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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 24 — Nov. 19, 2012
  • pp: 27419–27424
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Phase regeneration of DPSK signals in a highly nonlinear lead-silicate W-type fiber

Mohamed A. Ettabib, Francesca Parmigiani, Xian Feng, Liam Jones, Joseph Kakande, Radan Slavík, Francesco Poletti, Giorgio M. Ponzo, Jindan Shi, Marco N. Petrovich, Wei H. Loh, Periklis Petropoulos, and David J. Richardson  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 24, pp. 27419-27424 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.027419


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Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate phase regeneration of a 40-Gb/s differential phase shift keying (DPSK) signal in a 1.7-m long highly nonlinear lead silicate W-type fiber using a degenerate two-pump phase-sensitive amplifier (PSA). Results show an improvement in the Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) and a reduction of almost a factor of 2 in the phase noise of the signal after regeneration for various noise levels at the input.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

One way to realize PSAs is to utilize four wave mixing (FWM) in fiber optical parametric amplifiers (FOPAs). FOPAs offer various advantages, such as the potential for wide gain bandwidths extending up to several hundred nanometers [6

6. T. Torounidis and P. A. Andrekson, “Broadband single-pumped fiber-optic parametric amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(9), 650–652 (2007). [CrossRef]

, 7

7. T. Torounidis, P. A. Andrekson, and B. Olsson, “Ultra high gain fiber optical parametric amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OFH6.

], the flexibility to center their gain profile about any arbitrary wavelength given by the zero-dispersion wavelength (ZDW) of the fiber, the ability to simultaneously parametrically amplify a weak signal and generate a frequency converted idler signal [8

8. M. E. Marhic, K. K. Y. Wong, M. C. Ho, and L. G. Kazovsky, “92% pump depletion in a continuous-wave one-pump fiber optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 26(9), 620–622 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 9

9. R. H. Stolen and J. E. Bjorkholm, “Parametric amplification and frequency conversion in optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(7), 1062–1072 (1982). [CrossRef]

], and transparency to the signal repetition rate due to the fast response time of the χ(3) susceptibility of optical fibers [10

10. S. Ono, R. Okabe, F. Futami, and S. Watanabe, “Novel demultiplexer for ultra high speed pulses using a perfect phase-matched parametric amplifier,” in OFC (Anaheim, 2006), paper OWT2.

]. In addition to the attributes outlined above, phase sensitive (PS) FOPAs can offer further advantages such as nearly noiseless amplification [11

11. Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011). [CrossRef]

], reduction of phase and amplitude noise fluctuations, dispersion compensation and the elimination of modulation instability [12

12. A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, and C. Efstathiou, “Noise properties of degenerate dual pump phase sensitive amplifiers,” J Lightw. Technol. 28(8), 1209–1217 (2010).

15

15. W. Imajuku and A. Takada, “Reduction of fiber-nonlinearity-enhanced amplifier noise by means of phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 22(1), 31–33 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Key elements in the development of PS-FOPA technology are the realization of a high nonlinear coefficient, a precisely engineered dispersion profile and a high stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) threshold in the nonlinear fiber. Such characteristics are generally attractive for the implementation of several all-optical processing applications and subsequently significant research efforts have been devoted to the development of fiber technologies that satisfy (typically, a certain subset of) these characteristics. In recent years, highly nonlinear fibers (HNLFs) based on soft glasses of the likes of bismuth-oxide [16

16. K. Croussore and G. F. Li, “Phase and amplitude regeneration of differential phase-shift keyed signals using phase-sensitive amplification,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 648–658 (2008). [CrossRef]

], lead-silicate [17

17. A. Camerlingo, X. Feng, F. Poletti, G. M. Ponzo, F. Parmigiani, P. Horak, M. N. Petrovich, P. Petropoulos, W. H. Loh, and D. J. Richardson, “Near-zero dispersion, highly nonlinear lead-silicate W-type fiber for applications at 1.55 microm,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15747–15756 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and chalcogenide [18

18. R. Ahmad and M. Rochette, “High efficiency and ultra broadband optical parametric four-wave mixing in chalcogenide-PMMA hybrid microwires,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9572–9580 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] have emerged as an alternative technological competitor to standard germanium-doped silica HNLFs. This is due to a number of key characteristics they possess, most importantly their high nonlinear refractive indices and small effective areas enabled by modern microstructure fabrication techniques. Thus, the increase by 2-3 orders of magnitude in the effective nonlinearities which is possible in such glass systems leads to realizing the same net nonlinearity as in silica-based HNLFs but in a much shorter length of fiber, thereby enabling meter or sub-meter long devices with a larger parametric gain bandwidth and better device latency and stability [19

19. X. Feng, F. Poletti, A. Camerlingo, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, P. Horak, G. M. Ponzo, M. Petrovich, J. Shi, W. H. Loh, and D. J. Richardson, “Dispersion controlled highly nonlinear fibers for all optical processing at telecoms wavelengths,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 378–391 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. Furthermore, improvements in the fabrication techniques have reduced the fiber losses and the practical challenges associated with handling and splicing [19

19. X. Feng, F. Poletti, A. Camerlingo, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, P. Horak, G. M. Ponzo, M. Petrovich, J. Shi, W. H. Loh, and D. J. Richardson, “Dispersion controlled highly nonlinear fibers for all optical processing at telecoms wavelengths,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 378–391 (2010). [CrossRef]

,20

20. X. Feng, J. Shi, G. M. Ponzo, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, N. M. White, P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen, W. H. Loh, and D. J. Richardson, “Fusion-spliced highly nonlinear soft-glass W-type index profiled fiber with ultra-flattened, low dispersion profile in 1.55μm telecommunication window,” in ECOC (Geneva, 2011), paper We.10.P1.05.

].

We have previously reported the fabrication of a highly nonlinear lead silicate step-index (W-type) fiber and highlighted its novel optical characteristics, such as the high nonlinearity and low and flat dispersion profile by demonstrating a uniform FWM conversion efficiency of 0 dB across a 40 nm bandwidth [17

17. A. Camerlingo, X. Feng, F. Poletti, G. M. Ponzo, F. Parmigiani, P. Horak, M. N. Petrovich, P. Petropoulos, W. H. Loh, and D. J. Richardson, “Near-zero dispersion, highly nonlinear lead-silicate W-type fiber for applications at 1.55 microm,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15747–15756 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. We have also demonstrated the potential of this fiber for realizing broadband phase sensitive amplification without requiring any active SBS suppression schemes [21

21. M. A. Ettabib, L. Jones, J. Kakande, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, X. Feng, F. Poletti, G. M. Ponzo, J. A. Shi, M. N. Petrovich, W. H. Loh, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Phase sensitive amplification in a highly nonlinear lead-silicate fiber,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1629–1634 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In this paper, we demonstrate the regeneration of a 40-Gb/s DPSK data signal in a 1.7-m sample of this fiber, based on a degenerate two-pump phase sensitive amplifier (2P-PSA) configuration.

2. Experimental setup and results

The experimental setup is shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Top: Experimental setup of the 40Gb/s phase regenerator. Bottom: spectral trace at the input of the PSA. EDFA: Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier, MOD: modulator, PC: Polarization controller.
. The data signal was a 40 Gb/s non-return-to-zero DPSK 231-1 pseudo-random bit sequence centered at a wavelength of 1555.64 nm. To emulate the effects of broadband phase-only noise, the signal was combined with narrowband (3-dB bandwidth of 1 nm) amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) with a Gaussian spectral profile centered at 1562 nm and launched into an HNLF. The ASE induced cross phase modulation (XPM) on the signal, thereby introducing broadband incoherent phase noise to it (see [22

22. L. M. Jones, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-Optical broadband phase noise emulation,” in Nonlinear Photonics (Colorado Springs 2012), paper JM5A.19.

] for more details on the noise emulation system). The magnitude of the phase perturbations was controlled by varying the corresponding power levels of the ASE noise. The distorted signal was then launched into the PSA regenerator, which was set up following a black-box configuration (for a detailed presentation, please refer to [3

3. R. Slavík, A. Bogris, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, M. Westlund, M. Sköld, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, D. Syvridis, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Coherent all-optical phase and amplitude regenerator of binary phase-encoded signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 859–869 (2012). [CrossRef]

]). At the input of the regenerator,the signal was coupled with a continuous wave (CW) signal (Pump 1) operating at a wavelength of 1557.36 nm through an add/drop multiplexer. The data signal (acting as a pump here) and the CW signal were launched into a HNLF to generate a new phase-locked and modulation-free idler wave at 1553.9 nm. The HNLF used had a length of 300 m, a dispersion of - 0.01 ps/nm/km at 1550 nm, a nonlinear coefficient of 10.5 /W/km, and an insertion loss of 0.9 dB. The weak idler was then used to injection-lock a slave semiconductor laser (Pump 2) [2

2. R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O'Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 690–695 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. The three phase-locked optical fields were gated in time through a Mach-Zehnder modulator driven by 400 ns rectangular pulses with a duty cycle of 1:10. Time gating provided a means to increase the peak power of the pumps and signal by a factor of ten whilst retaining the same average power, so as to overcome the splice losses to the lead-silicate fiber that followed, without the need for excessive EDFA average power. This signal arrangement now formed the two pumps and signal required in a degenerate PS-FOPA (see inset to Fig. 1). The three waves were amplified through a high power EDFA to a total power of approximately 31 dBm, before being fed through a polarization controller and an isolator to the lead silicate W-type fiber where PS amplification was realized. The lead silicate HNLF had a nonlinear coefficient of 820 /W/km, a propagation loss of 2.1 dB/m and a dispersion of −0.8 ps/nm/km at 1550 nm [17

17. A. Camerlingo, X. Feng, F. Poletti, G. M. Ponzo, F. Parmigiani, P. Horak, M. N. Petrovich, P. Petropoulos, W. H. Loh, and D. J. Richardson, “Near-zero dispersion, highly nonlinear lead-silicate W-type fiber for applications at 1.55 microm,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15747–15756 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The sample was spliced through a commercial high-NA silica fiber to a standard single-mode fiber patchcord [20

20. X. Feng, J. Shi, G. M. Ponzo, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, N. M. White, P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen, W. H. Loh, and D. J. Richardson, “Fusion-spliced highly nonlinear soft-glass W-type index profiled fiber with ultra-flattened, low dispersion profile in 1.55μm telecommunication window,” in ECOC (Geneva, 2011), paper We.10.P1.05.

]. A total splice loss of approximately 6.25 dB per splice was estimated (note that this figure is higher than what was reported in [20

20. X. Feng, J. Shi, G. M. Ponzo, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, N. M. White, P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen, W. H. Loh, and D. J. Richardson, “Fusion-spliced highly nonlinear soft-glass W-type index profiled fiber with ultra-flattened, low dispersion profile in 1.55μm telecommunication window,” in ECOC (Geneva, 2011), paper We.10.P1.05.

] and could be improved with further optimization efforts). At the output of the PSA the signal was filtered to reject the two pumps. Part of the data signal was tapped-off to be used as the feedback in the phase locking portion of the setup and to compensate for any slow (sub-kilohertz) relative phase drifts between the three interacting waves. It consisted of an optical detector, a proportional integral (PI) controller and a piezo-electric transducer fiber stretcher located in the path of one of the pumps. The short length of the soft glass fiber contributed to a reduced acoustic pick-up relative to systems based on silica-based fibers (e.g [2

2. R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O'Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 690–695 (2010). [CrossRef]

,3

3. R. Slavík, A. Bogris, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, M. Westlund, M. Sköld, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, D. Syvridis, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Coherent all-optical phase and amplitude regenerator of binary phase-encoded signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 859–869 (2012). [CrossRef]

].) and resulted in more stable locking of the feedback circuit. At the output of the regenerator, the data signal was characterized using an optical modulation analyzer (OMA), consisting of an optical coherent detector and a real-time data acquisition system.

The relative power of the signal with respect to the pumps was adjusted to ensure optimal phase noise suppression with minimal amplitude degradation, which was achieved when the PSA operated in saturation. In this operating regime, a total phase-sensitive gain variation of approximately 4.5 dB was measured (this is to be contrasted to 14 dB which was measured when the PSA was not saturated – see [21

21. M. A. Ettabib, L. Jones, J. Kakande, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, X. Feng, F. Poletti, G. M. Ponzo, J. A. Shi, M. N. Petrovich, W. H. Loh, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Phase sensitive amplification in a highly nonlinear lead-silicate fiber,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1629–1634 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]). Higher order FWM products were observed at the output of the PSA owing to the low and flat dispersion characteristics of the W-type fiber (Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Spectral trace at the output of the PSA, showing the signal, the pumps and high-order FWM products.
). Figure 3
Fig. 3 (a)-(d) Constellation diagrams of the DPSK signal before (top) and after (bottom) regeneration for various noise levels. (a) represents the case of no added noise.
presents constellation diagrams of the data signal before and after the regenerator for different noise levels. The signal was first assessed with no added noise,showing similar performance both before and after the regenerator (Fig. 3(a)). With mainly phase noise added to the signal (Figs. 3(b)-3(d)), the constellation diagrams display a clear level of noise squeezing with negligible additional amplitude noise. To better quantify the level of improvement achieved in the signal quality, Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Plots of (a) EVM (b) phase and (c) magnitude error of the data signal before and after regeneration.
shows the root mean square (rms) error vector magnitude (EVM), the phase error and the rms magnitude error of the data signal before and after regeneration. Again the no-added-noise case (the leftmost data point in the graphs) shows almost no penalty due to the presence of the regenerator, and a universal improvement in the EVM of the data signal is observed for all the different noise levels examined. As shown in Fig. 4(b), the level of phase error is reduced by about a factor of 2 for all of the cases that we examined, confirming the regenerator capability for reducing phase noise. A slight (effectively negligible) deterioration in the magnitude error of the regenerated signals is observed in Fig. 4(c), mainly due to the phase-to-amplitude noise transformation occurring in the PSA.

3. Conclusion

We experimentally demonstrated the regeneration of 40 Gb/s data signals using a saturated phase-sensitive amplifier based on a short length of a highly nonlinear lead-silicate W-type fiber. The short fiber length drastically reduced the latency of the processing system relative to corresponding configurations based on germanium-doped HNLFs, and improved the system stability at the same time. The measured data showed a clear reduction in the phase noise of the signal. Furthermore, the low and flat dispersion profile of the fiber across the C-band highlights its potential for future use in applications requiring wavelength multicasting which will be the subject of future experiments.

Acknowledgments

We thank OFS Fitel Denmark for providing the silica HNLF used in the experiment. This work has received funding from the European Communities Seventh Framework Programme FP/2007-2013 under grant agreement 224547 (PHASORS) and the EPSRC under grant EP/I01196X: Transforming the Future Internet: The Photonics Hyperhighway. Dr. F. Parmigiani gratefully acknowledges the support from the Royal Academy of Engineering/EPSRC through a University Research Fellowship.

References and links

1.

P. Andrekson, “Progress in phase-sensitive fiber-optic parametric amplifiers and their applications,” in CLEO (Baltimore, 2011), paper CWD1.

2.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O'Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 690–695 (2010). [CrossRef]

3.

R. Slavík, A. Bogris, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, M. Westlund, M. Sköld, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, D. Syvridis, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Coherent all-optical phase and amplitude regenerator of binary phase-encoded signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 859–869 (2012). [CrossRef]

4.

K. Croussore and G. F. Li, “Phase regeneration of NRZ-DPSK signals based on symmetric-pump phase-sensitive amplification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(11), 864–866 (2007). [CrossRef]

5.

J. Kakande, A. Bogris, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, D. Syvridis, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “First demonstration of all-optical QPSK signal regeneration in a novel multi-format phase sensitive amplifier,” in ECOC (Turin, 2010), paper PDP 3.3.

6.

T. Torounidis and P. A. Andrekson, “Broadband single-pumped fiber-optic parametric amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(9), 650–652 (2007). [CrossRef]

7.

T. Torounidis, P. A. Andrekson, and B. Olsson, “Ultra high gain fiber optical parametric amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OFH6.

8.

M. E. Marhic, K. K. Y. Wong, M. C. Ho, and L. G. Kazovsky, “92% pump depletion in a continuous-wave one-pump fiber optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 26(9), 620–622 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

R. H. Stolen and J. E. Bjorkholm, “Parametric amplification and frequency conversion in optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(7), 1062–1072 (1982). [CrossRef]

10.

S. Ono, R. Okabe, F. Futami, and S. Watanabe, “Novel demultiplexer for ultra high speed pulses using a perfect phase-matched parametric amplifier,” in OFC (Anaheim, 2006), paper OWT2.

11.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011). [CrossRef]

12.

A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, and C. Efstathiou, “Noise properties of degenerate dual pump phase sensitive amplifiers,” J Lightw. Technol. 28(8), 1209–1217 (2010).

13.

H. P. Yuen, “Reduction of quantum fluctuation and suppression of the Gordon-Haus effect with phase-sensitive linear amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 17(1), 73–75 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

L. Ruo-Ding, P. Kumar, and W. L. Kath, “Dispersion compensation with phase-sensitive optical amplifiers,” J Lightw. Technol. 12(3), 541–549 (1994).

15.

W. Imajuku and A. Takada, “Reduction of fiber-nonlinearity-enhanced amplifier noise by means of phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 22(1), 31–33 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

K. Croussore and G. F. Li, “Phase and amplitude regeneration of differential phase-shift keyed signals using phase-sensitive amplification,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 648–658 (2008). [CrossRef]

17.

A. Camerlingo, X. Feng, F. Poletti, G. M. Ponzo, F. Parmigiani, P. Horak, M. N. Petrovich, P. Petropoulos, W. H. Loh, and D. J. Richardson, “Near-zero dispersion, highly nonlinear lead-silicate W-type fiber for applications at 1.55 microm,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15747–15756 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

R. Ahmad and M. Rochette, “High efficiency and ultra broadband optical parametric four-wave mixing in chalcogenide-PMMA hybrid microwires,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9572–9580 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

X. Feng, F. Poletti, A. Camerlingo, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, P. Horak, G. M. Ponzo, M. Petrovich, J. Shi, W. H. Loh, and D. J. Richardson, “Dispersion controlled highly nonlinear fibers for all optical processing at telecoms wavelengths,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 378–391 (2010). [CrossRef]

20.

X. Feng, J. Shi, G. M. Ponzo, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, N. M. White, P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen, W. H. Loh, and D. J. Richardson, “Fusion-spliced highly nonlinear soft-glass W-type index profiled fiber with ultra-flattened, low dispersion profile in 1.55μm telecommunication window,” in ECOC (Geneva, 2011), paper We.10.P1.05.

21.

M. A. Ettabib, L. Jones, J. Kakande, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, X. Feng, F. Poletti, G. M. Ponzo, J. A. Shi, M. N. Petrovich, W. H. Loh, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Phase sensitive amplification in a highly nonlinear lead-silicate fiber,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1629–1634 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

L. M. Jones, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-Optical broadband phase noise emulation,” in Nonlinear Photonics (Colorado Springs 2012), paper JM5A.19.

OCIS Codes
(060.4370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Nonlinear optics, fibers
(190.4410) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, parametric processes
(230.2285) Optical devices : Fiber devices and optical amplifiers
(230.4480) Optical devices : Optical amplifiers

ToC Category:
Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifiers

History
Original Manuscript: September 5, 2012
Revised Manuscript: October 2, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: October 3, 2012
Published: November 19, 2012

Virtual Issues
Nonlinear Photonics (2012) Optics Express

Citation
Mohamed A. Ettabib, Francesca Parmigiani, Xian Feng, Liam Jones, Joseph Kakande, Radan Slavík, Francesco Poletti, Giorgio M. Ponzo, Jindan Shi, Marco N. Petrovich, Wei H. Loh, Periklis Petropoulos, and David J. Richardson, "Phase regeneration of DPSK signals in a highly nonlinear lead-silicate W-type fiber," Opt. Express 20, 27419-27424 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-24-27419


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References

  1. P. Andrekson, “Progress in phase-sensitive fiber-optic parametric amplifiers and their applications,” in CLEO (Baltimore, 2011), paper CWD1.
  2. R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundström, M. Sjödin, P. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O'Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 690–695 (2010). [CrossRef]
  3. R. Slavík, A. Bogris, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, M. Westlund, M. Sköld, L. Grüner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, D. Syvridis, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, “Coherent all-optical phase and amplitude regenerator of binary phase-encoded signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 859–869 (2012). [CrossRef]
  4. K. Croussore, G. F. Li, “Phase regeneration of NRZ-DPSK signals based on symmetric-pump phase-sensitive amplification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(11), 864–866 (2007). [CrossRef]
  5. J. Kakande, A. Bogris, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, D. Syvridis, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “First demonstration of all-optical QPSK signal regeneration in a novel multi-format phase sensitive amplifier,” in ECOC (Turin, 2010), paper PDP 3.3.
  6. T. Torounidis, P. A. Andrekson, “Broadband single-pumped fiber-optic parametric amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(9), 650–652 (2007). [CrossRef]
  7. T. Torounidis, P. A. Andrekson, and B. Olsson, “Ultra high gain fiber optical parametric amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OFH6.
  8. M. E. Marhic, K. K. Y. Wong, M. C. Ho, L. G. Kazovsky, “92% pump depletion in a continuous-wave one-pump fiber optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 26(9), 620–622 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. H. Stolen, J. E. Bjorkholm, “Parametric amplification and frequency conversion in optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(7), 1062–1072 (1982). [CrossRef]
  10. S. Ono, R. Okabe, F. Futami, and S. Watanabe, “Novel demultiplexer for ultra high speed pulses using a perfect phase-matched parametric amplifier,” in OFC (Anaheim, 2006), paper OWT2.
  11. Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011). [CrossRef]
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