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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 24 — Nov. 19, 2012
  • pp: 26978–26985
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High γ-ray dose radiation effects on the performances of Brillouin scattering based optical fiber sensors

Xavier Phéron, Sylvain Girard, Aziz Boukenter, Benoit Brichard, Sylvie Delepine-Lesoille, Johan Bertrand, and Youcef Ouerdane  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 24, pp. 26978-26985 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.026978


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Abstract

The use of distributed strain and temperature in optical fiber sensors based on Brillouin scattering for the monitoring of nuclear waste repository requires investigation of their performance changes under irradiation. For this purpose, we irradiated various fiber types at high gamma doses which represented the harsh environment constraints associated with the considered application. Radiation leads to two phenomena impacting the Brillouin scattering: 1) decreasing in the fiber linear transmission through the radiation-induced attenuation (RIA) phenomenon which impacts distance range and 2) modifying the Brillouin scattering properties, both intrinsic frequency position of Brillouin loss and its dependence on strain and temperature. We then examined the dose dependence of these radiation-induced changes in the 1 to 10 MGy dose range, showing that the responses strongly depend on the fiber composition. We characterized the radiation effects on strain and temperature coefficients, dependencies of the Brillouin frequency, providing evidence for a strong robustness of these intrinsic properties against radiations. From our results, Fluorine-doped fibers appear to be very promising candidates for temperature and strain sensing through Brillouin-based sensors in high gamma-ray dose radiative environments.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

Interest from the nuclear industry for optical fiber technology is growing as these systems present numerous advantages for data transfer and sensing applications in harsh environments associated with nuclear power plants or nuclear waste repositories [1

1. F. Berghmans, “Radiation hardness of fiber optic sensors for monitoring and remote handling applications in nuclear environments,” in Proceedings Paper of Process Monitoring with Optical Fibers and Harsh Environment Sensors Michael A. Marcus, Anbo Wang, ed. (Boston, MA, USA, 1999).

]. However, this technology has not yet fully reached the nuclear domain as this industry is quite prudent being reluctant towards delicate or unproved technology or components. In this paper, we investigate the sensing possibilities offered by the fiber technology for nuclear waste repository integrity monitoring. The geometry of such a facility is composed of different long-distance tunnels where its integrity is best monitored using distributed fiber sensors, featuring adequate spatial resolution. For such needs, fiber sensors using stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) technology are of great interest. SBS is an inelastic effect offering the advantage of authorizing a distributed measure in both strain and temperature with a unique single mode fiber (SMF) [2

2. L. Zou, X. Bao, F. Ravet, and L. Chen, “Distributed Brillouin fiber sensor for detecting pipeline buckling in an energy pipe under internal pressure,” Appl. Opt. 45(14), 3372–3377 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Such a configuration offers many advantages in implementation terms [3

3. X. Zeng, X. Bao, C. Y. Chhoa, T. W. Bremner, A. W. Brown, M. D. DeMerchant, G. Ferrier, A. L. Kalamkarov, and A. V. Georgiades, “Strain measurement in a concrete beam by use of the Brillouin-scattering-based distributed fiber sensor with single-mode fibers embedded in glass fiber reinforced polymer rods and bonded to steel reinforcing bars,” Appl. Opt. 41(24), 5105–5114 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], sensing range [4

4. X. Bao, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson, “32-km distributed temperature sensor based on Brillouin loss in an optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 18(18), 1561–1563 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and spatial accuracy [5

5. S. Afshar, X. Bao, L. Zou, and L. Chen, “Brillouin spectral deconvolution method for centimeter spatial resolution and high-accuracy strain measurement in Brillouin sensors,” Opt. Lett. 30(7), 705–707 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. If these sensors present interesting performances in a laboratory environment, it remains mandatory to investigate and qualify the robustness of their performance against the harsh environment associated with this application. This is the subject of our work and will be discussed throughout this paper.

Linear changes of the Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) with temperature (in the range of −30 to 90°C) and with strain (up to the breaking point of the fiber at around a few percent of elongation) were previously demonstrated [6

6. T. R. Parker, M. Farhadiroushan, V. A. Handerek, and A. J. Rogers, “Temperature and strain dependence of the power level and frequency of spontaneous Brillouin scattering in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 22(11), 787–789 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The BFS exhibits a temperature and strain dependence as follows:

νBνB0(ε=0,ΔT=0)=Cε*ε+CT*ΔT

Where νB, Cε, CT are respectively the sample’s Brillouin frequency response, strain coefficient and temperature coefficient. νB0 is the fiber Brillouin frequency response when no solicitation is applied to the sample (at 1550 nm for most systems). Typical values of CT and Cε parameters are found to be around 1.05 MHz/°C and 0.05 MHz/µε in commercial germanosilicate optical fibers. However, these coefficient values depend on the fiber type (e.g. mainly core composition) but also on the process parameters such as the drawing conditions.

It is well established that radiations significantly increase the fiber linear attenuation due to point defect generation in the silica-based matrix leading to the so-called Radiation-Induced Attenuation (RIA) effect [7

7. S. Girard, J. Keurinck, A. Boukenter, J. Meunier, Y. Ouerdane, B. Azais, P. Charre, and M. Vie, “Gamma-rays and pulsed X-ray radiation responses of nitrogen, germanium-doped and pure silica core optical fibers,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 215(1-2), 187–195 (2004). [CrossRef]

,8

8. E. Friebele, C. Askins, M. Gingerich, and K. Long, “Optical fiber waveguides in radiation environments, II,” Nucl Instrum Meth B 1(2-3), 355–369 (1984). [CrossRef]

]. This RIA phenomenon will of course affect the functionality of all fiber-based sensors. However, little is known about the behavior of the SBS effect in irradiated silica-based fibers. A preliminary study of the gamma radiation impact on Brillouin optical fiber sensor (OFS) was done by Alasia et al. [9

9. D. Alasia, A. F. Fernandez, L. Abrardi, B. Brichard, and L. Thévenaz, “The effects of gamma-radiation on the properties of Brillouin scattering in standard Ge-doped optical fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(5), 1091–1094 (2006). [CrossRef]

] in the case of a standard SMF. Their results showed a small but clear change in the Brillouin scattering frequency for irradiated samples. These parameters were shown to increase nonlinearly as a function of the total dose in the [100 kGy - 10 MGy] dose range.

In this paper, we enlarged the panel of studied optical fiber types to investigate different values for the Brillouin parameters (mainly νB, CT, Cε). Specific attention is devoted to the possible evolution of these parameter sets when the samples are irradiated at different gamma ray doses.

2. Investigated fiber samples

The nature and the spatial distribution of the dopants can affect the amplitude and the kinetics of radiation-induced attenuation RIA [7

7. S. Girard, J. Keurinck, A. Boukenter, J. Meunier, Y. Ouerdane, B. Azais, P. Charre, and M. Vie, “Gamma-rays and pulsed X-ray radiation responses of nitrogen, germanium-doped and pure silica core optical fibers,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 215(1-2), 187–195 (2004). [CrossRef]

] as well as the UV-induced BFS changes [10

10. X. Pheron, Y. Ouerdane, S. Girard, B. Tortech, S. Delepine-Lesoille, J. Bertrand, Y. Sikali Mamdem, and A. Boukenter, “UV irradiation influence on stimulated Brillouin scattering in photosensitive optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 47(2), 132–133 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. To investigate the influence of the material compositions, three different types of samples were considered in our study. The first consists in the commercial single mode fiber SMF28 from Corning ®. This reference is commonly used in cable sensors and represents our evaluation reference for this technology radiation tolerance. We also characterized a prototype SMF developed by the manufacturer iXFiber SAS with a fluorine (F)-doped core of 8.5µm diameter. The fluorine concentration is about 0.2 wt.% in the core and 1.8 wt.% in the cladding. This fiber class was chosen as we previously demonstrated that such an F-doped optical fiber presents interesting radiation hardness at high doses in terms of RIA [7

7. S. Girard, J. Keurinck, A. Boukenter, J. Meunier, Y. Ouerdane, B. Azais, P. Charre, and M. Vie, “Gamma-rays and pulsed X-ray radiation responses of nitrogen, germanium-doped and pure silica core optical fibers,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 215(1-2), 187–195 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. Finally, we also characterized a highly germanium-doped commercial fiber from iXFiber SAS. This fiber has a core size diameter of about 2.8µm doped with 28 wt.% of Ge. This highly photosensitive fiber is adapted to the photo-inscription of Bragg gratings. Such fiber, labeled HGe in the following, exhibits a large Brillouin gain which is an interesting property for sensing performance [11

11. Y. Koyamada, S. Sato, S. Nakamura, H. Sotobayashi, and W. Chujo, “Simulating and designing brillouin gain spectrum in single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(2), 631–639 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. The three investigated samples were coated with standard UV cured acrylate resins.

For the tests, samples of 10 m in length of virgin fiber were kept to serve as the reference for the evaluation of the radiation-induced changes (RIA, BFS) occurring at the different dose levels. 10 m Samples of irradiated fibers were characterized post-irradiation to evaluate the permanent changes. For the Brillouin characterization of these samples, both the virgin fiber and its irradiated counterparts were spliced to ensure that the Brillouin loss spectrum was measured for both fibers under strictly identical conditions.

3. Experimental details and methods

3.1. Irradiation tests

Gamma-ray irradiations were performed at room temperature using the Brigitte facility at SCK-CEN (Belgium) [12

12. A. Fernandez-Fernandez, H. Ooms, B. Brichard, M. Coeck, S. Coenen, F. Berghmans, and M. Décreton, “SCK-CEN gamma irradiation facilities for radiation tolerance assessment,” 2002 NSREC Data Workshop, 02HT8631, 171–176, (2002).

] with a dose rate of ~28 kGy.h−1. All fiber samples were exposed to doses up to 10 MGy. Such doses correspond to those associated with the monitoring of structures hosting high activity levels in nuclear waste for approximately a century.

3.2. RIA measurements

Post-irradiation RIA was measured at the wavelength of 1550 nm corresponding to the operating wavelength of the selected Brillouin instrument, thanks to a commercial Optical Time Domain Reflectometer. The attenuation values measured for the fibers irradiated at the different doses were compared to the ones measured for the virgin samples to deduce RIA levels, even though the studied samples’ short length is not well adapted to such measurements. However, cut-back measurements were also performed and confirmed OTDR results.

3.3. Brillouin Loss measurements

Brillouin measurements presented in this study are based on the Brillouin loss technique with a B-OTDA device (Brillouin Optical Time-Domain Analysis instrument from OZ Optics company) [13

13. L. Zou, X. Bao, Y. Wan, and L. Chen, “Coherent probe-pump-based Brillouin sensor for centimeter-crack detection,” Opt. Lett. 30(4), 370–372 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The typical accuracy of the BOTDA system in frequency measurement is ± 0.5MHz. The system operates at 1550 nm and was set to probe the investigated fibers with a 1 ns pulse width. Maximal distance range is several kilometers.

3.4. CT and Cε measurements

As well as RIA and Brillouin loss measurements, we studied radiation influence on Brillouin sensitivity, strain and temperature. To our knowledge, apart from our preliminary tests, there were no other studies devoted to radiation effects on these parameters, when strain and temperature measurements are expected to be performed in severe environments.

Temperature calibration was done in an oven controlled by a suitable thermocouple arrangement for the CT measurements. The BFS temperature coefficient is calculated from the slope of the BFS changes with temperature in the 20°C to 80°C range.

4. Experimental results and discussion

4.1. Radiation-Induced Attenuation

Figure 1(a)
Fig. 1 On the left, Optical losses at 1550 nm induced by gamma doses in optical fiber samples. On the right, Brillouin loss spectrum measured as a function of the total gamma doses in a SMF28 optical fiber.
represents the RIA dose dependency at 1550 nm measured for the different optical fibers. As previously explained, these RIA levels were measured after irradiation and are representative of the induced losses part that can be considered as stable at room temperature. The fibers present very different radiation responses in terms of RIA, highlighting the major influence of the fiber composition on its radiation hardness. HGe-doped fiber exhibits the largest RIA levels, of about 400 dB/km after a 10 MGy dose. At the same dose, SMF28 fiber also presents a strong RIA of about 230 dB/km whereas induced losses remains limited in the F-doped fiber to about 50 dB/km. The presented results agree with those from literature, either measured during irradiation or after steady state γ-ray irradiation [14

14. M. Van Uffelen, “Modélisation de systèmes d’acquisition et de transmission à fibres optiques destinés à fonctionner en environnement nucléaire,” PhD Thesis, Université de Paris 11, Orsay, France, (2001).

]. An important point from the applicative point of view is that the measured RIA level in this last fiber remains acceptable for the targeted application: the optical budget of our Brillouin-based system is in the order of 10dB while distance range of interest is of a few hundred meters.

4.2. Brillouin frequency shift in optical fiber

Figure 1(b) shows the changes occurring for the simulated Brillouin spectrum in the SMF28 samples irradiated at different doses. We noticed a shift in the Brillouin frequency with the dose as well as a clear decrease in the Brillouin spectrum amplitude with the dose.

In Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Measured dependence of the BFS with dose for the (a) SMF28 fiber (b) the HGe-doped fiber and (c) the F-doped fiber
, the dose dependences of the central Brillouin frequencies were reported for the three tested fibers, whereas the main parameters of the Brillouin spectrum are listed in Table 1

Table 1. Summary of detected BFS

table-icon
View This Table
. The HGe-doped optical fiber presents a radiation-induced-Brillouin frequency shift of about 18 MHz at 10 MGy (Fig. 2(a)) which would correspond to a 26.4 °C error in the temperature measurement. At the same dose level, the fluorine-doped fiber presents only a 2 MHz shift (Fig. 2(c)) whereas the SMF28 fiber exhibits a shift of about 4 MHz (Fig. 2(b)). The three fibers present a more or less pronounced sub linear behavior in the shift of the central Brillouin frequency with the dose. For the F-doped fiber, a clear saturation in the Brillouin shift occurs at ~2 MGy. This saturation effect is particularly interesting for our targeted application for which the considered doses largely exceed this saturation dose.

4.3. Strain and temperature coefficient changes with dose

In Fig. 3(a)
Fig. 3 (a) Measured BFS dependence on temperature for the SM28 fiber irradiated at a 10MGy dose (b) Compilation of temperature coefficients CT extracted for a large set of BFS dose dependence measurements for various fiber types and irradiation doses.
, we illustrated a typical measurement in an oven and in a loose state of the BFS with temperature in the 20°C to 80°C range for a SMF28 sample irradiated at a 10 MGy dose. Similar measurements were done for all the irradiated samples (different fibers and different doses) to extract the CT coefficients for these various conditions For all fibers, the linearity of the BFS changes to temperature is maintained. Based on these measurements, we were able to construct Fig. 3(b) that reviews the deduced CT for the three fibers, pristine and irradiated at the different doses.

In this figure, measurement uncertainties were evaluated through an average analysis of the νB value dispersion along the fiber. From this large set of tests, no real effect of radiations on CT was observed for the SMF28 and HGe fibers. For the F-doped fiber, the coefficient was more clearly affected by radiation. A decrease of about 6% was noted in the CT coefficient in this optical fiber after a deposited dose of 10 MGy.

A typical BFS measurement as a function of the applied strain is illustrated in Fig. 4(a)
Fig. 4 (a) Measured BFS dependence on strain for the F-doped irradiated at 10MGy. (b) Compilation of strain coefficient Cε extracted for a large set of BFS dose dependence measurements for various fiber types and irradiation doses.
for the F-doped fiber irradiated at a 10MGy dose. Temperature remained unchanged during the strain measurement and was equal to 23°C ± 0.1°C. Linear behavior of BFS regarding the applied strain was maintained for F-doped samples exposed to gamma rays. Similar measurements were done for the two other optical fibers and the results showed similar behavior. All these measurements were used to elaborate Fig. 4(b). This figure reports radiation effects on the Cε strain coefficients. Our measurements show no changes for this coefficient with dose independent of the fiber type.

5. Discussion

Presented results on radiation influence mainly deal with measurements performed after irradiation. However, we have also performed on-line measurements, at lower dose rates, of both Brillouin Loss Spectrum and Cε parameter which corresponded to post-irradiation measurements. Moreover, we also verified that the obtained results are stable with respect to the time after irradiation. Finally, we evaluated both dose rates and total dose influences on the functionality of this sensor technology giving us confidence in our anticipation of the behavior of our Brillouin-based strain and temperature on optical fiber sensors in the nuclear waste storage monitoring environments.

According to our investigation, radiation impacts the performances of the temperature and strain of optical fiber sensors based on Brillouin scattering by different ways. The first radiation effect consists in the reduction of the Brillouin Loss amplitude which can be explained by the Radiation-Induced Attenuation phenomenon caused by the generation of optically-active point defects in the fiber core and cladding. Such a decrease in the amplitude leads to a degradation in the sensors’ distance range, from several tens of kilometers (related with 10 dB optical budget) down to a few hundred meters.

We focused our study on the response at the 1550 nm wavelength since it is the commercial instrument working wavelength. However, a global optimization of the entire system must also consider this parameter as a possible variable. Figure 5
Fig. 5 Optical losses induced at 1310 nm by high gamma ray doses in optical fiber samples.
represents the RIA dose dependency at 1310 nm measured for the three different optical fiber samples. Initially, optical losses are slightly more important in pristine optical fibers at the 1310 nm wavelength compared to the ones reported at 1550 nm. Yet after a 10 MGy dose, the fibers exhibit lower propagation losses at 1310 nm rather than at 1550 nm. This data suggests that a significant future improvement could be achieved by properly choosing the operating wavelength for our sensors which have to operate in high dose radiation environments.

Among the different tested fiber types, the Ge-doped one is strongly affected by radiations. For this fiber, radiations cause a shift of around 18 MHz at 10 MGy which corresponds to a ΔT of more than 26.4°C (considering CT(10MGy) = 0.68MHz/°C for HGe fiber). As a consequence, such a fiber is not suitable for temperature sensors in harsh environments.

The F-doped optical fiber presents a very interesting radiation response for our application. In this fiber, the RIA level is quickly saturated at about 2 MGy which is a very positive tendency for sensing applications having to operate at larger dose levels. Our detailed experimental campaign revealed no major changes in the Brillouin frequency position. Despite an observed 6% change in the temperature CT parameter with dose, Cε remained stable. Finally, our study shows that when a Fluorine-doped fiber is considered, the Brillouin spectrum shifts towards higher frequencies under irradiation but the sensing performances are maintained with this additional small offset. Such behavior could probably be improved by optimizing the fiber design, or during the instrument calibration with respect to its use profile within the harsh environment.

6. Conclusion

The radiation effects on the performances of strain and temperature in Brillouin-scattering based optical fiber sensors have been thoroughly investigated for different optical fibers classes. The RIA phenomenon should be considered for the fiber-based systems design as it will strongly affect the sensing range and accuracy especially if the fiber composition is not carefully chosen to minimize the sensor vulnerability to the targeted harsh conditions. In addition to the RIA, we showed that radiations lead to a shift in the Brillouin frequency that has to be considered for temperature or strain measurements. A very positive result for the integration of such a system in nuclear waste repository is that the temperature and strain coefficients are hardly or not at all affected by radiations showing a good tolerance to high doses. Among the different tested optical fibers, the saturation effects observed in RIA and BFS in the Fluorine doped fiber suggest that this class of waveguides is very promising for the development of radiation-hardened Brillouin sensors.

References and links

1.

F. Berghmans, “Radiation hardness of fiber optic sensors for monitoring and remote handling applications in nuclear environments,” in Proceedings Paper of Process Monitoring with Optical Fibers and Harsh Environment Sensors Michael A. Marcus, Anbo Wang, ed. (Boston, MA, USA, 1999).

2.

L. Zou, X. Bao, F. Ravet, and L. Chen, “Distributed Brillouin fiber sensor for detecting pipeline buckling in an energy pipe under internal pressure,” Appl. Opt. 45(14), 3372–3377 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

X. Zeng, X. Bao, C. Y. Chhoa, T. W. Bremner, A. W. Brown, M. D. DeMerchant, G. Ferrier, A. L. Kalamkarov, and A. V. Georgiades, “Strain measurement in a concrete beam by use of the Brillouin-scattering-based distributed fiber sensor with single-mode fibers embedded in glass fiber reinforced polymer rods and bonded to steel reinforcing bars,” Appl. Opt. 41(24), 5105–5114 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

X. Bao, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson, “32-km distributed temperature sensor based on Brillouin loss in an optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 18(18), 1561–1563 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

S. Afshar, X. Bao, L. Zou, and L. Chen, “Brillouin spectral deconvolution method for centimeter spatial resolution and high-accuracy strain measurement in Brillouin sensors,” Opt. Lett. 30(7), 705–707 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

T. R. Parker, M. Farhadiroushan, V. A. Handerek, and A. J. Rogers, “Temperature and strain dependence of the power level and frequency of spontaneous Brillouin scattering in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 22(11), 787–789 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

S. Girard, J. Keurinck, A. Boukenter, J. Meunier, Y. Ouerdane, B. Azais, P. Charre, and M. Vie, “Gamma-rays and pulsed X-ray radiation responses of nitrogen, germanium-doped and pure silica core optical fibers,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 215(1-2), 187–195 (2004). [CrossRef]

8.

E. Friebele, C. Askins, M. Gingerich, and K. Long, “Optical fiber waveguides in radiation environments, II,” Nucl Instrum Meth B 1(2-3), 355–369 (1984). [CrossRef]

9.

D. Alasia, A. F. Fernandez, L. Abrardi, B. Brichard, and L. Thévenaz, “The effects of gamma-radiation on the properties of Brillouin scattering in standard Ge-doped optical fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(5), 1091–1094 (2006). [CrossRef]

10.

X. Pheron, Y. Ouerdane, S. Girard, B. Tortech, S. Delepine-Lesoille, J. Bertrand, Y. Sikali Mamdem, and A. Boukenter, “UV irradiation influence on stimulated Brillouin scattering in photosensitive optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 47(2), 132–133 (2011). [CrossRef]

11.

Y. Koyamada, S. Sato, S. Nakamura, H. Sotobayashi, and W. Chujo, “Simulating and designing brillouin gain spectrum in single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(2), 631–639 (2004). [CrossRef]

12.

A. Fernandez-Fernandez, H. Ooms, B. Brichard, M. Coeck, S. Coenen, F. Berghmans, and M. Décreton, “SCK-CEN gamma irradiation facilities for radiation tolerance assessment,” 2002 NSREC Data Workshop, 02HT8631, 171–176, (2002).

13.

L. Zou, X. Bao, Y. Wan, and L. Chen, “Coherent probe-pump-based Brillouin sensor for centimeter-crack detection,” Opt. Lett. 30(4), 370–372 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

M. Van Uffelen, “Modélisation de systèmes d’acquisition et de transmission à fibres optiques destinés à fonctionner en environnement nucléaire,” PhD Thesis, Université de Paris 11, Orsay, France, (2001).

OCIS Codes
(060.0060) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics and optical communications
(060.2370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics sensors
(350.5610) Other areas of optics : Radiation

ToC Category:
Sensors

History
Original Manuscript: August 2, 2012
Revised Manuscript: September 21, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: October 9, 2012
Published: November 15, 2012

Citation
Xavier Phéron, Sylvain Girard, Aziz Boukenter, Benoit Brichard, Sylvie Delepine-Lesoille, Johan Bertrand, and Youcef Ouerdane, "High γ-ray dose radiation effects on the performances of Brillouin scattering based optical fiber sensors," Opt. Express 20, 26978-26985 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-24-26978


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References

  1. F. Berghmans, “Radiation hardness of fiber optic sensors for monitoring and remote handling applications in nuclear environments,” in Proceedings Paper of Process Monitoring with Optical Fibers and Harsh Environment Sensors Michael A. Marcus, Anbo Wang, ed. (Boston, MA, USA, 1999).
  2. L. Zou, X. Bao, F. Ravet, and L. Chen, “Distributed Brillouin fiber sensor for detecting pipeline buckling in an energy pipe under internal pressure,” Appl. Opt.45(14), 3372–3377 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. X. Zeng, X. Bao, C. Y. Chhoa, T. W. Bremner, A. W. Brown, M. D. DeMerchant, G. Ferrier, A. L. Kalamkarov, and A. V. Georgiades, “Strain measurement in a concrete beam by use of the Brillouin-scattering-based distributed fiber sensor with single-mode fibers embedded in glass fiber reinforced polymer rods and bonded to steel reinforcing bars,” Appl. Opt.41(24), 5105–5114 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. X. Bao, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson, “32-km distributed temperature sensor based on Brillouin loss in an optical fiber,” Opt. Lett.18(18), 1561–1563 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Afshar, X. Bao, L. Zou, and L. Chen, “Brillouin spectral deconvolution method for centimeter spatial resolution and high-accuracy strain measurement in Brillouin sensors,” Opt. Lett.30(7), 705–707 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. R. Parker, M. Farhadiroushan, V. A. Handerek, and A. J. Rogers, “Temperature and strain dependence of the power level and frequency of spontaneous Brillouin scattering in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.22(11), 787–789 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Girard, J. Keurinck, A. Boukenter, J. Meunier, Y. Ouerdane, B. Azais, P. Charre, and M. Vie, “Gamma-rays and pulsed X-ray radiation responses of nitrogen, germanium-doped and pure silica core optical fibers,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B215(1-2), 187–195 (2004). [CrossRef]
  8. E. Friebele, C. Askins, M. Gingerich, and K. Long, “Optical fiber waveguides in radiation environments, II,” Nucl Instrum Meth B1(2-3), 355–369 (1984). [CrossRef]
  9. D. Alasia, A. F. Fernandez, L. Abrardi, B. Brichard, and L. Thévenaz, “The effects of gamma-radiation on the properties of Brillouin scattering in standard Ge-doped optical fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol.17(5), 1091–1094 (2006). [CrossRef]
  10. X. Pheron, Y. Ouerdane, S. Girard, B. Tortech, S. Delepine-Lesoille, J. Bertrand, Y. Sikali Mamdem, and A. Boukenter, “UV irradiation influence on stimulated Brillouin scattering in photosensitive optical fibres,” Electron. Lett.47(2), 132–133 (2011). [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Koyamada, S. Sato, S. Nakamura, H. Sotobayashi, and W. Chujo, “Simulating and designing brillouin gain spectrum in single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.22(2), 631–639 (2004). [CrossRef]
  12. A. Fernandez-Fernandez, H. Ooms, B. Brichard, M. Coeck, S. Coenen, F. Berghmans, and M. Décreton, “SCK-CEN gamma irradiation facilities for radiation tolerance assessment,” 2002 NSREC Data Workshop, 02HT8631, 171–176, (2002).
  13. L. Zou, X. Bao, Y. Wan, and L. Chen, “Coherent probe-pump-based Brillouin sensor for centimeter-crack detection,” Opt. Lett.30(4), 370–372 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Van Uffelen, “Modélisation de systèmes d’acquisition et de transmission à fibres optiques destinés à fonctionner en environnement nucléaire,” PhD Thesis, Université de Paris 11, Orsay, France, (2001).

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