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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 23 — Nov. 5, 2012
  • pp: 26075–26081
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Temperature stable 1.3 μm emission from GaAs

Slawomir Prucnal, Kun Gao, Wolfgang Anwand, Manfred Helm, Wolfgang Skorupa, and Shengqiang Zhou  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 23, pp. 26075-26081 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.026075


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Abstract

Gallium arsenide has outstanding performance in optical communication devices for light source purposes. Different approaches have been done to realize the luminescence from GaAs matching the transmission window of optical fibers. Here we present the realization of quasi- temperature independent photoluminescence at around 1.3 μm from millisecond-range thermally treated GaAs. It is shown that the VAs donor and X acceptor pairs are responsible for the 1.3 μm emission. The influence of the flash-lamp-annealing on the donor-acceptor pair (DAP) formation in the nitrogen and manganese doped and un-doped semi-insulating GaAs wafers were investigated. The concentration of DAP and the 1.3 μm emission can be easily tuned by controlling doping and annealing conditions.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

In this paper we present defect engineering in doped and un-doped GaAs wafers by millisecond range flash lamp annealing [13

13. W. Skorupa, T. Gebel, R. A. Yankov, S. Paul, W. Lerch, D. F. Downey, and E. A. Arevalo, “Advanced thermal processing of ultrashallow implanted junctions using flash lamp annealing,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 152(6), G436–G440 (2005). [CrossRef]

] for efficient room temperature NIR light emission. The concentration and optical properties of the defects formed in GaAs during thermal processing were investigated by means of positron annihilation spectroscopy, temperature dependent photoluminescence and μ-Raman spectroscopy. It is shown that the VAs donor and X acceptor pairs are responsible for the 1.3 μm emission. The highest concentration of the donor-acceptor pairs (the strongest PL signal) was obtained from annealed un-doped and nitrogen doped SI-GaAs wafers. Both types of samples show only 50% reduction of the total PL intensity at 1.3 μm when the temperature rises from 15 up to 300 K. Whereas the incorporation of Mn which is a p-type dopant in GaAs quenches the 1.3 μm PL emission completely due to deactivation of X centers. The influence of the doping type on the optical properties of the SI-GaAs wafers is discussed.

2. Experimental setup

3. Results and discussion

The influence of the doping and millisecond flash lamp annealing on the microstructural properties of the GaAs was investigated by means of μ-Raman spectroscopy. Figure 1
Fig. 1 μ-Raman spectra of implanted and virgin SI-GaAs before and after flash lamp annealing for 20 ms. The spectra have been vertically offset for clarity.
shows the first-order μ-Raman spectra obtained from doped and virgin (100) oriented SI-GaAs before and after flash lamp annealing. According to the selection rules in the backscattering geometry the Raman spectra recorded from the (100) oriented monocrystalline GaAs reveals only longitudinal (LO) optical phonon mode at 292 cm−1 while the excitation of the transverse (TO) optical phonon mode located at 268.6 cm−1 in such geometry is forbidden. In case of virgin samples both non-annealed and flash lamp annealed for 20 ms at 138.7 Jcm−2 only the LO phonon mode at 292.2 cm−1 is visible. The Raman spectrum obtained from non-annealed nitrogen implanted sample shows two broad peaks at 263 and 285 cm−1 corresponding to the TO and LO phonon modes in amorphous GaAs. After FLA at 155 Jcm−2 the TO phonon mode disappears and only the narrow LO phonon mode located at 291.2 cm−1 is visible. The shift of the LO phonon mode to the lower frequency is caused by GaNxAs1-x alloy formation after annealing. Prokofyeva et al. have investigated the influence of the nitrogen concentration on the allowed phonon mode positions in the GaNxAs1-x alloys [14

14. T. Prokofyeva, T. Sauncy, M. Seon, M. Holtz, Y. Qiu, S. Nikishin, and H. Temkin, “Raman studies of nitrogen incorporation in GaAs1−xNx,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(10), 1409–1411 (1998). [CrossRef]

]. They have found that the red shift of the LO phonon mode is in the rage of −136 cm−1/x in respect to the undoped crystalline GaAs, where x is the nitrogen concentration. Hence, our GaNxAs1-x contains about 0.8% of nitrogen which means that 50% of implanted nitrogen was activated. Moreover the nitrogen implanted and annealed samples exhibit a broad peak at around 460 cm−1 due to the local vibrational mode associated with nitrogen substituted arsenic sites. The not annealed Mn implanted sample shows two broad TO and LO phonon modes at 260 and 282 cm−1, respectively. After FLA at 130.7 Jcm−2 both peaks are shifted to the higher wavenumber but still are displaced by 1.0 and 2.5 cm−1 to the lower frequency. Due to Mn incorporation into GaAs lattice the annealed samples show the p-type conductivity.According to the selection rules the TO phonon mode in the backscattering geometry from the (100) GaAs is optically forbidden. However, ternary compound semiconductors such as Ga1-xInxAs show two phonon mode behaviour [15

15. M. R. Islam, P. Verma, M. Yamada, M. Tatsumi, and K. Kinoshita, “Micro-Raman Characterization of Starting Material for Traveling Liquidus Zone Growth Method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 1, No. 2B), 991–995 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. The existence of both TO and LO phonon modes in Mn implanted and annealed sample confirm the Ga1-xMnxAs alloy formation.

Based on the shift of the LO phonon mode the composition of the Ga1-xMnxAs can be calculated according to equation for the strained GaMnAs layer: LOGaAs(x) = 292-118.8x, where x is the Mn concentration [16

16. M. R. Islam, N. F. Chen, and M. Yamada, “Raman scattering study on Ga1-xMnx As prepared by Mn ions implantation, deposition and post-annealing,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 44(2), 215–220 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. In our case the shift of the LO phonon mode is 2.5 cm−1 which corresponds to 2% of Mn incorporated into GaAs. Moreover the LO phonon mode is strongly asymmetric and can be de-convoluted into the LO phonon mode and coupled-LO-phonon plasmon mode (CLOPM) usually optically active in p-type heavily doped binary semiconductors [16

16. M. R. Islam, N. F. Chen, and M. Yamada, “Raman scattering study on Ga1-xMnx As prepared by Mn ions implantation, deposition and post-annealing,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 44(2), 215–220 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. The position of the CLOPM depends on the carrier concentration and moves from the LO to the TO phonon mode position with increasing hole concentration. The Ga0.98Mn0.02As Raman spectrum fitted with Lorentzian function exhibited the CLOPM at 277.8 cm−1 which corresponds to the hole concentration in the range of 1.2 × 1019 cm−3.

Figure 2
Fig. 2 Room temperature photoluminescence spectra obtained from virgin and implanted SI-GaAs samples after flash lamp annealing. Inset shows the scheme of energy levels and radiative transitions in annealed samples.
shows the room temperature PL spectra obtained from virgin and N or Mn implanted and flash lamp annealed samples for 3 ms and Mn doped sample annealed for 20 ms. The PL spectrum from virgin not annealed sample is shown as well. For the PL excitation the 532 nm laser with 60 mW power was used. Taking into account the implantation parameters for N and Mn and absorption coefficient α at 532 nm for GaAs [17

17. D. E. Aspnes and A. A. Studna, “Dielectric functions and optical parameters of Si, Ge, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, and InSb from 1.5 to 6.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 985–1009 (1983). [CrossRef]

] the PL spectra of implanted and annealed samples originate only from doped layers. Due to different optical absorption of implanted and not implanted samples the FLA system was calibrated according to the melting point of certain samples in order to obtain the same temperature during FLA process. The maximum activation of the implanted elements appears during liquid phase epitaxial regrowth of amorphized layer. Therefore in each case the annealing was performed at the temperature reaching the melting point of implanted or crystalline GaAs. In order to suppress the decomposition of the GaAs during high temperature annealing a SiO2 layer of 200 nm was deposited on the top. After annealing the oxide layer was chemically etched in HF:H2O solution before measurements. The room temperature photoluminescence (RTPL) obtained from the virgin not annealed sample shows the near band gap (NBG) emission at 875 nm and weak signal in the near infrared region (NIR). After FLA at 138.7 Jcm−2 for 20 ms the strong NIR photoluminescence band at 1.3 μm appears. The same feature of the NIR PL emission reveals nitrogen implanted samples but the NBG emission is observed at 900 nm due to the GaNxAs1-x alloy formation [18

18. S. Francoeur, G. Sivaraman, Y. Qiu, S. Nikishin, and H. Temkin, “Luminescence of as-grown and thermally annealed GaAsN/GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(15), 1857–1859 (1998). [CrossRef]

]. The red shift of the NBG emission by 40 meV corresponds to x = 0.007, which is in consistence with the Raman result shown in Fig. 1. The incorporation of manganese into GaAs completely suppressed the NIR PL emission and only the near band gap peak is visible. Moreover manganese forms an acceptor level around 110 meV above the valence band in GaAs [19

19. D. Bürger, S. Zhou, J. Grenzer, H. Reuther, W. Anwand, V. Gottschalch, M. Helm, and H. Schmidt, “The influence of annealing on manganese implanted GaAs films,” Nucl. Instr. Method B 267, 1626–1629 (2009).

,20

20. O. Yastrubchak, J. Zuk, H. Krzyzanowska, J. Z. Domagala, T. Andrearczyk, J. Sadowski, and T. Wosinski, “Photoreflectance study of the fundamental optical properties of (Ga,Mn)As epitaxial films,” Phys. Rev. B 83(24), 245201 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. It changes the SI-GaAs to p-type material with the carrier concentration in the range of 2 × 1019 cm−3 for samples annealed at 138.7 Jcm−2 for 20 ms. The defects in the virgin and annealed GaAs samples were investigated by positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). The virgin GaAs sample shows a linear relationship between the S and W parameter which suggest that only one type of defect exists in this sample which traps positrons. The average positron lifetime (τave) was close to the bulk value which is in the range of 230 ps [21

21. V. Bondarenko, J. Gebauer, F. Redmann, and R. Krause-Rehberg, “Vacancy formation in GaAs under different equilibrium conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(16), 161906 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. According to the PAS the high temperature flash lamp annealing in the millisecond range improves significantly the crystallinity of the bulk GaAs. Both values of the S and W parameters after annealing are close to the tabulated values [21

21. V. Bondarenko, J. Gebauer, F. Redmann, and R. Krause-Rehberg, “Vacancy formation in GaAs under different equilibrium conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(16), 161906 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. A small deviation was observed within 400 nm from the surface with S ϵ (0.995 ÷ 1) and W ϵ (1 ÷ 1.05) which is the probed range for the PL excitation. At this range the positron lifetime decreases down to 50 ps. The slight deviation of the S and W parameters from the bulk value and the decrease of the τave indicates the existence of some negatively charged defects coupled to the arsenic vacancy e.g. VAs-X defect complexes. The arsenic vacancies form shallow donor levels located at about 30, 60 or 140 meV below the conduction band and they are positively charged (VAsn+) [22

22. K. Saarinen, P. Hautojärvi, P. Lanki, and C. Corbel, “Ionization levels of As vacancies in as-grown GaAs studied by positron-lifetime spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 44(19), 10585–10600 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,23

23. K. Saarinen, S. Kuisma, P. Hautojärvi, C. Corbel, and C. LeBerre, “Native vacancies in semi-insulating GaAs observed by positron lifetime spectroscopy under photoexcitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(18), 2794–2797 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Hence the VAsn+ alone is not detectable with positrons. VAs-X defect complexes with negatively charged X defects in the annealed semi-insulated GaAs crystals were identified for the first time by Bondarenko et al. [21

21. V. Bondarenko, J. Gebauer, F. Redmann, and R. Krause-Rehberg, “Vacancy formation in GaAs under different equilibrium conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(16), 161906 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. According to temperature dependent Hall measurements they found that the energy level of the X defects should be located at about 0.5 eV above the valence band and initially was correlated with the CuGa acceptor but finally copper was eliminated as the precursor of the X defects. Up to now the origin and the electronic structure of the X-defect in annealed SI-GaAs are unknown. Based on the positron annihilation spectroscopy and photoluminescence results obtained from the undoped and nitrogen implanted SI-GaAs we can conclude that the VAs-X defect complex is responsible for the 1.3 μm emission where the X defect forms the deep acceptor level about 0.47 eV above the valence band.

4. Conclusions

In summary, the semi-insulating GaAs samples show promising room temperature NIR PL after flash lamp annealing. The VAs – X defect complex is responsible for the 1.22 and 1.3 μm emission. The quasi-temperature stable NIR PL emission can be interesting for potential application in the field of optical-fibre communications. The proper defect engineering presents a simple method for tuning the optical properties of GaAs.

Acknowledgment

We would like to thank the ion implanter group at HZDR. This work was financially supported by the Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren (HGF-VH-NG-713).

References and links

1.

S.-H. Wei and A. Zunger, “Giant and composition-dependent optical bowing coefficient in GaAsN alloys,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(4), 664–667 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

E. D. Jones, N. A. Modine, A. A. Allerman, S. R. Kurtz, A. F. Wright, S. Tozer, and X. Wei, “Band structure of InxGa1-xAs1-yNy alloys and effects of pressure,” Phys. Rev. B 60(7), 4430–4433 (1999). [CrossRef]

3.

I. Suemune, K. Uesugi, and W. Walukiewicz, “Role of nitrogen in the reduced temperature dependence of band-gap energy in GaNAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 3021–3023 (2000). [CrossRef]

4.

W. Orellana and A. C. Ferraz, “Ab initio study of substitutional nitrogen in GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1231–1233 (2001). [CrossRef]

5.

W. Huang, M. Yoshimoto, Y. Takehara, J. Saraie, and K. Oe, “GaNyAs1-x-yBix Alloy Lattice Matched to GaAs with 1.3 µm Photoluminescence Emission,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 10B), L1350–L1352 (2004). [CrossRef]

6.

T. Shima, S. Kimura, T. Iida, A. Obara, Y. Makita, K. Kudo, and K. Tanaka, “High concentration nitrogen ion doping into GaAs for the fabrication of GaAsN,” Nucl. Instr. Method B 118(1-4), 743–747 (1996). [CrossRef]

7.

H. Ch. Alt, Y. V. Gomeniuk, G. Lenk, and B. Wiedemann, “GaAsN formation by implantation of nitrogen into GaAs studied by infrared spectroscopy,” Physica B 340–342, 394–398 (2003). [CrossRef]

8.

K. M. Yu, S. V. Novikov, R. Broesler, I. N. Demchenko, J. D. Denlinger, Z. Liliental-Weber, F. Luckert, R. W. Martin, W. Walukiewicz, and C. T. Foxon, “Highly mismatched crystalline and amorphous GaN1−xAsx alloys in the whole composition range,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103709 (2009). [CrossRef]

9.

Y. Tominaga, K. Oe, and M. Yoshimoto, “Temperature-insensitive photoluminescence emission wavelength in GaAs1–xBix/GaAs multiquantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi C 8(2), 260–262 (2011). [CrossRef]

10.

M. Grundmann, O. Stier, and D. Bimberg, “InAs/GaAs pyramidal quantum dots: Strain distribution, optical phonons, and electronic structure,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 52(16), 11969–11981 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

C. V. Reddy, S. Fung, and C. D. Beling, “Nature of the bulk defects in GaAs through high-temperature quenching studies,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(16), 11290–11297 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

H. Lei, H. S. Leipner, V. Bondarenko, and J. Schreiber, “Identification of the 0.95 eV luminescence band in n-type GaAs:Si,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16(2), S279–S285 (2004). [CrossRef]

13.

W. Skorupa, T. Gebel, R. A. Yankov, S. Paul, W. Lerch, D. F. Downey, and E. A. Arevalo, “Advanced thermal processing of ultrashallow implanted junctions using flash lamp annealing,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 152(6), G436–G440 (2005). [CrossRef]

14.

T. Prokofyeva, T. Sauncy, M. Seon, M. Holtz, Y. Qiu, S. Nikishin, and H. Temkin, “Raman studies of nitrogen incorporation in GaAs1−xNx,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(10), 1409–1411 (1998). [CrossRef]

15.

M. R. Islam, P. Verma, M. Yamada, M. Tatsumi, and K. Kinoshita, “Micro-Raman Characterization of Starting Material for Traveling Liquidus Zone Growth Method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 1, No. 2B), 991–995 (2002). [CrossRef]

16.

M. R. Islam, N. F. Chen, and M. Yamada, “Raman scattering study on Ga1-xMnx As prepared by Mn ions implantation, deposition and post-annealing,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 44(2), 215–220 (2009). [CrossRef]

17.

D. E. Aspnes and A. A. Studna, “Dielectric functions and optical parameters of Si, Ge, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, and InSb from 1.5 to 6.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 985–1009 (1983). [CrossRef]

18.

S. Francoeur, G. Sivaraman, Y. Qiu, S. Nikishin, and H. Temkin, “Luminescence of as-grown and thermally annealed GaAsN/GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(15), 1857–1859 (1998). [CrossRef]

19.

D. Bürger, S. Zhou, J. Grenzer, H. Reuther, W. Anwand, V. Gottschalch, M. Helm, and H. Schmidt, “The influence of annealing on manganese implanted GaAs films,” Nucl. Instr. Method B 267, 1626–1629 (2009).

20.

O. Yastrubchak, J. Zuk, H. Krzyzanowska, J. Z. Domagala, T. Andrearczyk, J. Sadowski, and T. Wosinski, “Photoreflectance study of the fundamental optical properties of (Ga,Mn)As epitaxial films,” Phys. Rev. B 83(24), 245201 (2011). [CrossRef]

21.

V. Bondarenko, J. Gebauer, F. Redmann, and R. Krause-Rehberg, “Vacancy formation in GaAs under different equilibrium conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(16), 161906 (2005). [CrossRef]

22.

K. Saarinen, P. Hautojärvi, P. Lanki, and C. Corbel, “Ionization levels of As vacancies in as-grown GaAs studied by positron-lifetime spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 44(19), 10585–10600 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

K. Saarinen, S. Kuisma, P. Hautojärvi, C. Corbel, and C. LeBerre, “Native vacancies in semi-insulating GaAs observed by positron lifetime spectroscopy under photoexcitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(18), 2794–2797 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

S. Kuisma, K. Saarinen, P. Hautojärvi, C. Corbel, and C. LeBerre, “Optical processes related to arsenic vacancies in semi-insulating GaAs studied by positron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(15), 9814–9830 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

M. Suezawa, A. Kasuya, Y. Nishina, and K. Sumino, “Excitation spectra of 1200 and 1320 nm photoluminescence lines in annealed gallium arsenide doped with silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(2), 1164–1168 (1994). [CrossRef]

26.

J. Liang, J. Jiang, J. Zhao, and Y. Gao, “Studies on 0.96 and 0.84 eV photoluminescence emissions in GaAs epilayers grown on Si,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(9), 7173–7176 (1996). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.4510) Fiber optics and optical communications : Optical communications
(160.4760) Materials : Optical properties
(160.6000) Materials : Semiconductor materials
(250.5230) Optoelectronics : Photoluminescence

ToC Category:
Materials

History
Original Manuscript: June 1, 2012
Revised Manuscript: September 21, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: October 15, 2012
Published: November 2, 2012

Citation
Slawomir Prucnal, Kun Gao, Wolfgang Anwand, Manfred Helm, Wolfgang Skorupa, and Shengqiang Zhou, "Temperature stable 1.3 μm emission from GaAs," Opt. Express 20, 26075-26081 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-23-26075


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References

  1. S.-H. Wei and A. Zunger, “Giant and composition-dependent optical bowing coefficient in GaAsN alloys,” Phys. Rev. Lett.76(4), 664–667 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. E. D. Jones, N. A. Modine, A. A. Allerman, S. R. Kurtz, A. F. Wright, S. Tozer, and X. Wei, “Band structure of InxGa1-xAs1-yNy alloys and effects of pressure,” Phys. Rev. B60(7), 4430–4433 (1999). [CrossRef]
  3. I. Suemune, K. Uesugi, and W. Walukiewicz, “Role of nitrogen in the reduced temperature dependence of band-gap energy in GaNAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(19), 3021–3023 (2000). [CrossRef]
  4. W. Orellana and A. C. Ferraz, “Ab initio study of substitutional nitrogen in GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(9), 1231–1233 (2001). [CrossRef]
  5. W. Huang, M. Yoshimoto, Y. Takehara, J. Saraie, and K. Oe, “GaNyAs1-x-yBix Alloy Lattice Matched to GaAs with 1.3 µm Photoluminescence Emission,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 10B), L1350–L1352 (2004). [CrossRef]
  6. T. Shima, S. Kimura, T. Iida, A. Obara, Y. Makita, K. Kudo, and K. Tanaka, “High concentration nitrogen ion doping into GaAs for the fabrication of GaAsN,” Nucl. Instr. Method B118(1-4), 743–747 (1996). [CrossRef]
  7. H. Ch. Alt, Y. V. Gomeniuk, G. Lenk, and B. Wiedemann, “GaAsN formation by implantation of nitrogen into GaAs studied by infrared spectroscopy,” Physica B340–342, 394–398 (2003). [CrossRef]
  8. K. M. Yu, S. V. Novikov, R. Broesler, I. N. Demchenko, J. D. Denlinger, Z. Liliental-Weber, F. Luckert, R. W. Martin, W. Walukiewicz, and C. T. Foxon, “Highly mismatched crystalline and amorphous GaN1−xAsx alloys in the whole composition range,” J. Appl. Phys.106(10), 103709 (2009). [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Tominaga, K. Oe, and M. Yoshimoto, “Temperature-insensitive photoluminescence emission wavelength in GaAs1–xBix/GaAs multiquantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi C8(2), 260–262 (2011). [CrossRef]
  10. M. Grundmann, O. Stier, and D. Bimberg, “InAs/GaAs pyramidal quantum dots: Strain distribution, optical phonons, and electronic structure,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter52(16), 11969–11981 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. V. Reddy, S. Fung, and C. D. Beling, “Nature of the bulk defects in GaAs through high-temperature quenching studies,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter54(16), 11290–11297 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. H. Lei, H. S. Leipner, V. Bondarenko, and J. Schreiber, “Identification of the 0.95 eV luminescence band in n-type GaAs:Si,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter16(2), S279–S285 (2004). [CrossRef]
  13. W. Skorupa, T. Gebel, R. A. Yankov, S. Paul, W. Lerch, D. F. Downey, and E. A. Arevalo, “Advanced thermal processing of ultrashallow implanted junctions using flash lamp annealing,” J. Electrochem. Soc.152(6), G436–G440 (2005). [CrossRef]
  14. T. Prokofyeva, T. Sauncy, M. Seon, M. Holtz, Y. Qiu, S. Nikishin, and H. Temkin, “Raman studies of nitrogen incorporation in GaAs1−xNx,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(10), 1409–1411 (1998). [CrossRef]
  15. M. R. Islam, P. Verma, M. Yamada, M. Tatsumi, and K. Kinoshita, “Micro-Raman Characterization of Starting Material for Traveling Liquidus Zone Growth Method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.41(Part 1, No. 2B), 991–995 (2002). [CrossRef]
  16. M. R. Islam, N. F. Chen, and M. Yamada, “Raman scattering study on Ga1-xMnx As prepared by Mn ions implantation, deposition and post-annealing,” Cryst. Res. Technol.44(2), 215–220 (2009). [CrossRef]
  17. D. E. Aspnes and A. A. Studna, “Dielectric functions and optical parameters of Si, Ge, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, and InSb from 1.5 to 6.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B27(2), 985–1009 (1983). [CrossRef]
  18. S. Francoeur, G. Sivaraman, Y. Qiu, S. Nikishin, and H. Temkin, “Luminescence of as-grown and thermally annealed GaAsN/GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(15), 1857–1859 (1998). [CrossRef]
  19. D. Bürger, S. Zhou, J. Grenzer, H. Reuther, W. Anwand, V. Gottschalch, M. Helm, and H. Schmidt, “The influence of annealing on manganese implanted GaAs films,” Nucl. Instr. Method B267, 1626–1629 (2009).
  20. O. Yastrubchak, J. Zuk, H. Krzyzanowska, J. Z. Domagala, T. Andrearczyk, J. Sadowski, and T. Wosinski, “Photoreflectance study of the fundamental optical properties of (Ga,Mn)As epitaxial films,” Phys. Rev. B83(24), 245201 (2011). [CrossRef]
  21. V. Bondarenko, J. Gebauer, F. Redmann, and R. Krause-Rehberg, “Vacancy formation in GaAs under different equilibrium conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(16), 161906 (2005). [CrossRef]
  22. K. Saarinen, P. Hautojärvi, P. Lanki, and C. Corbel, “Ionization levels of As vacancies in as-grown GaAs studied by positron-lifetime spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter44(19), 10585–10600 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. K. Saarinen, S. Kuisma, P. Hautojärvi, C. Corbel, and C. LeBerre, “Native vacancies in semi-insulating GaAs observed by positron lifetime spectroscopy under photoexcitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.70(18), 2794–2797 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. S. Kuisma, K. Saarinen, P. Hautojärvi, C. Corbel, and C. LeBerre, “Optical processes related to arsenic vacancies in semi-insulating GaAs studied by positron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter53(15), 9814–9830 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. M. Suezawa, A. Kasuya, Y. Nishina, and K. Sumino, “Excitation spectra of 1200 and 1320 nm photoluminescence lines in annealed gallium arsenide doped with silicon,” J. Appl. Phys.76(2), 1164–1168 (1994). [CrossRef]
  26. J. Liang, J. Jiang, J. Zhao, and Y. Gao, “Studies on 0.96 and 0.84 eV photoluminescence emissions in GaAs epilayers grown on Si,” J. Appl. Phys.79(9), 7173–7176 (1996). [CrossRef]

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