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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 24 — Nov. 19, 2012
  • pp: 27355–27363
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Stable, dual mode, high repetition rate mode-locked laser based on a microring resonator

Alessia Pasquazi, Marco Peccianti, Brent E. Little, Sai T. Chu, David J. Moss, and Roberto Morandotti  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 24, pp. 27355-27363 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.027355


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Abstract

We demonstrate a novel mode locked ultrafast laser, based on an integrated high-Q microring resonator. Our scheme exhibits stable operation of two slightly shifted spectral optical comb replicas. It generates a highly monochromatic radiofrequency modulation of 65.8MHz with a linewidth < 10kHz, on a 200GHz output pulse train.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

Recently [20

20. M. Peccianti, A. Pasquazi, Y. Park, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Demonstration of a stable ultrafast laser based on a nonlinear microcavity,” Nat. Commun. 3, 765 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] we reported the first stable mode-locked laser achieved by introducing a novel variation of dissipative FWM that we termed Filter-Driven Four Wave Mixing (FD-FWM). The key to the success of this approach was to combine the linear filter with the nonlinear element [5

5. L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 41–45 (2010). [CrossRef]

] via an integrated nonlinear monolithic high Q (quality) factor micro ring resonator, similar in spirit to optically pumped multiple wavelength oscillators based on high Q-factor resonators [5

5. L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 41–45 (2010). [CrossRef]

,6

6. J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010). [CrossRef]

,8

8. T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332(6029), 555–559 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,9

9. P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Full stabilization of a microresonator-based optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(5), 053903 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,21

21. P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,22

22. I. S. Grudinin, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, “Generation of optical frequency combs with a CaF2 resonator,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 878–880 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The high efficiency of the nonlinear wave mixing in the ring resonator eliminates the need for the long external cavities required in earlier approaches. Our scheme relies on optical nonlinearities only within the micro-resonator. Therefore it allows much shorter main cavity lengths and hence wider main cavity mode frequency spacings. This in turn restricts the number of oscillating main cavity modes within a single nonlinear micro ring resonance to at most very few - potentially even a single mode - and thus removes the inherent source of instability. Using this approach we achieved [20

20. M. Peccianti, A. Pasquazi, Y. Park, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Demonstration of a stable ultrafast laser based on a nonlinear microcavity,” Nat. Commun. 3, 765 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] extremely stable operation at high repetition rates while maintaining very narrow linewidths, thus leading to a very high quality pulsed emission. Moreover, the FD-FWM scheme is also intrinsically capable to produce much narrower linewidths than ultrashort cavity mode-locked lasers oscillating at similar repetition rates because the long main cavity results in a much smaller Schawlow-Towns phase noise limit [23

23. A. L. Schawlow and C. H. Townes, “Infrared and optical masers,” Phys. Rev. 112(6), 1940–1949 (1958). [CrossRef]

,24

24. M. Yoshida, A. Ono, and M. Nakazawa, “10 GHz regeneratively mode-locked semiconductor optical amplifier fiber ring laser and its linewidth characteristics,” Opt. Lett. 32(24), 3513–3515 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Yet a further key advantage of this method approach is that it is highly robust to external (i.e., thermal) perturbations - a well-known problem in resonator-based optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) [7

7. F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 770–776 (2011). [CrossRef]

,9

9. P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Full stabilization of a microresonator-based optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(5), 053903 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] where temperature variations detune the microresonator from the external pump source. Although thermal locking can address this problem, it is ineffective against slow temperature drifts, and often results in the OPO shutting down [25

25. T. Carmon, L. Yang, and K. Vahala, “Dynamical thermal behavior and thermal self-stability of microcavities,” Opt. Express 12(20), 4742–4750 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Our approach is effective in limiting this issue since the oscillating lines are modes of the main cavity that includes the nonlinear resonator and so thermally induced changes in the resonator also change the main cavity length, moderating the frequency misalignment between modes and filter resonances.

Moreover, the increase in overall efficiency obtained with our approach allows oscillation at power levels in the 10mW range, about an order of magnitude lower than OPOs, thus further reducing resonator heating issues.

2. Experiment

The integrated resonator geometry as well as a SEM image of the device cross section is shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Sketch of the Ring resonator microcavity. (b) SEM picture of the ring cross-section before depositing the upper cladding of SiO2. The waveguide core is squared with transverse dimensions 1.45μm × 1.45μm and it is made of high index (n = 1.7) doped silica glass.
. The resonator was a high Q micro-ring (FSR = 200 GHz, Q = 1.2 × 106) with a 160MHz linewidth [5

5. L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 41–45 (2010). [CrossRef]

, 26

26. M. Ferrera, D. Duchesne, L. Razzari, M. Peccianti, R. Morandotti, P. Cheben, S. Janz, D. X. Xu, B. E. Little, S. Chu, and D. J. Moss, “Low power four wave mixing in an integrated, micro-ring resonator with Q = 1.2 million,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14098–14103 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].The waveguide core was low-loss, high-index (n = 1.7) doped silica glass, buried within a SiO2 cladding, and was fiber pigtailed to a standard SMF fiber with a typical coupling loss of 1.5dB/facet. The waveguide cross section is 1.45 µm x 1.45µm while the ring radius is 135µm. The advantages of this platform reside in its negligible linear (< 6dB/meter) and nonlinear losses as well as in a nonlinear parameter as high as γ ~220W−1km−1 [27

27. A. Pasquazi, R. Ahmad, M. Rochette, M. Lamont, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, R. Morandotti, and D. J. Moss, “All-optical wavelength conversion in an integrated ring resonator,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3858–3863 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

29

29. A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, Y. Park, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, R. Morandotti, J. Azaña, and D. J. Moss, “Sub-picosecond phase-sensitive optical pulse characterization on a chip,” Nat. Photonics 5(10), 618–623 (2011). [CrossRef]

].

3. Results

3.1 Unstable laser operation

Figures 3(a)
Fig. 3 Optical (a)-(b) and Radio-Frequency (c)-(d) characterization of the laser output in the unstable regime: (a) experimental autocorrelation trace (red) and (b) experimental optical spectrum. The autocorrelation trace for a fully coherent transform limited system calculated from the spectrum in (b) is shown in dashed black in (a). RF signal of the laser output in time (c) and spectrum (d). The signal shows an irregular pulsation in the μs scale, as visible in (c) and in the inset of (d), where a zoom of the DC spectral components is plotted. In the inset in (d) a peak of the low-frequency noise components is visible around 150kHz. The RF signal also shows a pulsation due to the beating of the main cavity modes (super mode instability), as visible in the spectral components at 65MHz in (d), and in the fast modulation in the inset in (c).
-3(d) summarizes the results of the unstable pulsed operation of the laser. This oscillation was obtained by detuning the main cavity delay line and driving the EDFA at the maximum current available in our system, corresponding to approximately 16mW of average optical power at the input of the microring. The optical spectrum recorded with an OSA in Fig. 3(b) shows a comb-like spectrum spaced by the FSR of the microring, in turn indicating that a fast modulation of the laser output is present, also confirmed by the 200GHz periodic modulation of the signal in Fig. 3(a) - obtained with a second harmonic (SH) non-collinear autocorrelator (black). However, the contrast in the autocorrelation is extremely poor. Indeed, the background in autocorrelation measurements offers a good indication of the quality of the laser pulsed output. A non-collinear SH autocorrelation of an isolated pulse is background free. Conversely, the background of the autocorrelation of a coherent train of pulses is dependent on the pulse length vs. repetition rate but can be easily inferred from the OSA spectrum assuming that the lines in Fig. 3(b) are fully coherent (all in-phase). The calculated autocorrelation under this assumption is shown in Fig. 3(a) (dashed black line). The discrepancy between the calculated and measured autocorrelation traces indicates that the mode-locking condition is indeed not-guaranteed: the random beating between the modes in the laser produces a large average background and results in an unstable operating regime.

To have a better insight into the low frequency behavior of the laser, we recorded the envelope signal by using a 150MHz bandwidth photo-detector. The traces are shown in Fig. (c)-(d) in time and frequency, respectively. We observed a temporal behavior characterized by two temporal scales: (i) a fast scale due to the main cavity mode beating, as clearly visible in the spectrum, showing two lateral wings around the FSR of the main cavity (65MHz) and (ii) a slow scale, imposing a modulation having period of the order of 6μs, that indicates that the cavity is working in an unstable Q-switching regime, due to the slow recovery time of the EDFA gain, a common occurrence in fiber lasers [30

30. A. Haboucha, H. Leblond, M. Salhi, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Analysis of soliton pattern formation in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 78(4), 043806 (2008). [CrossRef]

].

3.2 Stable pulsed operation

By adjusting the delay line it was possible to completely eliminate any main cavity low-frequency beating, allowing the laser to be easily stabilized and yielding the very clean results presented in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Optical (a)-(b) and Radio-Frequency (c)-(d) characterization of the laser output in the pulsed stable regime: (a) experimental autocorrelation trace (red) and (b) experimental optical spectrum. The autocorrelation trace for a fully coherent transform limited system calculated from the spectrum in (b) is shown in dashed black in (a): the perfect agreement with the experimental trace indicates that the lines are indeed mode-locked. RF signal of the laser output in time (c) and spectrum (d). The isolated lines appearing below −30dB are basically due the high frequency sampler used to collect the RF data and to electromagnetic disturbs collected by the trans-impedance amplifier connected to the photodiode. The insets in (c) and (d) are zoom of the temporal trace and of the DC component associated to the spectrum, respectively.
. Several stable oscillation conditions were found via tuning the delay by over 2 cm. Note that the results in Fig. 4 were obtained with the same gain as the unstable case, leading to an average optical power of approximately 16mW at the microring input in both cases. We note that the optical bandwidth associated to unstable operation (Fig. 3(b)) was generally wider than the stable case (Fig. 4(b)), because the instability resulted in amplitude modulations of the optical pulse train in the main cavity due to unstable Q-switching, thus increasing the statistical peak power and enhancing the nonlinear interactions. On the other hand, the autocorrelation trace of the stable operation regime corresponds to that predicted for a fully coherent transform limited system (shown in dashed black in Fig. 4(a)), thus perfectly matching the measured trace (presented in red in Fig. 4(a)). The RF trace (c)-(d) is a stable, continuous signal, indicating that in this case a single main cavity mode is oscillating at the center of any ring resonance. The complete characterization of the laser in a stable regime and in function of the optical gain is discussed in detail in [20

20. M. Peccianti, A. Pasquazi, Y. Park, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Demonstration of a stable ultrafast laser based on a nonlinear microcavity,” Nat. Commun. 3, 765 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

3.3 Stable dual comb line operation

A new and interesting operating regime associated to our system is presented in Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Optical (a)-(b) and Radio-Frequency (c)-(d) characterization of the laser output in the pulsed stable regime, dual comb operation: (a) experimental autocorrelation trace (red) and (b) experimental optical spectrum. The autocorrelation trace for a fully coherent transform limited system calculated from the spectrum in (b) is shown in dashed black in (a): the perfect agreement with the experimental trace indicates that the lines are in a mode-locking regime. RF signal of the laser output in time (c) and spectrum (d). The insets in (c) is a zoom of the temporal trace, showing a monochromatic beating at 65.8 MHz. The inset in (d) shows the AC component at 65.8MHz, with a linewidth narrower than 10kHz.
. On the timescale of the optical pulses, this operating regime is similar to that of the stable case of Fig. 4. The autocorrelation (Fig. 5(a), red) reveals a stable pulsation consistent with the calculated autocorrelation trace (Fig. 5(a), dashed black) obtained by assuming that the lines in the optical spectrum (Fig. 5(b)) are in phase. However, the temporal RF signal measured with a high speed photodiode (Fig. 5(c)) along with its RF spectrum (Fig. 5(d)), shows highly coherent beating at 65MHz, indicating that two distinct modes of the main cavity are oscillating for each microring resonator line. Using a filter we verified that the beating originated from mode doublets occurring in every excited resonance of the microring.

These measurements indicate that the system is oscillating with two main cavity modes distributed around a ring resonance peak. The laser oscillated in a stable mode-locking manner with an output spectrum consisting of a number of closely spaced main cavity mode doublets. An extinction ratio of the beating (Fig. 5(c)) that exceeds 80% demonstrates a good balance (in terms of energies) of the two comb replica. The secondary peak around 131 MHz in Fig. 5(d) is a second harmonic of the RF beat frequency, but is at a much lower power level (−23dB down with respect to the main RF peak). The inset in Fig. 5(d) shows the particularly narrow linewidth of the RF beat frequency estimated to be < 10kHz at −3dB (FWHM).

4. Discussion

These results demonstrate the versatility of the FD-FWM scheme as a function of the main cavity length. By adjusting the relative phase between the main cavity modes and the ring resonator, not only is possible to eliminate all the low frequency instabilities arising from supermode beating and EDFA gain switching in order to obtain stable pulsed operation, but it is possible to achieve stable oscillation of a dual comb separated by the FSR of the main cavity.

An important aspect of these results is that the generated RF modulation is coherent with the emission of a 200GHz optical pulse train because it arises from beating between cavity modes. This is qualitatively different from modulating the pulse train with an external modulator, for example. To first order the modulation can be thought of as a Phased Locked sub-carrier of the 200GHz repetition rate as its fluctuations are also governed by the mode spacing. Although the modulation frequency is not necessarily an integer fraction of the repetition rate, obtaining a locked sub-carrier requires one to “read” the pulse train with a Phase Locked Loop, but in this case the repetition rate (200GHz) is well beyond the capability of typical detectors. Instead, in this case the signal already carries the information that is useful, for example, to synchronize slower sources for time-division multiplexing applications or could be useful in optical orthogonal frequency domain multiplexing (O-OFDM) techniques, which are gaining ground in optical communications [31

31. D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s−1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 364–371 (2011). [CrossRef]

,32

32. J. Armstrong, “OFDM for Optical Communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(3), 189–204 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Moreover, the measurement of the amplitude noise of this configuration gives important information on the phase stability of the system, as the line width of the AC peak at 65.8MHz in Fig. 5(d) (inset) is a direct measurement of the stability of the FSR of the main cavity, which is better than 0.01% for the results presented here. This measurement reflects the stability of the ultrafast comb, and in principle can be employed to stabilize the whole system at a frequency (65.8 MHz) that can be easily followed by electronics.

5. Conclusions

We demonstrate a novel dual-mode locked laser based on an integrated high-Q microring resonator that exhibits stable operation of two slightly shifted spectral optical comb replicas, generating a highly monochromatic radio frequency tone.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) and the Australian Research Council (ARC) Discovery Projects and Centres of Excellence programs.

References and links

1.

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 84–92 (2012). [CrossRef]

3.

R. J. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, G. J. Foschini, and B. Goebel, “Capacity limits of optical fibre networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 662–701 (2010). [CrossRef]

4.

D. Cotter, R. J. Manning, K. J. Blow, A. D. Ellis, A. E. Kelly, D. Nesset, I. D. Phillips, A. J. Poustie, and D. C. Rogers, “Nonlinear optics for high-speed digital information processing,” Science 286(5444), 1523–1528 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 41–45 (2010). [CrossRef]

6.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010). [CrossRef]

7.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 770–776 (2011). [CrossRef]

8.

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332(6029), 555–559 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Full stabilization of a microresonator-based optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(5), 053903 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

T. Habruseva, S. O’Donoghue, N. Rebrova, F. Kéfélian, S. P. Hegarty, and G. Huyet, “Optical linewidth of a passively mode-locked semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3307–3309 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

Z. Jiao, J. Liu, Z. Lu, X. Zhang, P. J. Poole, P. J. Barrios, and D. Poitras, “C-Band InAs / InP quantum dot semiconductor repetition rate pulses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 543–545 (2011). [CrossRef]

12.

N. N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and J. Soto-Crespo, “Multisoliton solutions of the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(21), 4047–4051 (1997). [CrossRef]

13.

P. Franco, F. Fontana, I. Cristiani, M. Midrio, and M. Romagnoli, “Self-induced modulational-instability laser,” Opt. Lett. 20(19), 2009–2011 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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E. Yoshida and M. Nakazawa, “Low-threshold 115-GHz continuous-wave modulational-instability erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 22(18), 1409–1411 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

M. Quiroga-Teixeiro, C. B. Clausen, M. P. Sørensen, P. L. Christiansen, and P. A. Andrekson, “Passive mode locking by dissipative four-wave mixing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 15(4), 1315–1321 (1998). [CrossRef]

16.

T. Sylvestre, S. Coen, P. Emplit, and M. Haelterman, “Self-induced modulational instability laser revisited: normal dispersion and dark-pulse train generation,” Opt. Lett. 27(7), 482–484 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

J. Schröder, T. D. Vo, and B. J. Eggleton, “Repetition-rate-selective, wavelength-tunable mode-locked laser at up to 640 GHz,” Opt. Lett. 34(24), 3902–3904 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

J. Schröder, D. Alasia, T. Sylvestre, and S. Coen, “Dynamics of an ultrahigh-repetition-rate passively mode-locked Raman fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 25(7), 1178–1186 (2008). [CrossRef]

19.

S. Zhang, F. Lu, X. Dong, P. Shum, X. Yang, X. Zhou, Y. Gong, and C. Lu, “Passive mode locking at harmonics of the free spectral range of the intracavity filter in a fiber ring laser,” Opt. Lett. 30(21), 2852–2854 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

M. Peccianti, A. Pasquazi, Y. Park, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Demonstration of a stable ultrafast laser based on a nonlinear microcavity,” Nat. Commun. 3, 765 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

I. S. Grudinin, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, “Generation of optical frequency combs with a CaF2 resonator,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 878–880 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

A. L. Schawlow and C. H. Townes, “Infrared and optical masers,” Phys. Rev. 112(6), 1940–1949 (1958). [CrossRef]

24.

M. Yoshida, A. Ono, and M. Nakazawa, “10 GHz regeneratively mode-locked semiconductor optical amplifier fiber ring laser and its linewidth characteristics,” Opt. Lett. 32(24), 3513–3515 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

T. Carmon, L. Yang, and K. Vahala, “Dynamical thermal behavior and thermal self-stability of microcavities,” Opt. Express 12(20), 4742–4750 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

M. Ferrera, D. Duchesne, L. Razzari, M. Peccianti, R. Morandotti, P. Cheben, S. Janz, D. X. Xu, B. E. Little, S. Chu, and D. J. Moss, “Low power four wave mixing in an integrated, micro-ring resonator with Q = 1.2 million,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14098–14103 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

A. Pasquazi, R. Ahmad, M. Rochette, M. Lamont, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, R. Morandotti, and D. J. Moss, “All-optical wavelength conversion in an integrated ring resonator,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3858–3863 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28.

M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, Z. Yang, M. Liscidini, J. E. Sipe, S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “Low-power continuous-wave nonlinear optics in doped silica glass integrated waveguide structures,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 737–740 (2008). [CrossRef]

29.

A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, Y. Park, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, R. Morandotti, J. Azaña, and D. J. Moss, “Sub-picosecond phase-sensitive optical pulse characterization on a chip,” Nat. Photonics 5(10), 618–623 (2011). [CrossRef]

30.

A. Haboucha, H. Leblond, M. Salhi, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Analysis of soliton pattern formation in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 78(4), 043806 (2008). [CrossRef]

31.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s−1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 364–371 (2011). [CrossRef]

32.

J. Armstrong, “OFDM for Optical Communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(3), 189–204 (2009). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(130.3120) Integrated optics : Integrated optics devices
(140.3948) Lasers and laser optics : Microcavity devices
(070.7145) Fourier optics and signal processing : Ultrafast processing

ToC Category:
Frequency Comb Generation

History
Original Manuscript: August 30, 2012
Revised Manuscript: October 2, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: October 3, 2012
Published: November 19, 2012

Virtual Issues
Nonlinear Photonics (2012) Optics Express

Citation
Alessia Pasquazi, Marco Peccianti, Brent E. Little, Sai T. Chu, David J. Moss, and Roberto Morandotti, "Stable, dual mode, high repetition rate mode-locked laser based on a microring resonator," Opt. Express 20, 27355-27363 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-24-27355


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References

  1. U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature424(6950), 831–838 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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