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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 24 — Nov. 19, 2012
  • pp: 27322–27330
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All-optical switch consisting of two-stage interferometers controlled by using saturable absorption of monolayer graphene

Masayuki Oya, Hiroki Kishikawa, Nobuo Goto, and Shin-ichiro Yanagiya  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 24, pp. 27322-27330 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.027322


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Abstract

At routing nodes in future photonic networks, pico-second switching will be a key function. We propose an all-optical switch consisting of two-stage Mach-Zehnder interferometers, whose arms contain graphene saturable absorption films. Optical amplitudes along the interferometers are controlled to perform switching between two output ports instead of phase control used in conventional switches. Since only absorption is used for realizing complete switching, insertion loss of 10.2 dB is accompanied in switching. Picosecond response can be expected because of the fast response of saturable absorption of graphene. The switching characteristics are theoretically analyzed and numerically simulated by the finite-difference beam propagation method (FD-BPM).

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

Picosecond optical switching devices are required in photonic switching nodes and various optical devices have been studied, which include all-optical devices [1

1. X. Yang, A. K. Mishra, D. Lenstra, F. M. Huijskens, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, “Sub-picosecond all-optical switch using a multi-quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifier,” Optics Commun .236, 329–334 (2004). [CrossRef]

,2

2. M. Nagase, Y. Shoji, S. Suda, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, R. Akimoto, H. Kuwatsuka, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “Ultrafast all-optical gating operation using michelson interferometer for hybrid integration of intersubband transition switch on Si platform,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett .23(24), 1884–1886 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. The authors have studied on all-optical wavelength-selective switches, where switching is controlled by amplifying the optical guided wave with Raman amplifiers placed in the waveguides of the switch [3

3. H. Kishikawa and N. Goto, “Proposal of all-optical wavelength-selective switching using waveguide-type Raman amplifiers and 3dB couplers,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol .23(4), 1631–1636 (2005). [CrossRef]

, 4

4. H. Kishikawa, K. Kimiya, N. Goto, and S. Yanagiya, “All-optical wavelength-selective switch consisting of asymmetric X-junction couplers and Raman amplifiers for wide wavelength range,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol .28(1), 172–180 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. The switch, however, requires waveguide-type efficient crystalline Raman amplifiers [5

5. K. Suto, T. Saito, T. Kimura, J. Nishizawa, and T. Tanabe, “Semiconductor Raman amplifier for terahertz bandwidth optical communication,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol .20(4), 705–711 (2002). [CrossRef]

, 6

6. H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, “Raman gain and nonlinear optical absorption measurements in a low-loss silicon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2196–2198 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. In this paper, we propose to introduce graphene films for controlling the optical amplitudes with the similar switch architecture.

Graphene films have been extensively studied for applications to electronics and optics fields [7

7. A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nature Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007). [CrossRef]

,8

8. F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nature Photon. 4(9), 611–622 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. In the field of optics, the graphene films show excellent saturable absorption characteristics in the optical communication wavelength range, which have been applied to short pulse fiber lasers [9

9. S. Yamashita,“A tutorial on nonlinear photonics applications of carbon nanotube and graphene” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol . 30(4), 427–447 (2012). [CrossRef]

11

11. Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Yang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Graphene films have large dynamic range of absorption change controlled by incident optical intensity at picosecond response time.

In this paper, we propose an all-optical switch using saturable absorption of graphene. We discuss the switching characteristics using reported experimental data on saturable absorption by Bao et al. [12

12. Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. Picosecond response can be expected for the saturable absorption in graphene [13

13. J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 042116-1–3 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. It is found that complete switching can be achieved by controlling the optical wave using nonlinear saturable absorption. The switching characteristics are theoretically analyzed and verified by FD-BPM simulation.

2. Switching by amplitude control

First, we consider an optical switch operated by controlling optical amplitude of the signal. Although most conventional switches are operated by controlling optical phase of the signal through refractive-index change, we consider optical amplitude controlled by control light through optical nonlinearity because such nonlinearity can be realized with saturable absorption of graphene. Kishikawa et al. proposed a switch architecture controlled by waveguide-type Raman amplifiers as shown in Fig. 1 [3

3. H. Kishikawa and N. Goto, “Proposal of all-optical wavelength-selective switching using waveguide-type Raman amplifiers and 3dB couplers,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol .23(4), 1631–1636 (2005). [CrossRef]

, 4

4. H. Kishikawa, K. Kimiya, N. Goto, and S. Yanagiya, “All-optical wavelength-selective switch consisting of asymmetric X-junction couplers and Raman amplifiers for wide wavelength range,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol .28(1), 172–180 (2010). [CrossRef]

].

Fig. 1 Optical switch operated by controlling the gain of Raman amplifiers.

The device consists of two cascaded interferometers whose couplers are asymmetric X-junction couplers [14

14. M. Izutsu, A. Enokihara, and T. Sueta,“Optical-waveguide hybrid coupler,” Opt. Lett. 7(11), 549–551 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16

16. H. Hiura, N. Goto, and S. Yanagiya, “Wavelength-insensitive integrated-optic circuit consisting of asymmetric X-junction couplers for recognition of BPSK labels,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 27(24), 5543–5551 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. The asymmetric X-junction coupler can provide 3-dB coupling over a wider wavelength range compared to a 3-dB directional coupler [4

4. H. Kishikawa, K. Kimiya, N. Goto, and S. Yanagiya, “All-optical wavelength-selective switch consisting of asymmetric X-junction couplers and Raman amplifiers for wide wavelength range,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol .28(1), 172–180 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. Waveguide-type Raman amplifiers are employed in both arms of the first interferometer. A fixed attenuator βfix is employed in one of the arms of the second interferometer. The amplifications of the Raman amplifiers are controlled by control light having different polarization from the incident optical signal. The control light is coupled in and out with polarization beam splitters (PBSs).

The asymmetric X-junction coupler consists of three kinds of waveguides with the width of W0, Wn, and Ww (Wn < W0 < Ww) with small crossing angle [16

16. H. Hiura, N. Goto, and S. Yanagiya, “Wavelength-insensitive integrated-optic circuit consisting of asymmetric X-junction couplers for recognition of BPSK labels,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 27(24), 5543–5551 (2009). [CrossRef]

, 17

17. W. K. Burns and A. F. Milton, “Mode conversion in planar-dielectric separating waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11(1), 32–39 (1975). [CrossRef]

]. The three asymmetric X-junction couplers are aligned so that the path lengths of the two arms in each interferometer be equal. Optical electric fields of the input and output waves in the left-hand-side coupler is written as
(EoutlowerEoutupper)=12(1111)(EinlowerEinupper),
(1)
where phase term associated with wave propagation along the X-junction is excluded. The input-to-output relation of the second X-junction coupler is derived to be the same as given by Eq.(1) [4

4. H. Kishikawa, K. Kimiya, N. Goto, and S. Yanagiya, “All-optical wavelength-selective switch consisting of asymmetric X-junction couplers and Raman amplifiers for wide wavelength range,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol .28(1), 172–180 (2010). [CrossRef]

].

Therefore, amplification of the amplitude coefficient of 1+2=2.414 is required for switching. When the amplifier of αA is amplified by 2.414 with control light, the incident light at port Ain is switched to output port Aout, whereas αB is amplified, instead of αA, the signal is switched to output port Bout.

Now, we consider the switching mechanism with the above switching conditions. The optical fields Am and Bm just after the first interferometer are given by
(AmBm)=12(1111)(αB00αA)(1111)(AinBin)=12(αBαAαB+αAαBαAαB+αA)(AinBin).
(7)
When Ain = Ein and Bin = 0, we have
(AmBm)=Ein2(αBαAαBαA).
(8)

By substituting the switching conditions given by Eqs.(5) and (6), we have the following outputs:
  1. When αA=1+2, αB = 1,
    (AmBm)=Ein2(22+2).
    (9)
  2. When αA = 1, αB=1+2,
    (AmBm)=Ein2(22+2).
    (10)

By attenuating the amplitude Bm with the fixed attenuator βfix, we have the following outputs:
  1. When αA=1+2, αB = 1 and βfix=1/(1+2),
    (AmβfixBm)=Ein2(11).
    (11)
  2. When αA = 1, αB=1+2 and βfix=1/(1+2),
    (AmβfixBm)=Ein2(11).
    (12)

Thus, the optical waves incident to the third asymmetric X-junction coupler are optical waves (i) in phase and (ii) in opposite phase, with the same amplitude. Therefore, the output fields show complete switching between the two output ports as given by Eqs.(5) and (6). It is noted that the switching is performed only by controlling the optical amplitudes.

3. Modeling of saturable absorption of monolayer graphene

We consider a sheet of monolayer graphene placed perpendicularly to the optical path as shown in Fig. 2(a). Based on an experimental result by Bao et al. [12

12. Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011). [CrossRef]

], the transmittance T of the monolayer graphene is varied as a function of the input optical intensity as schematically illustrated in Fig. 3.

Fig. 2 Modeling of a sheet of monolayer graphene; (a) signal and control light perpendicularly incident to graphene, and (b) model of cascade connection of attenuator and amplifier.
Fig. 3 Optical transmittance as a function of optical incident intensity for saturable absorption in monolayer graphene.

When optical incident signal is weak with intensity Ps,in, graphene film shows a low transmittance Tlow(1). By adding intense control light with intensity Pc,in, where wavelength or polarization is assumed to be different from that of the signal light, the trasmittance increases to Thigh(1) due to saturable absorption phenomena. The transmission coefficients for optical amplitude corresponding to the transmittance Tlow(1) and Thigh(1) are given by tlow(1)=Tlow(1) and thigh(1)=Thigh(1), respectively. The optical saturable absorption of a sheet of monolayer graphene can be modeled as a cascade connection of an attenuator having transmission coefficient tlow(1) and an amplifier having amplitude amplification coefficient α(1) as shown in Fig. 2(b). The amplification coefficient is α(1) = 1 without control light, whereas α(1)=thigh(1)/tlow(1) with control light.

Next, we consider saturable absorption through two-stage monolayer graphene as shown in Fig. 4(a). The reason why two-stage monolayer graphene is considered instead of two-layer graphene is because selected fabrication of two-layer graphene over a wide area is considered to be not easy. Saturable absorption experiments have been reported only for monolayer graphene or graphene of a few layer structure including one to four, for example [12

12. Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. From the viewpoint of time response, monolayer graphene may be preferable because carrier lifetime may be shorter in monolayer graphene than that in multilayer graphene [12

12. Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. Therefore, we adopt two-stage monolayer graphene to evaluate the saturable absorption by using reported experimental data. Although absorption through two sheets of graphene for the signal light is larger than that of a single sheet of graphene, the amplitude of the optical signal can be controlled over a larger dynamic range. The incident signal light is attenuated through the first-stage graphene to Ps,out(1)=Tlow(1)Ps,in without control light. This signal light is then incident to the second-stage graphene. When the signal light is weak enough, the transmittance Tlow(2) of the second-stage graphene for Ps,out(1) is considered to be approximated as Tlow(1)Tlow(2). [18

18. Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano , 4(2), 803–810 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Therefore, the signal light is further attenuated to Ps,out(2)=Tlow(1)Tlow(2)Ps,in(Tlow(1))2Ps,in.

Fig. 4 Modeling of two sheets of monolayer graphene; (a) signal and control light perpendicularly incident to graphene, and (b) model of cascade connection of attenuators and amplifiers.

Now, we add control light with intensity Pc,in. The control light is attenuated to Pc,out(1)=Thigh(1)Pc,in through the first-stage graphene. The transmittance of the second-stage graphene for the incident light Ps,out(1)+Pc,out(1) is decreased to Thigh(2). Then the transmission coefficient for amplitude of the second-stage graphene is thigh(2)=Thigh(2). The second-stage graphene can be modeled as a cascade connection of an attenuator having transmission coefficient tlow(1) and an amplifier having amplitude amplification coefficient α(2) as shown in Fig. 4(b). The amplification coefficient is α(2) = 1 without control light, whereas α(2)=thigh(2)/tlow(2)thigh(2)/tlow(1) with control light.

From the reported experimental result [12

12. Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011). [CrossRef]

], we find Ps,out(1)+Pc,out(1)=Thigh(1)(Ps,in+Pc,in)=8mW/μm2 for Ps,in + Pc.in=10 mW/μm2, and then thigh(2)/tlow(1)0.75/0.3091.558. As the result, the two-stage graphene is regarded as a cascade connection of an attenuator having transmission coefficient (tlow(1))2=0.5562=0.309 and an amplifier having amplitude amplification coefficient α = α(1)α(2), where α = 1 and α = 1.608 × 1.558 = 2.505 without and with control light, respectively.

Optical switch architecture containing two-stage graphene in both arms of the first interferometer is shown in Fig. 5. Although amplification of the amplitude coefficient of 2.414 is required for switching, the two-stage graphene films can provide α = α(1)α(2) = 2.505 from the experimentally reported data. Therefore, a control power of 10mW/μm2 is considered to be a little too large for switching. Although the switching is accompanied by an insertion loss of (tlow(1))2, complete switching can be achieved. When (tlow(1))2=0.309, the insertion loss is calculated to be −10log0.3092=10.2(dB).

Fig. 5 Switch architecture consisting of two-stage interferometers having two-stage monolayer graphene in both arms in the first interferometer.

In fabrication of the structure of vertically inserted graphene in the optical waveguides, a thin film with monolayer graphene on both sides can be inserted in a narrow gap formed with a dicing saw and fixed with epoxy adhesive [19

19. Y. Inoue, Y. Ohmori, M. Kawachi, S. Ando, T. Sawada, and H. Takahashi, “Polarization mode converter with polyimide half waveplate in silica-based planar lightwave circuits,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 6(5), 626–628 (1994). [CrossRef]

, 20

20. T. Hashimoto, T. Kurosaki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Suzuki, Y. Akahori, Y. Inoue, Y. Tohmori, K. Kato, Y. Yamada, N. Ishihara, and K. Kato, “A 1.3/1.55-μm wavelength-division multiplexing optical module using a planar light-wave full duplex operation,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 18(11), 1541–1547 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. To reduce the radiation loss, the gap should be as narrow as possible, for example, a few tens micrometers. The supporting thin film for graphene sheets can be a polyimid film [20

20. T. Hashimoto, T. Kurosaki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Suzuki, Y. Akahori, Y. Inoue, Y. Tohmori, K. Kato, Y. Yamada, N. Ishihara, and K. Kato, “A 1.3/1.55-μm wavelength-division multiplexing optical module using a planar light-wave full duplex operation,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 18(11), 1541–1547 (2000). [CrossRef]

].

4. FD-BPM simulation

The switching operation is numerically simulated by FD-BPM. We consider a two-dimensional slab waveguide model. The core and cladding regions have refractive indices of nc = 1.461 and ns = 1.45, respectively. The waveguide widths of the fundamental, narrow and wide waveguides of the asymmetric X-junctions are W0 = 3.0μm, Wn = 2.6 μm and Ww = 3.4 μm, respectively. Optical waves are assumed to be TE mode. The lengths of the X-junction coupler and the parallel waveguides are Lx = 16mm and Lp = 1mm, respectively. The total length is 50 mm. The distance of the input ports is D = 23 μm. The total length can be shortened by employing curved waveguides.

The switching operation at λ = 1550nm is confirmed as shown in Fig. 6, where squared electric fields |E|2 are plotted. In the simulation, amplification is equivalently simulated just by increasing the electric field by multiplying the gain coefficient αi at a plane located at the end of the waveguide region for the arms containing graphene sheets. Therefore, in the simulation, the optical waveguides denoted by dotted lines in Fig. 5 for coupling the control light were not modeled. In an actual device, the control light can be coupled using polarization depending coupler when the control light is assumed to propagate in TM mode. In a similar manner, the attenuator is modeled by multiplying the electric field by (tlow(1))2 at the end of the arms containing graphene sheets or βfix at the beginning of the attenuators. The normalized out-put intensities are summarized in Table I, where analytical results discussed in section 2 are also shown. Extinction ratio in switching is found to be 24.7 dB and 24.6 dB for switching to Bout and Aout, respectively, for the simulated result. The simulated results agree well with the analysis with the ideal model.

Table 1. Comparison of optical output intensities between theoretical analysis and smula-tion.

table-icon
View This Table
Fig. 6 Optical intensities along the switch obtained by FD-BPM simulation: (a) switched to output port Bout by inserting control light to lower arm (αA = 1, αB=1+2) and (b) switched to output port Aout by inserting control light to upper arm ( αA=1+2, αB = 1).

5. Conclusion

An all-optical switch using saturable absorption of graphene was proposed. Since only attenuation is used in controlling the guided wave, an insertion loss of 10.2 dB is inevitable. However, complete switching between the two output ports can be achieved. The switching can be as fast as picosecond-order response because of the fast response of saturable absorption in graphene. Although the graphene sheets have to be inserted in the waveguides, an all optical switch can be fabricated with a variety of materials such as silica glass, silicon and LiNbO3. From the viewpoint of fabrication process, graphene loaded waveguide is preferable compared to the waveguide with parpendicularly inserted graphene since graphene insertion in the waveguide cross-section is technically more difficult than forming loaded graphene on the waveguide. Also, inserting graphene perpendicularly in the optical waveguide may suffer from excess loss due to radiation at the waveguide gap. We will experimentally measure saturable absorption in detail with these two kinds of waveguides including graphene film to realize the proposed switch device.

Acknowledgments

This research has been supported in part by JSPS KAKENHI ( 23656243 and 24360150).

References and links

1.

X. Yang, A. K. Mishra, D. Lenstra, F. M. Huijskens, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, “Sub-picosecond all-optical switch using a multi-quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifier,” Optics Commun .236, 329–334 (2004). [CrossRef]

2.

M. Nagase, Y. Shoji, S. Suda, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, R. Akimoto, H. Kuwatsuka, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “Ultrafast all-optical gating operation using michelson interferometer for hybrid integration of intersubband transition switch on Si platform,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett .23(24), 1884–1886 (2011). [CrossRef]

3.

H. Kishikawa and N. Goto, “Proposal of all-optical wavelength-selective switching using waveguide-type Raman amplifiers and 3dB couplers,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol .23(4), 1631–1636 (2005). [CrossRef]

4.

H. Kishikawa, K. Kimiya, N. Goto, and S. Yanagiya, “All-optical wavelength-selective switch consisting of asymmetric X-junction couplers and Raman amplifiers for wide wavelength range,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol .28(1), 172–180 (2010). [CrossRef]

5.

K. Suto, T. Saito, T. Kimura, J. Nishizawa, and T. Tanabe, “Semiconductor Raman amplifier for terahertz bandwidth optical communication,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol .20(4), 705–711 (2002). [CrossRef]

6.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, “Raman gain and nonlinear optical absorption measurements in a low-loss silicon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2196–2198 (2004). [CrossRef]

7.

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nature Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007). [CrossRef]

8.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nature Photon. 4(9), 611–622 (2010). [CrossRef]

9.

S. Yamashita,“A tutorial on nonlinear photonics applications of carbon nanotube and graphene” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol . 30(4), 427–447 (2012). [CrossRef]

10.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube - polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), (2009). [CrossRef]

11.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Yang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009). [CrossRef]

12.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011). [CrossRef]

13.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 042116-1–3 (2008). [CrossRef]

14.

M. Izutsu, A. Enokihara, and T. Sueta,“Optical-waveguide hybrid coupler,” Opt. Lett. 7(11), 549–551 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, T. Anada, and P. C. Kendall,“Bi-oblique propagation analysis of symmetric and asymmetric Y-junctions,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 15(4), 688–696 (1997). [CrossRef]

16.

H. Hiura, N. Goto, and S. Yanagiya, “Wavelength-insensitive integrated-optic circuit consisting of asymmetric X-junction couplers for recognition of BPSK labels,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 27(24), 5543–5551 (2009). [CrossRef]

17.

W. K. Burns and A. F. Milton, “Mode conversion in planar-dielectric separating waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11(1), 32–39 (1975). [CrossRef]

18.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano , 4(2), 803–810 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

Y. Inoue, Y. Ohmori, M. Kawachi, S. Ando, T. Sawada, and H. Takahashi, “Polarization mode converter with polyimide half waveplate in silica-based planar lightwave circuits,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 6(5), 626–628 (1994). [CrossRef]

20.

T. Hashimoto, T. Kurosaki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Suzuki, Y. Akahori, Y. Inoue, Y. Tohmori, K. Kato, Y. Yamada, N. Ishihara, and K. Kato, “A 1.3/1.55-μm wavelength-division multiplexing optical module using a planar light-wave full duplex operation,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 18(11), 1541–1547 (2000). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(190.4390) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, integrated optics
(230.0230) Optical devices : Optical devices
(130.4815) Integrated optics : Optical switching devices

ToC Category:
Graphene as a Saturable Absorber

History
Original Manuscript: August 22, 2012
Revised Manuscript: October 17, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: October 18, 2012
Published: November 19, 2012

Virtual Issues
Nonlinear Photonics (2012) Optics Express

Citation
Masayuki Oya, Hiroki Kishikawa, Nobuo Goto, and Shin-ichiro Yanagiya, "All-optical switch consisting of two-stage interferometers controlled by using saturable absorption of monolayer graphene," Opt. Express 20, 27322-27330 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-24-27322


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References

  1. X. Yang, A. K. Mishra, D. Lenstra, F. M. Huijskens, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, “Sub-picosecond all-optical switch using a multi-quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifier,” Optics Commun.236, 329–334 (2004). [CrossRef]
  2. M. Nagase, Y. Shoji, S. Suda, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, R. Akimoto, H. Kuwatsuka, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “Ultrafast all-optical gating operation using michelson interferometer for hybrid integration of intersubband transition switch on Si platform,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.23(24), 1884–1886 (2011). [CrossRef]
  3. H. Kishikawa and N. Goto, “Proposal of all-optical wavelength-selective switching using waveguide-type Raman amplifiers and 3dB couplers,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.23(4), 1631–1636 (2005). [CrossRef]
  4. H. Kishikawa, K. Kimiya, N. Goto, and S. Yanagiya, “All-optical wavelength-selective switch consisting of asymmetric X-junction couplers and Raman amplifiers for wide wavelength range,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.28(1), 172–180 (2010). [CrossRef]
  5. K. Suto, T. Saito, T. Kimura, J. Nishizawa, and T. Tanabe, “Semiconductor Raman amplifier for terahertz bandwidth optical communication,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.20(4), 705–711 (2002). [CrossRef]
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