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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 24 — Nov. 19, 2012
  • pp: 27102–27107
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Generating tunable optical pulses over the ultrabroad range of 1.6–2.5 μm in GeO2-doped silica fibers with an Er:fiber laser source

E.A. Anashkina, A.V. Andrianov, M.Yu. Koptev, V.M. Mashinsky, S.V. Muravyev, and A.V. Kim  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 24, pp. 27102-27107 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.027102


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Abstract

We report generation of femtosecond optical pulses tunable in the 1.6–2.5 μm range using GeO2-doped core silica-cladding fibers. Optical solitons with a duration of 80–160 fs have been measured by the FROG technique in the 2–2.3 μm range. To the best of our knowledge, these are the longest wavelength temporally characterized solitons generated in silica-based fibers. We have also demonstrated more than octave-spanning femtosecond supercontinuum generation in the 1.0–2.6 μm range.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

Tunable ultrashort optical pulses is the key requirement for research in nonlinear optics that have found diverse applications. In particular, femtosecond pulses with broad tunability in the 2–3 μm range are highly attractive for seeding high-power amplifiers with a large gain bandwidth based on Tm-doped fibers near 2 μm [1

1. S.D. Agger and J.H. Povlsen, “Emission and absorption cross section of thulium doped silica fibers,” Opt. Express 14, 50–57 (2005). [CrossRef]

], Cr:ZnSe or Cr:ZnS in the 2.25–2.5 μm range [2

2. M. Ebrahim-Zadeh and I.T. Sorokina, Mid-infrared Coherent Sources and Applications (Springer, 2008). [CrossRef]

], and optical parametric amplifiers in the mid-IR [3

3. C.R. Phillips, J. Jiang, C. Mohr, A.C. Lin, C. Langrock, M. Snure, D. Bliss, M. Zhu, I. Hartl, J.S. Harris, M. E. Fermann, and M.M. Fejer, “Widely tunable midinfrared difference frequency generation in orientation-patterned GaAs pumped with a femtosecond Tm-fiber system,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2928–2930 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. They also allow generating optically synchronized pulses with significantly different carrier frequencies. Examples of such schemes were realized recently by using dispersion-shifted silica fibers in [4

4. A.V. Andrianov, E.A. Anashkina, S.V. Muraviov, and A.V. Kim, “All-fiber design of hybrid Er-doped laser/Yb-doped amplifier system for high power ultrashort pulse generation,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3805–3807 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 5

5. K. Kieu, R.J. Jones, and N. Peyghambarian, “High power femtosecond source near 1 micron based on an all-fiber Er-doped mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express 18, 21350–21355 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] for seeding Yb:fiber amplifiers to generate optically synchronized pulses at 1 and 1.7–1.8 μm, and also in [6

6. S. Kumkar, G. Krauss, M. Wunram, D. Fehrenbacher, U. Demirbas, D. Brida, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Femtosecond coherent seeding of a broadband Tm:fiber amplifier by an Er:fiber system,” Opt. Lett. 37, 554–556 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] for seeding Tm:silica fiber amplifier. Designs based on the silica fiber as a Raman soliton shifter, proposed over 20 years ago [7

7. M.N. Islam, G. Sucha, I. Bar-Joseph, M. Wegener, J.P. Gordon, and D.S. Chemla, “Femtosecond distributed soliton spectrum in fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1149–1158 (1989). [CrossRef]

], allow achieving wavelengths up to 2.1 μm [8

8. N. Nishizawa and T. Goto, “Widely wavelength-tunable ultrashort pulse generation using polarization maintaining optical fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 7, 518–524 (2001). [CrossRef]

11

11. M.E. Fermann, A. Galvanauskas, and D.J. Harter, “Modular, high energy, widely-tunable ultrafast fiber source,” US patent US6885683.

]. However, to extend the tunability well above 2 μm one has to use another type of nonlinear converters. Recently fiber laser systems have demonstrated their ability for delivering ultrashort optical pulses in the mid-IR. Special optical fibers based on fluoride, chalcogenide, and tellurite glasses are used for supercontinuum (SC) generation beyond 2 μm. Using the fluoride fiber with a fs pump at a wavelength of 1.45 μm allowed demonstrating optical generation above 3.8 μm [12

12. G.S. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M.S. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Supercontinuum generation spanning over three octaves from UV to 3.85 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2015–2017 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Pumping 1 cm long chalcogenide-silica step-index fibers with 60 fs pulses from an erbium-doped fiber laser results in the generation of octave-spanning SC light for pulse energies of only 60 pJ [13

13. N. Granzow, S.P. Stark, M.A. Schmidt, A.S. Tverjanovich, L. WondraczekL, and P.S. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation in chalcogenide-silica step-index fibers,” Opt. Express 19, 21003–21010 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Tapered tellurite microstructured fibers were used to build a SC light source spanning from 0.6 to >2.4 μm [14

14. G.S. Qin, X. Yan, M. Liao, A. Mori, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Wideband supercontinuum generation in tapered tellurite microstructured fibers,” Laser Phys. 21, 1115–1121 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. ZBLAN fibers permit extending generation up to 4.8 μm [15

15. C.A. Xia, M. Kumar, O.P. Kulkarni, M.N. Islam, F.L. Terry Jr., M.J. Freeman, M. Poulain, and G. Maze, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation to 4.5 μm in ZBLAN fluoride fibers by nanosecond diode pumping,” Opt. Express 31, 2553–2555 (2006).

, 16

16. C.L. Hagen, J.W. Walewski, and S.T. Sanders, “Generation of a continuum extending to the midinfrared by pumping ZBLAN fiber With an ultrafast 1550-nm source,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 18, 91–96 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. Here we pay particular attention to the GeO2-doped silica-cladding fibers in order to obtain widely tunable pulse generation over the wavelength range of 1.6–2.5 μm. The most attractive advantage of GeO2-doped fibers is that they have physical properties similar to silica fibers and therefore are easily spliced to each other, thus providing a simple design of an all-fiber system with an Er:fiber laser source. Together with higher Kerr nonlinearity, Raman scattering cross section, and as well low long-wavelength losses, GeO2-doped fibers allow obtaining optical emission up to 3 μm (see, e.g., [17

17. E.M. Dianov and V.M. Mashinsky, “Germania-based core optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3500–3508 (2005). [CrossRef]

] and references therein). Recently, using these fibers nanosecond flat SC in the 1.5–2.7 μm range [18

18. V.A. Kamynin, A.S. Kurkov, and V.M. Mashinsky, “Supercontinuum generation up to 2.7 μm in the germanate-glass-core and silica-glass-cladding fiber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 219–222 (2012). [CrossRef]

] and third harmonic generation [19

19. K. Bencheikh, S. Richard, G. Mélin, G. Krabshuis, F. Gooijer, and J.A. Levenson, “Phase-matched third-harmonic generation in highly germanium-doped fiber,” Opt. Lett. 37, 289–291 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] were demonstrated.

In this paper, we report a simple technique of routine generation of femtosecond optical pulses tunable up to 2.5 μm with an all-fiber Er-doped laser setup based on telecom components. We demonstrate Raman-shifted solitons with durations of the order of one hundred fs in silica-based GeO2-doped core fiber. The technique of second-harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating (SHG FROG) is used to characterize soliton pulses [20

20. K.W. DeLong, D.N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, “Practical issues in ultrashort-laser-pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1253–1264 (1996). [CrossRef]

]. To the best of our knowledge, silica-based fibers have never been used for obtaining soliton pulses in the range beyond 2 μm. The advantages of an all-fiber turnkey system are compactness, ease of use, cost efficiency, and long-term stability. Since soliton pulses have a very good coherent quality, they may be a perfect seed for broadband amplifiers. Furthermore, we report SC generation in the 1.0–2.6 μm range, when two consecutively spliced GeO2-doped fibers with different GeO2 content in the core are used. The experimental results are supported by modeling pulse propagation in GeO2-doped core silica-cladding fibers and the corresponding fiber properties optimization.

2. Experimental setup and experimental results

The scheme of the laser system is shown in Fig. 1(a). We start with an all-fiber Er-doped laser source which provides optical pulses at 1.56 μm with a duration of 50–80 fs (depending on diode pump power), maximum average output power of 180 mW, and repetition rate of 49 MHz. We have reported the same laser source consisting of polarization rotation mode-locked master oscillator and amplifier in tunable pulse generation experiments, when only silica fibers were used [4

4. A.V. Andrianov, E.A. Anashkina, S.V. Muraviov, and A.V. Kim, “All-fiber design of hybrid Er-doped laser/Yb-doped amplifier system for high power ultrashort pulse generation,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3805–3807 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 10

10. A.V. Andrianov, A.V. Kim, S.V. Muraviov, and A.A. Sysoliatin, “Generation of optical soliton pulses smoothly tunable in a wide frequency range in silica fibers with variable dispersion,” JETP Letters 85, 364–368 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. After the Er:fiber source a 5 m-piece of SMF-28 follows which is directly spliced with a GeO2-doped core silica-cladding fiber [17

17. E.M. Dianov and V.M. Mashinsky, “Germania-based core optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3500–3508 (2005). [CrossRef]

] with 30% losses. Two types of fibers are used, with different GeO2 molar content in the core, particularly with 30 and 97 mol.% GeO2.

Fig. 1 (a) Experimental setup. Calculated dispersion profile (b) and effective mode area (c) of 30 mol.% and 97 mol.% GeO2-doped fiber.

In the first experiment we used a 2.5 m-piece of 30 mol.% GeO2-doped 5 μm core fiber. The nonlinear coefficient γ at 1.6 μm is about 8 times higher than for SMF-28 because of a smaller effective mode area and also a higher nonlinear refractive index n2. The calculated dispersion profile β2 and the effective mode area are shown in Figs. 1(b), (c) respectively. Due to decreased anomalous dispersion and increased nonlinearity the input optical pulses in GeO2-doped fiber undergo high-order soliton compression with corresponding spectral broadening at the initial stage of SC generation. However, after a transient stage when the maximum pulse compression occurs, the pulses decay into solitons in the anomalous dispersion range beyond 1.7 μm and dispersion waves at shorter wavelengths in the normal dispersion range as well [4

4. A.V. Andrianov, E.A. Anashkina, S.V. Muraviov, and A.V. Kim, “All-fiber design of hybrid Er-doped laser/Yb-doped amplifier system for high power ultrashort pulse generation,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3805–3807 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,21

21. A.V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901–203904 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Experimental spectrum shown in Fig. 2(a) demonstrates SC including several soliton pulses at moderate output power of 50 mW. The SHG FROG home built apparatus based on a 100 μm BBO nonlinear crystal and noncooled InGaAs CCD camera sensitive in the 0.9–1.7 μm range is used to measure optical pulses in the time domain. The retrieved soliton centered at 2 μm with a duration of 85 fs is shown in Fig. 2(b). Its retrieved spectrum is in a good agreement with the experimental one (see Fig. 2(a)). The optical pulse has a full width at half maximum time-bandwidth product (FWHM TBP) of 0.33. The estimated pulse energy is W ≃200 pJ (energy efficiency is about 20%), γ≃5 (W km)−1, β2 ≃−25 ps2km−1, T0=(2ln(1+21/2))−1TFWHM ≃0.05 ps, so the soliton number is N1, because of N2=WγT0/(2|β2|) [22

22. G.P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Academic, 2007).

].

Fig. 2 (a) Optical spectrum measured with spectrometer (black) and calculated for the FROG-pulse (red) for output power of 50 mW. (b) Retrieved intensity profile (red) and phase (black) of the FROG-pulse.

By increasing pump power we can obtain longer wavelength Raman solitons. An example of soliton pulse at 2.3 μm which perfectly fits the Cr:ZnSe amplification bandwidth is presented in Fig. 3 for the output power of 120 mW. To measure SHG FROG signal we placed a longpass filter after the GeO2 fiber to block scattered light at short wavelengths which saturate the CCD. Figure 3(a) displays the measured spectrum after the filter together with the retrieved spectra of the solitons centered at 2.3 μm and 2.1 μm. The experimental FROG-trace of the soliton at 2.3 μm is depicted in Fig. 3(b), the retrieved pulse is shown in Fig. 3(c). The FROG-duration is 165 fs, FWHM TBP is 0.37, Fourier-transform-limit is 150 fs. For the pulse centered at 2.1 μm the same parameters are TFWHM = 85 fs, FWHM TBP = 0.36 and Fourier-transform-limit is 78 fs. Its FROG-trace and retrieved pulse are shown in Figs. 3(d), (e) respectively. A small deviation of the retrieved pulses from the Fourier-transform-limited solitons is explained by filter dispersion. The soliton number at 2.3 μm is N2=(400 pJ)·(3.5 W−1km−1)·(0.09 ps)·(2·60 ps2km−1)−1 ≃ 1, and at 2.1 μm is also N2=(350 pJ)·(4 W−1km−1)·(0.05 ps)·(2·35 ps2km−1)−1 ≃ 1. So we state that these pulses are solitons at the laser setup output. They contain of about 16% and 14% of the output pulse energy, respectively. To the best of our knowledge these are the most long-wavelength temporally-characterized solitons for the silica based fibers.

Fig. 3 (a) Optical spectrum measured with spectrometer (black) and calculated for the FROG-pulses at 2.3 μm (red) and at 2.1 μm (blue) for output power of 120 mW. FROG-traces (b,d) of the soliton pulses at 2.3 and 2.1 μm, (c,e) their corresponding retrieved intensity profiles (red and blue) and phases (black).

The longest soliton wavelength we have obtained in a piece of 30 mol.% GeO2-doped fiber is about 2.3 μm. To achieve longer wavelengths we spliced the second 3-m piece of the silica-based fiber doped with 97 mol.% GeO2 to the output of the 30 mol.% GeO2-doped fiber. The calculated dispersion profile and effective mode area are also shown in Figs. 1(b), (c). The second fiber has a 2.5 μm core, 2 μm cutoff wavelength, a higher nonlinear coefficient and a smaller anomalous dispersion, which permits obtaining Raman solitons at longer wavelengths. The experimental spectrum is shown in Fig. 4 where soliton-like peaks are clearly seen at least at 2.5 μm and 2.3 μm. Together with the solitonic part in the anomalous dispersion region, one can see more than octave spanning SC generation in the 1.0–2.6 μm range, indicating that dispersion waves at shorter wavelengths are also effectively generated in fibers of this type.

Fig. 4 Experimental spectrum after two consecutively spliced fibers with 30 and 97 mol.% GeO2 content.

3. Theoretical study and numerical simulation

For better understanding of nonlinear processes in the GeO2-doped fiber we undertook theoretical consideration of the problem of interest. First of all, we considered fiber properties. It was desirable to get a fiber with a cutoff wavelength shorter than 1.6 μm, with small flattened anomalous dispersion in the 1.6–2.5 μm range, high nonlinearity, fundamental mode diameter similar to the SMF-28, and high GeO2 molar content in the core. Small flattened anomalous dispersion and high nonlinearity are needed for effective Raman soliton frequency conversion beyond 2 μm. Closeness of mode diameters is desirable for minimizing optical losses at the splices. High GeO2 concentration is desirable because it increases n2 and Raman shift rate [23

23. Yu. Yatsenko and A. Mavritsky, “D-scan measurement of nonlinear refractive index in fibers heavily doped with GeO2,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3257–3259 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 24

24. K. Rottwitt and J.H. Povlsen, “Analyzing the fundamental properties of Raman amplification in optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3597–3605, (2005). [CrossRef]

] and also decreases optical losses in the long wavelength range. However, analysis showed that desirable fiber properties are contradictory. We calculated dispersion β2 for GeO2-doped fibers with different molar content and core diameters for the axially symmetric concentration profile as shown in the inset of Fig. 5(a) [25

25. A.W. Snyder and J. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, London, 1983).

]. The higher GeO2 molar content, the flatter dispersion curve and the shorter zero dispersion wavelength are (see Fig. 5(a)). However, cutoff wavelength is too long for fibers with appropriate β2. But for constant concentration, the thicker core, the lower dispersion curve and the longer cutoff wavelength are. Thus, GeO2 molar content should not be very high and core diameter should not be too small.

Fig. 5 (a) Numerical calculation of dispersion profiles for the fibers with the core profile shown in the inset. (b) Spectral evolution of the 0.8 nJ sech-shape 80 fs pulse during propagation in the two consecutive fibers of the same lengths with dashed blue and dashed red dispersion profiles, respectively. Optical losses at the fiber splice (at 200 cm) are 30%. (c) The intensity distribution of the longest wavelength soliton in the time domain.

Further, we considered pulse propagation in two consecutively spliced fibers. The first one had a dispersion shown in Fig. 5(a) by the dashed blue line, whereas the second fiber by the dashed red. It should be noted that soliton matching between optical fibers was considered in [26

26. C. Agger, S.T. Sørensen, C.L. Thomsen, S.R. Keiding, and O. Bang, “Nonlinear soliton matching between optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2596–2598 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. To model experimental results depicted in Figs. 24, where ultrabroad spectra more than octave spanning are produced, we employed so-called slowly evolving wave approach (SEWA) applied earlier to few-cycle pulse generation [27

27. E.A. Anashkina, A.V. Andrianov, S.V. Muraviov, and A.V. Kim, “All-fiber design of erbium-doped laser system for tunable two-cycle pulse generation,” Opt. Express 19, 20141–20150 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and dealing with the full electric field of light. The specific feature of this study is that the effective mode area dispersion should be taken into account [28

28. J. Laegsgaard, “Mode profile dispersion in the generalised nonlinear Schrödinger equation,” Opt. Express 15, 16110–16123 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. We pay particular attention to this point since variation of γ due to effective area mode dispersion shown in Fig. 1(c) can be very high. However such a code requires essential computer resources and we used it for the initial stage of propagation up to the fiber length, when solitons are clearly formed. After that we selected the longest wavelength soliton, calculated the corresponding γ at its central frequency, and took that value as a constant in the conventional generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation (GNLSE) [22

22. G.P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Academic, 2007).

]. At each propagation step we recalculated γ and substituted it into the GNLSE. So we exactly described the longest wavelength Raman soliton propagation but had some error in the remaining part of the SC. In fact, this procedure saves computation time drastically. Numerical results are demonstrated in Figs. 5(b,c) with input pulse of 0.8 nJ energy and 80 fs duration. In the first piece of the fiber, the most powerful soliton is formed with duration of near 70 fs and smoothly spectrally shifts to the 2 μm. The Raman shift rate is increased in the second fiber due to lower dispersion and higher nonlinearity, eventually giving a possibility to attain a soliton wavelength of 2.6 μm with the same duration. This modeling is in good agreement with the experimental results and clearly demonstrates the possibility of wavelength tuning beyond 2.5 μm in GeO2-doped fibers. Optical losses and sharp β2 fall-off beyond 2.5 μm limit the Raman soliton shift.

4. Conclusion

We have demonstrated tunable optical pulse generation in the 1.6–2.5 μm range with an all-fiber Er-doped laser system based on telecom components. The key element is a GeO2-doped core silica-cladding fiber. FROG measurements have confirmed that tunable pulses are Raman solitons with a duration of 80–160 fs. We obtained a very good agreement between the measured and FROG-retrieved spectra. We also demonstrated more than octave spanning femtosecond supercontinuum generation in the 1.0–2.6 μm range.The experimental results were confirmed by the theoretical modeling of pulse propagation in GeO2-doped core silica-cladding fibers.

Acknowledgments

We would like to acknowledge Dr. M.E. Likhachev for technical assistance. This work was partly supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research through grants 10-02-01241, 12-02-31344, and the Ministry of education and science of Russia through contracts 07.514.11.4147, 8626, 14.B37.21.0770. E.A.A. acknowledges the Dynasty Foundation support.

References and links

1.

S.D. Agger and J.H. Povlsen, “Emission and absorption cross section of thulium doped silica fibers,” Opt. Express 14, 50–57 (2005). [CrossRef]

2.

M. Ebrahim-Zadeh and I.T. Sorokina, Mid-infrared Coherent Sources and Applications (Springer, 2008). [CrossRef]

3.

C.R. Phillips, J. Jiang, C. Mohr, A.C. Lin, C. Langrock, M. Snure, D. Bliss, M. Zhu, I. Hartl, J.S. Harris, M. E. Fermann, and M.M. Fejer, “Widely tunable midinfrared difference frequency generation in orientation-patterned GaAs pumped with a femtosecond Tm-fiber system,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2928–2930 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

A.V. Andrianov, E.A. Anashkina, S.V. Muraviov, and A.V. Kim, “All-fiber design of hybrid Er-doped laser/Yb-doped amplifier system for high power ultrashort pulse generation,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3805–3807 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

K. Kieu, R.J. Jones, and N. Peyghambarian, “High power femtosecond source near 1 micron based on an all-fiber Er-doped mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express 18, 21350–21355 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

S. Kumkar, G. Krauss, M. Wunram, D. Fehrenbacher, U. Demirbas, D. Brida, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Femtosecond coherent seeding of a broadband Tm:fiber amplifier by an Er:fiber system,” Opt. Lett. 37, 554–556 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

M.N. Islam, G. Sucha, I. Bar-Joseph, M. Wegener, J.P. Gordon, and D.S. Chemla, “Femtosecond distributed soliton spectrum in fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1149–1158 (1989). [CrossRef]

8.

N. Nishizawa and T. Goto, “Widely wavelength-tunable ultrashort pulse generation using polarization maintaining optical fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 7, 518–524 (2001). [CrossRef]

9.

F. Adler, A. Sell, F. Sotier, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Attosecond relative timing jitter and 13 fs tunable pulses from a two-branch femtosecond Er:fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3504–3506 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

A.V. Andrianov, A.V. Kim, S.V. Muraviov, and A.A. Sysoliatin, “Generation of optical soliton pulses smoothly tunable in a wide frequency range in silica fibers with variable dispersion,” JETP Letters 85, 364–368 (2007). [CrossRef]

11.

M.E. Fermann, A. Galvanauskas, and D.J. Harter, “Modular, high energy, widely-tunable ultrafast fiber source,” US patent US6885683.

12.

G.S. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M.S. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Supercontinuum generation spanning over three octaves from UV to 3.85 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2015–2017 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

N. Granzow, S.P. Stark, M.A. Schmidt, A.S. Tverjanovich, L. WondraczekL, and P.S. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation in chalcogenide-silica step-index fibers,” Opt. Express 19, 21003–21010 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

G.S. Qin, X. Yan, M. Liao, A. Mori, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Wideband supercontinuum generation in tapered tellurite microstructured fibers,” Laser Phys. 21, 1115–1121 (2011). [CrossRef]

15.

C.A. Xia, M. Kumar, O.P. Kulkarni, M.N. Islam, F.L. Terry Jr., M.J. Freeman, M. Poulain, and G. Maze, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation to 4.5 μm in ZBLAN fluoride fibers by nanosecond diode pumping,” Opt. Express 31, 2553–2555 (2006).

16.

C.L. Hagen, J.W. Walewski, and S.T. Sanders, “Generation of a continuum extending to the midinfrared by pumping ZBLAN fiber With an ultrafast 1550-nm source,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 18, 91–96 (2006). [CrossRef]

17.

E.M. Dianov and V.M. Mashinsky, “Germania-based core optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3500–3508 (2005). [CrossRef]

18.

V.A. Kamynin, A.S. Kurkov, and V.M. Mashinsky, “Supercontinuum generation up to 2.7 μm in the germanate-glass-core and silica-glass-cladding fiber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9, 219–222 (2012). [CrossRef]

19.

K. Bencheikh, S. Richard, G. Mélin, G. Krabshuis, F. Gooijer, and J.A. Levenson, “Phase-matched third-harmonic generation in highly germanium-doped fiber,” Opt. Lett. 37, 289–291 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

K.W. DeLong, D.N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, “Practical issues in ultrashort-laser-pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1253–1264 (1996). [CrossRef]

21.

A.V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901–203904 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

G.P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Academic, 2007).

23.

Yu. Yatsenko and A. Mavritsky, “D-scan measurement of nonlinear refractive index in fibers heavily doped with GeO2,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3257–3259 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

K. Rottwitt and J.H. Povlsen, “Analyzing the fundamental properties of Raman amplification in optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3597–3605, (2005). [CrossRef]

25.

A.W. Snyder and J. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, London, 1983).

26.

C. Agger, S.T. Sørensen, C.L. Thomsen, S.R. Keiding, and O. Bang, “Nonlinear soliton matching between optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2596–2598 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

E.A. Anashkina, A.V. Andrianov, S.V. Muraviov, and A.V. Kim, “All-fiber design of erbium-doped laser system for tunable two-cycle pulse generation,” Opt. Express 19, 20141–20150 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28.

J. Laegsgaard, “Mode profile dispersion in the generalised nonlinear Schrödinger equation,” Opt. Express 15, 16110–16123 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(060.2390) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics, infrared
(060.4370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Nonlinear optics, fibers
(060.5530) Fiber optics and optical communications : Pulse propagation and temporal solitons
(060.7140) Fiber optics and optical communications : Ultrafast processes in fibers
(190.5650) Nonlinear optics : Raman effect
(320.6629) Ultrafast optics : Supercontinuum generation

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: October 3, 2012
Revised Manuscript: November 9, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: November 12, 2012
Published: November 16, 2012

Citation
E.A. Anashkina, A.V. Andrianov, M.Yu. Koptev, V.M. Mashinsky, S.V. Muravyev, and A.V. Kim, "Generating tunable optical pulses over the ultrabroad range of 1.6–2.5 μm in GeO2-doped silica fibers with an Er:fiber laser source," Opt. Express 20, 27102-27107 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-24-27102


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