical time-division demultiplexing by four-wave mixing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(19), 1496–1498 (2007). [CrossRef]
  13. H. Ji, M. Pu, H. Hu, M. Galili, L. K. Oxenløwe, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, and P. Jeppesen, “Optical waveform sampling and error-free demultiplexing of 1.28 Tb/s serial data in a nanoengineered silicon waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol.29(4), 426–431 (2011). [CrossRef]
  14. F. Li, M. Pelusi, D. X. Xu, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, and D. J. Moss, “Error-free all-optical demultiplexing at 160Gb/s via FWM in a silicon nanowire,” Opt. Express18(4), 3905–3910 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. E. Tangdiongga, Y. Liu, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, A. M. J. Koonen, H. J. S. Dorren, X. Shu, and I. Bennion, “All-optical demultiplexing of 640 to 40 Gbits/s using filtered chirp of a semiconductor optical amplifier,” Opt. Lett.32(7), 835–837 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. B. Corcoran, M. D. Pelusi, C. Monat, J. Li, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, and B. J. Eggleton, “Ultracompact 160 Gbaud all-optical demultiplexing exploiting slow light in an engineered silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett.36(9), 1728–1730 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. Martínez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galán, J. García-Rupérez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernández, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, J. Martí, and R. Spano, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1506–1511 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Sub-femtojoule all-optical switching using a photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics4(7), 477–483 (2010). [CrossRef]
  19. C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguidesx,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 216–219 (2009). [CrossRef]
  20. M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, R. Salem, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band continuous-wave parametric wavelength conversion in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express15(20), 12949–12958 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. A. Fallahkhair, K. S. Li, and T. E. Murphy, “Vector finite difference modesolver for anisotropic dielectric waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(11), 1423–1431 (2008). [CrossRef]
  22. V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Nanotaper for compact mode conversion,” Opt. Lett.28(15), 1302–1304 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. D. L. Staebler and C. R. Wronski, “Optically induced conductivity changes in discharge-produced hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys.51(6), 3262–3268 (1980). [CrossRef]
  24. K. G. Petrillo and M. A. Foster, “Scalable ultrahigh-speed optical transmultiplexer using a time lens,” Opt. Express19(15), 14051–14059 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. H. Christian, H. Mulvad, E. Palushani, H. Hu, H. Ji, M. Lillieholm, M. Galili, A. T. Clausen, M. Pu, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, P. Jeppesen, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “Ultra-high-speed optical serial-to-parallel data conversion by time-domain optical Fourier transformation in a silicon nanowire,” Opt. Express19(26), B825–B835 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. E. Palushani, H. C. H. Mulvad, M. Galili, H. Hao, L. K. Oxenløwe, A. T. Clausen, and P. Jeppesen, “OTDM-to-WDM conversion based on time-to-frequency mapping by time-domain optical fourier transformation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(2), 681–688 (2012). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
 
Fig. 4
 

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited