OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 25 — Dec. 3, 2012
  • pp: 27874–27887
« Show journal navigation

Miniature micro-wire based optical fiber-field access device

Simon Pevec and Denis Donlagic  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 25, pp. 27874-27887 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.027874


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (3125 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

This paper presents an optical fiber-field access device suitable for use in different in-line fiber-optics’ systems and fiber-based photonics’ components. The proposed device utilizes a thin silica micro-wire positioned in-between two lead-in single mode fibers. The thin micro-wire acts as a waveguide that allows for low-loss interconnection between both lead-in fibers, while providing interaction between the guided optical field and the surrounding medium or other photonic structures. The field interaction strength, total loss, and phase matching conditions can be partially controlled by device-design. The presented all-fiber device is miniature in size and utilizes an all-silica construction. It has mechanical properties suitable for handling and packaging without the need for additional mechanical support or reinforcements. The proposed device was produced using a micromachining method that utilizes selective etching of a purposely-produced phosphorus pentoxide-doped optical fiber. This method is simple, compatible with batch processes, and has good high-volume manufacturing potential.

© 2012 OSA

1 Introduction

Effective design of fiber-field access devices and methods for their manufacturing is important for further practical development and usage of various fiber-optic components, such as sensors [1

1. R. Bharadwaj, V. V. R. Sai, K. Thakare, A. Dhawangale, T. Kundu, S. Titus, P. K. Verma, and S. Mukherji, “Evanescent wave absorbance based fiber optic biosensor for label-free detection of E. coli at 280 nm wavelength,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(7), 3367–3370 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10

10. P. Polynkin, A. Polynkin, N. Peyghambarian, and M. Mansuripur, “Evanescent field-based optical fiber sensing device for measuring the refractive index of liquids in microfluidic channels,” Opt. Lett. 30(11), 1273–1275 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], filters [11

11. M. I. Zibaii, A. Kazemi, H. Latifi, M. K. Azar, S. M. Hosseini, and M. H. Ghezelaiagh, “Measuring bacterial growth by refractive index tapered fiber optic biosensor,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 101(3), 313–320 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15

15. M. Wilkinson, A. Bebbington, S. A. Cassidy, and P. Mckee, “D-fibre filter for erbium gain spectrum flattening,” Electron. Lett. 28(2), 131–132 (1992). [CrossRef]

], gratings [16

16. C. L. Lee, Z. Y. Weng, C. J. Lin, and Y. Y. Lin, “Leakage coupling of ultrasensitive periodical silica thin-film long-period grating coated on tapered fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35(24), 4172–4174 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 17

17. K. H. Smith, B. L. Ipson, T. L. Lowder, A. R. Hawkins, R. H. Selfridge, and S. M. Schultz, “Surface-relief fiber Bragg gratings for sensing applications,” Appl. Opt. 45(8), 1669–1675 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], attenuators/modulators [18

18. V. K. S. Hsiao, Z. Li, Z. Chen, P. C. Peng, and J. Tang, “Optically controllable side-polished fiber attenuator with photoresponsive liquid crystal overlay,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19988–19995 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20

20. X. Tian, X. Cheng, W. Wu, Y. Luo, Q. Zhang, B. Zhu, and G. Zou, “Reversible All-Optical Modulation Based on Evanescent Wave Absorption of a Single-Mode Fiber With Azo-Polymer Overlay,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1352–1354 (2010). [CrossRef]

], micro-resonators [21

21. M. Cai and K. Vahala, “Highly efficient optical power transfer to whispering-gallery modes by use of a symmetrical dual-coupling configuration,” Opt. Lett. 25(4), 260–262 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25

25. A. Serpengüzel, S. Arnold, and G. Griffel, “Excitation of resonances of microspheres on an optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 20(7), 654–656 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], lasers [26

26. Y. W. Song, S. Yamashita, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, “Carbon nanotube mode lockers with enhanced nonlinearity via evanescent field interaction in D-shaped fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(2), 148–150 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 27

27. Y. J. Zhang, F. F. Zhong, W. B. He, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, J. Xu, and J. L. Ju, “A long uniform taper applied to an all-fiber Tm3+ doped double-clad fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 20(11), 1978–1980 (2010). [CrossRef]

], polarization-control devices [28

28. A. Diez, M. V. Andres, and D. O. Culverhouse, “In-line polarizers and filters made of metal-coated tapered fibers: Resonant excitation of hybrid plasma modes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(6), 833–835 (1998). [CrossRef]

, 29

29. S. G. Lee, J. P. Sokoloff, B. P. McGinnis, and H. Sasabe, “Fabrication of a side-polished fiber polarizer with a biref ringent polymer overlay,” Opt. Lett. 22(9), 606–608 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and many other photonic structures [30

30. M. Davanço and K. Srinivasan, “Efficient spectroscopy of single embedded emitters using optical fiber taper waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10542–10563 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

32

32. L. Su, T. H. Lee, and S. R. Elliott, “Evanescent-wave excitation of surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates by an optical-fiber taper,” Opt. Lett. 34(17), 2685–2687 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

This paper presents an in-line, all-silica, fiber-field access device (FFAD) that is miniature in size, straightforward for manufacturing, and can provide low-insertion losses. The proposed device retains compatibility with standard SMF, including circular symmetry of the evanescent field-access region. Furthermore, the design of the device provides the additional capability of precisely controlling the phase-matching conditions (e.g. effective index) of the mode propagation within the field interaction region.

2 Miniature device for accessing of the fiber field

The proposed fiber field access device (FFAD) is shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 A scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of 400 µm long FFAD device
. It is composed of a thin micro-wire positioned in-between two lead single-mode fibers. The micro-wire acts as a waveguide that interconnects both single-mode fiber cores. The micro-wire’s diameter and its cross-sectional index profile were chosen to provide the desired evanescent field interaction between the guided field and any surrounding material (or another photonic structure). The micro-wire can be homogenous or composed of a core and the thin cladding surrounding that core. In order to prevent the transfer of mechanical stresses caused, for example, by the device’s manipulation towards the thin and otherwise fragile micro-wire, the proposed FFAD is mechanically reinforced by two side-support members positioned at opposite sides of the micro-wire. The void between the thin micro-wire and the side-support members prevents any interaction between the field propagating within the core and the side-supports’ members. The entire structure is fusion-spliced and made from silica. It is thus mechanically, chemically, and thermally stable.

Good matching between the thin micro-wire and the lead-in fiber’s fundamental mode fields can also be achieved by implementing a core-cladding structure into the micro-wire’s cross-section. In such a case, the cladding thickness affects both the field amplitude at the micro-wire’s outer surface and any insertion losses of the structure. Low local index contrast between the micro-wire’s core and cladding can provide good matching between the micro-wire’s fundamental mode-field and the field of the lead-in fiber. The additional cladding layer, however, reduces the field amplitude at the micro-wire’s outer surface and consequently reduces the field interaction strength.

Numerical modeling was used to investigate both the above cases by applying the commercially-available Optiwave’s simulation software OptiFiber 2.0 (a vector mode solver was used to provide accurate results in high-index contrast cases). The mode-field of the lead-in fiber was overlapped by the fundamental mode-field of the thin micro-wire in order to predict device losses. Figure 2
Fig. 2 Modeled FFAD loss - the field access micro-wire composed of pure silica cladding and standard single-mode fiber core (e.g. 8.5 μm diameter core and 0.36% index difference)
presents the calculated total FFAD losses in the case of micro-wire composed of a standard single-mode core, surrounded by a thin pure silica cladding. The Fig. 2 shows the device losses as a function of the surrounding medium refractive index (RI) and the thin silica cladding thickness. Calculations were performed at 1550 nm.

In the water (n = 1.33) the total predicted loss somewhat exceeded –2.6 dB when the core was fully exposed to the surrounding medium (no cladding). By adding 1 μm of thick cladding over the core, the total loss of FFAD reduced to −1.65 dB. Cladding with a thickness of about 1.5 μm is required in order to reduce the losses of the FFAD device below −1 dB in water. Lower losses can be obtained when the device is operated in a medium with RI closer to the RI of silica. For example, when the RI of the surrounding medium is 1.4, a loss of about −1 dB can be obtained for cladding thickness, corresponding to about 1 μm. Since any increase in the cladding thickness also exponentially reduces the field amplitude at the outer surface of the micro-wire, a compromise between field interaction strength and acceptable FFAD losses may be found for a specific FFAD application. A core–cladding structure is particularly useful when the device is used in a medium with RI close to the RI of the silica, or when a weak evanescent-field interaction strength is permitted or required (e.g. such as in different sensor applications) or when certain photonic structures, such as for example gratings, are inscribed into or deposited within/onto a field’s access region (e.g. micro-wire).

When the micro-wire utilizes a monolithic design (e.g. no core), FFAD loss depends on the surrounding RI, the rod’s index, and the rod’s diameter. Figure 3
Fig. 3 Modeled FFAD loss - the field access micro-wire is a monolithic rod made of pure silica
shows the calculated FFAD’s losses versus the rods’ diameters for two different surrounding mediums, e.g. air and water. During simulation, standard single-mode fibers are assumed to be the lead-in fibers and the pure silica as the rod material. There are two different rod diameters where good match (minimum loss) between the field of the lead-in (standard SMF) fiber and the fundamental mode of the rod can be obtained. In the first case, the micro-wire’s diameter falls within a sub-micron range, more precisely it equals 750 nm for the surrounding medium with n = 1.33 and 430 nm for the surrounding medium with n = 1. The minimum theoretically-achievable losses for these cases are −0.62 dB and −0.60 dB for n = 1 and n = 1.33, respectively. Another minimum in FFAD loss occurs within the micrometer diameter range, more precisely, when the rods’ diameters correspond to 15 and 14.6 µm for n = 1 and n = 1.33, respectively. The corresponding predicted total insertion losses for these two cases are −0.37 dB and −0.35 dB. In the first (nano) case, the rod-surrounding the medium waveguide structure only supports the fundamental mode, while in the second case, the rod supports several modes. Overlap-integral calculations, however, show that under ideal conditions none of the higher-order modes would receive more than −20 dB of the total input power present at the splice between the lead-in fiber and the micro-wire. Since there are two transitions between the lead-in fiber and the rod, multipath interference within the range of –40 dB should be achievable under optimal conditions, even in the ‘micro-wire’ (multimode) case. Another important difference between the ‘nano-wire’ and ‘micro-wire’ ranges is in the effective index of the fundamental mode propagating within the field interaction region. The effective index of the FFAD within a ‘nanometer’ regime is close to the index of the surrounding medium, while in the case of a ‘micrometer’, the effective index of the fundamental mode is close to the rod index.

Furthermore, the proposed FFAD design offers the possibility of fine-tuning the effective refractive index of the fundamental mode’s propagation with the micro-wire. The effective index of the fundamental mode can be controlled by changing the RI of the core and/or the entire rod, which can be achieved by adding dopants to the rod. The effective index of the fundamental-mode within the field interaction region can thus be set within a span that approximately corresponds to the RI range obtainable by silica doping (e.g. by assuming available fluorine doping at the lower-end and titania/germania doping at the higher end, this refractive index range is roughly between 1.415 and 1.515). This capability might be particularly useful in applications where precise tuning of the effective index regarding the device’s fundamental mode is required in order to satisfy the phase-matching conditions required when coupling between the proposed FFAD and, for example, the surrounding medium, the structure, or another photonic device.

3 FFAD manufacturing

The FFAD shown in Fig. 1 was produced by a micromachining process that utilizes the selective etching of phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5)-doped silica glass [45

45. S. Pevec, E. Cibula, B. Lenardic, and D. Donlagic, “Micromachining of Optical Fibers Using Selective Etching Based on Phosphorus Pentoxide Doping,” IEEE Photon. J 3(4), 627–632 (2011). [CrossRef]

, 46

46. D. Donlagic, “All-fiber micromachined microcell,” Opt. Lett. 36(16), 3148–3150 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. When P2O5 is introduced into the silica, the etching rate of the silica in hydrofluoric acid (HF) can be substantially increased [45

45. S. Pevec, E. Cibula, B. Lenardic, and D. Donlagic, “Micromachining of Optical Fibers Using Selective Etching Based on Phosphorus Pentoxide Doping,” IEEE Photon. J 3(4), 627–632 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. This property can be used to create a large and preferential etching area within a section of specially-designed structure-forming fiber (SFF), which can be further removed very selectively in HF to form a desired microstructure.

Those SFFs used for the production of experimental FFAD devices, are presented in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Optical microscope cross-sectional views and refractive index profile data (obtained by a preform analyzer – cross-section) of fibers used for the manufacturing of experimental FFAD devices: (a) with GeO2 core, (b) with a pure silica rod
. The fiber in Fig. 4(a) consisted of a circular GeO2-doped core (the core Δn and diamter were approximately matched to standard SMF, e.g. Δn = 0.0042 and diameter = 10 µm), a circular inner pure silica layer (with thickness of 4.5 µm), a large elliptical P2O5-doped region, and circular non-symmetric pure silica cladding. Figure 4(b) shows the SFF used for the production of a homogenous micro-wire (e.g. silica rod) FFAD. This fiber design is identical to the design shown in Fig. 4(a), except for the inner fiber region consisting entirely of pure silica (no core) and having a diameter corresponding to 20 µm. The P2O5 concentrations in both fibers corresponded to about 8.5% mol. During the fabrication of the SFF preform, a standard modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) technique was used to deposit P2O5-doped region, the inner pure silica layer, and the GeO2-doped core. After preform characterization, the outer silica layer consisting of the initial substrate tube was partially removed at the opposing sides by a grinding/polishing process. The drawing of such fiber preform-yielding fibers, as shown in Fig. 4 (reduced viscosity of the P2O5 doped region causing a partial collapse of this region into an elliptical cross-sectional form; the pure silica inner cladding and the core geometry were unaffected).

The designs of the SFF, other than those described above, are also possible but to allow for the formation of side-support regions, it is important to break the circular symmetry of the P2O5-doped region, the outer silica region, or both regions simultaneously.

Experimental FFADs were produced by splicing a short section of the SFF in-between two single-mode fibers (Corning SMF 28e), as shown in Fig. 5
Fig. 5 FFAD production process: (a) fusion-splicing, (b) cleaving to determine the active length of FFAD, (c) fusion-splicing, (d) etching
. The lengths of these selections also determined the active lengths of the field-access regions, e.g. micro-wires, and can be typically within the range from a few tens of microns to a few millimeters. The pure silica cladding of the SFF had the same glass transition temperature as the lead-in standard single-mode fiber cladding, which allowed for effortless fusion-splicing amongst both fiber types.

The final devices were obtained after about 12-20 min of etching in 30% HF. The HF first uniformly etched the pure silica cladding, but once it came into contact with the P2O5-doped region, it preferentially removed this region at a higher rate, leaving behind the desired structure. The inner pure silica region also acted as a stop-layer (due to the considerably lower etching-rate of pure silica relative to the P2O5-doped silica), which contributed to the final uniformity of the micro-wire.

Besides the removable fiber-clamp that allowed for the holding and immersion of the spliced fiber assembly into HF, no other external mechanical support was used during the device production. A tensile strength of about 1.5 N was obtained for the finished devices, which is well within the limits required for most device manipulation and packaging applications.

The low etching-rate of the inner pure silica region also provides extra etching time, which can be used for performing the fine-tuning regarding the final micro-wire thickness. The possibility of precisely manipulating the micro-wire’s diameter and refractive index profile can be used to fine-tune the optical properties, as described further below.

When the P2O5 region is selectively removed during etching in HF, the thinning of the cladding region compresses the mode-field into the core and thus causes change in the device’s transmission loss. This change in loss can be used as an indication of the micro-wire thickness and can thus serve as a feedback parameter for the etching process termination. A simple setup, which allows for on-line observation of the device’s transmission during etching has thus been added, and is shown in Fig. 6
Fig. 6 System for feedback assisted termination of etching process
. This transmission observation-assisted etching termination eliminated the need for precise control of the etching conditions, such as acid concentration and temperature, while providing a high reproducibility of the FFAD production process.

The proposed manufacturing method is also very versatile in terms of possible micro-wire lengths. Figure 8(a)
Fig. 8 SEM micrographs of 1.8 mm and 0.018 mm-long FADD devices
demonstrates an almost 2 mm-long FFAD, while Fig. 8(b) shows only an 18 µm-long device. Any practical length between a few tens of micrometers and several millimeters can be easily achieved.

4 Experimental results

The proposed FFAD devices were firstly experimentally-evaluated for achievable insertion losses. A considerable number (over 20) of FFADs utilizing monolithic micro-wire designs were produced for determining the minimum and typical insertion losses. The minimum insertion loss using SFF, as shown in Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Experimentally-measured FFAD losses as a function of cladding thickens and surrounding medium refractive index. The devices utilized standard SMF compatible core-cladding micro-wire design.
, was 0.385 dB when submerged in water, which is close to the theoretically-predicted value of 0.35 dB (see Fig. 2). However, the more typical insertion loss was around 0.5 dB, which can likely be attributed to the residual core eccentricity of the SFF (SFF preform was hand-polished on its sides to break its circular symmetry, which resulted in limited concentricity of the preform). This and all further measurements described below were performed at 1550 nm.

Furthermore, six FFADs were produced utilizing the core-cladding micro-wire design and submerged into mediums with different refractive indexes (the SFF shown in Fig. 4(a) was used to produce all six devices). All devices had the same length, e.g. 400 µm, but different thicknesses of the cladding surrounding the GeO2-doped core (the thicknesses of the produced FFAD’s micro-wires were measured under a scanning electron microscope). Figure 9 shows the experimentally-measured losses of the produced FFAD as a function of cladding thickness when submerged into mediums with different indexes of refraction. These experimentally- measured losses were in reasonable agreement with the theoretical predictions shown in Fig. 2, especially when considering the slight core-eccentricity of the experimentally-produced SFF, and only an approximate match to the SMF-28 (core inner-cladding index difference was 0.31% in SFF as opposed to 0.36% core-cladding difference in SMF 28, while the core diameter corresponded to 10 μm in SFF instead of 8.2 μm as in SMF-28). Further improvements are thus likely with further SFF fiber optimization.

Figure 11
Fig. 11 Response of FFADs with different active lengths, when immersed in index-matching fluid and when the refractive index (temperature) of the fluid is varied: a) experimentally measured response; b) BMP numerical modeling (optical filed evolution is shown on the left side for 310 µm long device at three different surrounding refractive index values)
shows the responses of the FFAD devices with different active lengths to the surrounding medium refractive index changes. Three FFADs were produced, which had micro-wires composed of homogenous (pure silica) rods with identical diameters, but different lengths (120 μm, 310 μm, and 650 μm). The device with the longest micro-wire exhibited the most abrupt and the greatest change in the transmission as a consequence of refractive index change. Such behavior can be intuitively expected, since shortening of the device reduces the field interaction length. The micro-wire length, which is well controlled during the FFAD production process, can thus be used to set devices’ maximum insertion losses, even when conditions for the field-decoupling from the micro-wire region are achieved. This capability might be, for example, useful in the design of multiplexed sensors based on FFADs or FFAD arrays, where the transmission loss of each device must be limited regardless of local conditions present on the device, in order to allow the interrogation of all devices within the array. These results were further confirmed by a beam propagation method simulation as shown in Fig. 11(b) (Optiwave’s OptiBMP simulation package was used for this modeling). The modeled and experimental results are in good agreement.

Finally, tuning of FFADs modes’ effective indexes is demonstrated by producing an additional up-doped SFF, as shown in Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Refractive index profile of an up-doped SFF
. The up-doped SFF included the core cladding structure, but both the core and the cladding were additionally titanium up-doped to raise the refracted indexes of both layers by 0.017. This fiber was further used to produce an up-doped FFAD.

Figure 13
Fig. 13 Responses of three different FFADs to the refractive index change
demonstrates the responses of three different FFADs to the surrounding medium refractive index change. The first device utilized micro-wire made of a pure silica rod (e.g. using the SFF shown in Fig. 4(b)), the second device employed a micro-wire composed of a GeO2-doped core and pure silica cladding (using the SFF shown in Fig. 4(a)), and the third device used an up-doped micro-wire (using the SFF shown in Fig. 12). All three devices were simultaneously immersed into the same refractive index liquid, while varying the liquid’s index using temperature control. The decoupling of the optical-field from individual FFAD devices happened at different values of surrounding medium refractive indexes: decoupling from the device utilizing pure silica rod micro-wire occurred at about n = 1.444, the decoupling from the device utilizing core-cladding micro-wire design occurred at approximately n = 1.4486, and the decoupling from the device utilizing up-doped core-cladding design happened at around 1.4660. For comparison, the effective index of the fundamental mode in the pure silica rod was close to the pure silica level, e.g. 1.444, the effective index of the mode in SMF compatible GeO2 core was about 1.449, and the effective index of the mode in SMF compatible up-doped fiber should be equal to the effective index of the SMF mode increased for the up-doping level, i.e. to about 1.449 + 0.017 = 1.466 in this particular experimental case. The effective refractive index difference between those modes propagated in core-cladding and the up-doped core cladding micro-wire, thus corresponded to 0.017 which matched well the measured decoupling refractive index difference of 0.0174 in the case of the core cladding and up-doped core cladding FFADs, as indicated by Fig. 13. This experiment thus demonstrated the possibility of fine-tuning the effective index of the fundamental mode of the FFAD’s micro-wire through adjustment (doping) of the SFF. This capability adds to the versatility of the proposed FFADs since it allows for precise and environmentally-stable phase-matching between a FFAD field and any potential surrounding medium, device, or another micro structure.

5 Conclusions

This paper presented the designing and introduction of an effective method for producing all-fiber, all-silica fiber-field access devices that can form a versatile base for creating a variety of miniature, in-line, fiber optic micro-photonic systems and devices. The proposed device is miniature in size, while retaining fully circular-symmetrical geometry and low insertion loss. The proposed device is versatile and can be configured to accommodate the various needs and requirements of particular photonic designs. In particular it provides an opportunity to precisely set an effective index for mode propagation within field-access regions, through fiber-doping.

The proposed fiber field-access devices were created through a micromachining process based on selective etching using purposely-designed phosphorus-doped silica fibers. Since the device production is accomplished through specialty fiber manufacturing (a single fiber production can yield a large number of devices) it also presents a potentially cost-effective production process suitable for high-volume production.

Acknowledgments

References and links

1.

R. Bharadwaj, V. V. R. Sai, K. Thakare, A. Dhawangale, T. Kundu, S. Titus, P. K. Verma, and S. Mukherji, “Evanescent wave absorbance based fiber optic biosensor for label-free detection of E. coli at 280 nm wavelength,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(7), 3367–3370 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

L. K. Chau, Y. F. Lin, S. F. Cheng, and T. J. Lin, “Fiber-optic chemical and biochemical probes based on localized surface plasmon resonance,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 113(1), 100–105 (2006).

3.

J. M. Corres, F. J. Arregui, and I. R. Matias, “Design of humidity sensors based on tapered optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(11), 4329–4336 (2006). [CrossRef]

4.

J. D. Gordon, T. L. Lowder, R. H. Selfridge, and S. M. Schultz, “Optical D-fiber-based volatile organic compound sensor,” Appl. Opt. 46(32), 7805–7810 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

H. S. Haddock, P. M. Shankar, and R. Mutharasan, “Evanescent sensing of biomolecules and cells,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem. 88(1), 67–74 (2003).

6.

Z. M. Hale, F. P. Payne, R. S. Marks, C. R. Lowe, and M. M. Levine, “The single mode tapered optical fibre loop immunosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 11(1–2), 137–148 (1996). [CrossRef]

7.

K. Q. Kieu and M. Mansuripur, “Biconical fiber taper sensors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(21), 2239–2241 (2006). [CrossRef]

8.

J. Kvavle, S. Schultz, and R. Selfridge, “Ink-jetting AJL8/APC for D-fiber electric field sensors,” Appl. Opt. 48(28), 5280–5286 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

S. M. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Y. Jeong, “Simultaneous Measurement of Refractive Index, Temperature, and Strain Using Etched-Core Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(19), 1431–1433 (2010). [CrossRef]

10.

P. Polynkin, A. Polynkin, N. Peyghambarian, and M. Mansuripur, “Evanescent field-based optical fiber sensing device for measuring the refractive index of liquids in microfluidic channels,” Opt. Lett. 30(11), 1273–1275 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

M. I. Zibaii, A. Kazemi, H. Latifi, M. K. Azar, S. M. Hosseini, and M. H. Ghezelaiagh, “Measuring bacterial growth by refractive index tapered fiber optic biosensor,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 101(3), 313–320 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

H. Choi, Y. Jeong, and K. Oh, “Wide, tunable band rejection filter based on micro-optical waveguide on microactuating platform covering O, E, S, C, L, and U bands,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 484–486 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

C. A. Millar, M. C. Brierley, and S. R. Mallinson, “Exposed-core single-mode-fiber channel-dropping filter using a high-index overlay waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 12(4), 284–286 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

K. R. Sohn and J. W. Song, “Tunable in-line fiber optic comb filter using a side-polished single-mode fiber coupler with LiNbO3 overlay and intermediate coupling layer,” Opt. Commun. 203(3–6), 271–276 (2002). [CrossRef]

15.

M. Wilkinson, A. Bebbington, S. A. Cassidy, and P. Mckee, “D-fibre filter for erbium gain spectrum flattening,” Electron. Lett. 28(2), 131–132 (1992). [CrossRef]

16.

C. L. Lee, Z. Y. Weng, C. J. Lin, and Y. Y. Lin, “Leakage coupling of ultrasensitive periodical silica thin-film long-period grating coated on tapered fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35(24), 4172–4174 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

K. H. Smith, B. L. Ipson, T. L. Lowder, A. R. Hawkins, R. H. Selfridge, and S. M. Schultz, “Surface-relief fiber Bragg gratings for sensing applications,” Appl. Opt. 45(8), 1669–1675 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

V. K. S. Hsiao, Z. Li, Z. Chen, P. C. Peng, and J. Tang, “Optically controllable side-polished fiber attenuator with photoresponsive liquid crystal overlay,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19988–19995 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Xu, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Fiber-optic evanescent field modulator using a magnetic fluid as the cladding,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093516 (2006). [CrossRef]

20.

X. Tian, X. Cheng, W. Wu, Y. Luo, Q. Zhang, B. Zhu, and G. Zou, “Reversible All-Optical Modulation Based on Evanescent Wave Absorption of a Single-Mode Fiber With Azo-Polymer Overlay,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1352–1354 (2010). [CrossRef]

21.

M. Cai and K. Vahala, “Highly efficient optical power transfer to whispering-gallery modes by use of a symmetrical dual-coupling configuration,” Opt. Lett. 25(4), 260–262 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

M. K. Chin and S. T. Ho, “Design and modeling of waveguide-coupled single-mode microring resonators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(8), 1433–1446 (1998). [CrossRef]

23.

G. Griffel, S. Arnold, D. Taskent, A. Serpengüzel, J. Connolly, and N. Morris, “Morphology-dependent resonances of a microsphere-optical fiber system,” Opt. Lett. 21(10), 695–697 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

A. B. Matsko and V. S. Ilchenko, “Optical resonators with whispering-gallery modes - Part I: Basics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 3–14 (2006). [CrossRef]

25.

A. Serpengüzel, S. Arnold, and G. Griffel, “Excitation of resonances of microspheres on an optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 20(7), 654–656 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

Y. W. Song, S. Yamashita, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, “Carbon nanotube mode lockers with enhanced nonlinearity via evanescent field interaction in D-shaped fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(2), 148–150 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

Y. J. Zhang, F. F. Zhong, W. B. He, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, J. Xu, and J. L. Ju, “A long uniform taper applied to an all-fiber Tm3+ doped double-clad fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 20(11), 1978–1980 (2010). [CrossRef]

28.

A. Diez, M. V. Andres, and D. O. Culverhouse, “In-line polarizers and filters made of metal-coated tapered fibers: Resonant excitation of hybrid plasma modes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(6), 833–835 (1998). [CrossRef]

29.

S. G. Lee, J. P. Sokoloff, B. P. McGinnis, and H. Sasabe, “Fabrication of a side-polished fiber polarizer with a biref ringent polymer overlay,” Opt. Lett. 22(9), 606–608 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

30.

M. Davanço and K. Srinivasan, “Efficient spectroscopy of single embedded emitters using optical fiber taper waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10542–10563 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

31.

M. T. Rakher, R. Bose, C. W. Wong, and K. Srinivasan, “Fiber-based cryogenic and time-resolved spectroscopy of PbS quantum dots,” Opt. Express 19(3), 1786–1793 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

32.

L. Su, T. H. Lee, and S. R. Elliott, “Evanescent-wave excitation of surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates by an optical-fiber taper,” Opt. Lett. 34(17), 2685–2687 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

33.

M. H. Cordaro, D. L. Rode, T. S. Barry, and R. R. Krchnavek, “Precision fabrication of D-shaped single-mode optical fibers by in situ monitoring,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(9), 1524–1531 (1994). [CrossRef]

34.

J. M. Kvavle, S. M. Schultz, and R. H. Selfridge, “Low loss elliptical core D-fiber to PANDA fiber fusion splicing,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13552–13559 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

35.

T. L. Lowder, B. R. Tebbs, R. H. Selfridge, S. M. Schultz, K. H. Smith, and T. D. Monte, “Polarization analysis of surface-relief D-fiber Bragg gratings,” Appl. Opt. 46(13), 2387–2393 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

36.

F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, S. Faucher, and D. C. Johnson, “Low-loss highly overcoupled fused couplers: Fabrication and sensitivity to external pressure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(10), 1476–1482 (1988). [CrossRef]

37.

Y. Takeuchi and J. Noda, “Novel fiber coupler tapering process using a microheater,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(5), 465–467 (1992). [CrossRef]

38.

D. Donlagic, “In-line higher order mode filters based on long highly uniform fiber tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(9), 3532–3539 (2006). [CrossRef]

39.

H. S. Haddock, P. M. Shankar, and R. Mutharasan, “Fabrication of biconical tapered optical fibers using hydrofluoric acid,” Mat. Sci. Eng. B-Solid 97(1), 87–93 (2003). [CrossRef]

40.

J. P. Laine, B. E. Little, and H. A. Haus, “Etch-eroded fiber coupler for whispering-gallery-mode excitation in high-Q silica microspheres,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(11), 1429–1430 (1999). [CrossRef]

41.

E. J. Zhang, W. D. Sacher, and J. K. S. Poon, “Hydrofluoric acid flow etching of low-loss subwavelength-diameter biconical fiber tapers,” Opt. Express 18(21), 22593–22598 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

42.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, and W. J. Stewart, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. I. Adiabaticity criteria,” IEEE Proc.-J 138(5), 343–354 (1991).

43.

L. M. Xiao, M. D. W. Grogan, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Williams, R. England, W. J. Wadsworth, and T. A. Birks, “Tapered fibers embedded in silica aerogel,” Opt. Lett. 34(18), 2724–2726 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

44.

G. Brambilla, F. Xu, P. Horak, Y. Jung, F. Koizumi, N. P. Sessions, E. Koukharenko, X. Feng, G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and D. J. Richardson, “Optical fiber nanowires and microwires: fabrication and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1(1), 107–161 (2009). [CrossRef]

45.

S. Pevec, E. Cibula, B. Lenardic, and D. Donlagic, “Micromachining of Optical Fibers Using Selective Etching Based on Phosphorus Pentoxide Doping,” IEEE Photon. J 3(4), 627–632 (2011). [CrossRef]

46.

D. Donlagic, “All-fiber micromachined microcell,” Opt. Lett. 36(16), 3148–3150 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(060.2310) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics
(060.2370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics sensors
(160.2290) Materials : Fiber materials
(230.0230) Optical devices : Optical devices
(230.4000) Optical devices : Microstructure fabrication
(230.2285) Optical devices : Fiber devices and optical amplifiers
(160.4236) Materials : Nanomaterials

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: October 1, 2012
Revised Manuscript: November 14, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: November 20, 2012
Published: November 29, 2012

Citation
Simon Pevec and Denis Donlagic, "Miniature micro-wire based optical fiber-field access device," Opt. Express 20, 27874-27887 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-25-27874


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. R. Bharadwaj, V. V. R. Sai, K. Thakare, A. Dhawangale, T. Kundu, S. Titus, P. K. Verma, and S. Mukherji, “Evanescent wave absorbance based fiber optic biosensor for label-free detection of E. coli at 280 nm wavelength,” Biosens. Bioelectron.26(7), 3367–3370 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. L. K. Chau, Y. F. Lin, S. F. Cheng, and T. J. Lin, “Fiber-optic chemical and biochemical probes based on localized surface plasmon resonance,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem.113(1), 100–105 (2006).
  3. J. M. Corres, F. J. Arregui, and I. R. Matias, “Design of humidity sensors based on tapered optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(11), 4329–4336 (2006). [CrossRef]
  4. J. D. Gordon, T. L. Lowder, R. H. Selfridge, and S. M. Schultz, “Optical D-fiber-based volatile organic compound sensor,” Appl. Opt.46(32), 7805–7810 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. S. Haddock, P. M. Shankar, and R. Mutharasan, “Evanescent sensing of biomolecules and cells,” Sensor. Actuat. Biol. Chem.88(1), 67–74 (2003).
  6. Z. M. Hale, F. P. Payne, R. S. Marks, C. R. Lowe, and M. M. Levine, “The single mode tapered optical fibre loop immunosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron.11(1–2), 137–148 (1996). [CrossRef]
  7. K. Q. Kieu and M. Mansuripur, “Biconical fiber taper sensors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(21), 2239–2241 (2006). [CrossRef]
  8. J. Kvavle, S. Schultz, and R. Selfridge, “Ink-jetting AJL8/APC for D-fiber electric field sensors,” Appl. Opt.48(28), 5280–5286 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. M. Lee, S. S. Saini, and M. Y. Jeong, “Simultaneous Measurement of Refractive Index, Temperature, and Strain Using Etched-Core Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(19), 1431–1433 (2010). [CrossRef]
  10. P. Polynkin, A. Polynkin, N. Peyghambarian, and M. Mansuripur, “Evanescent field-based optical fiber sensing device for measuring the refractive index of liquids in microfluidic channels,” Opt. Lett.30(11), 1273–1275 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. I. Zibaii, A. Kazemi, H. Latifi, M. K. Azar, S. M. Hosseini, and M. H. Ghezelaiagh, “Measuring bacterial growth by refractive index tapered fiber optic biosensor,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B101(3), 313–320 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. H. Choi, Y. Jeong, and K. Oh, “Wide, tunable band rejection filter based on micro-optical waveguide on microactuating platform covering O, E, S, C, L, and U bands,” Opt. Lett.36(4), 484–486 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. A. Millar, M. C. Brierley, and S. R. Mallinson, “Exposed-core single-mode-fiber channel-dropping filter using a high-index overlay waveguide,” Opt. Lett.12(4), 284–286 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. R. Sohn and J. W. Song, “Tunable in-line fiber optic comb filter using a side-polished single-mode fiber coupler with LiNbO3 overlay and intermediate coupling layer,” Opt. Commun.203(3–6), 271–276 (2002). [CrossRef]
  15. M. Wilkinson, A. Bebbington, S. A. Cassidy, and P. Mckee, “D-fibre filter for erbium gain spectrum flattening,” Electron. Lett.28(2), 131–132 (1992). [CrossRef]
  16. C. L. Lee, Z. Y. Weng, C. J. Lin, and Y. Y. Lin, “Leakage coupling of ultrasensitive periodical silica thin-film long-period grating coated on tapered fiber,” Opt. Lett.35(24), 4172–4174 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. K. H. Smith, B. L. Ipson, T. L. Lowder, A. R. Hawkins, R. H. Selfridge, and S. M. Schultz, “Surface-relief fiber Bragg gratings for sensing applications,” Appl. Opt.45(8), 1669–1675 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. V. K. S. Hsiao, Z. Li, Z. Chen, P. C. Peng, and J. Tang, “Optically controllable side-polished fiber attenuator with photoresponsive liquid crystal overlay,” Opt. Express17(22), 19988–19995 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Xu, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Fiber-optic evanescent field modulator using a magnetic fluid as the cladding,” J. Appl. Phys.99(9), 093516 (2006). [CrossRef]
  20. X. Tian, X. Cheng, W. Wu, Y. Luo, Q. Zhang, B. Zhu, and G. Zou, “Reversible All-Optical Modulation Based on Evanescent Wave Absorption of a Single-Mode Fiber With Azo-Polymer Overlay,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(18), 1352–1354 (2010). [CrossRef]
  21. M. Cai and K. Vahala, “Highly efficient optical power transfer to whispering-gallery modes by use of a symmetrical dual-coupling configuration,” Opt. Lett.25(4), 260–262 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. M. K. Chin and S. T. Ho, “Design and modeling of waveguide-coupled single-mode microring resonators,” J. Lightwave Technol.16(8), 1433–1446 (1998). [CrossRef]
  23. G. Griffel, S. Arnold, D. Taskent, A. Serpengüzel, J. Connolly, and N. Morris, “Morphology-dependent resonances of a microsphere-optical fiber system,” Opt. Lett.21(10), 695–697 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. A. B. Matsko and V. S. Ilchenko, “Optical resonators with whispering-gallery modes - Part I: Basics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 3–14 (2006). [CrossRef]
  25. A. Serpengüzel, S. Arnold, and G. Griffel, “Excitation of resonances of microspheres on an optical fiber,” Opt. Lett.20(7), 654–656 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. Y. W. Song, S. Yamashita, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, “Carbon nanotube mode lockers with enhanced nonlinearity via evanescent field interaction in D-shaped fibers,” Opt. Lett.32(2), 148–150 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. Y. J. Zhang, F. F. Zhong, W. B. He, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, J. Xu, and J. L. Ju, “A long uniform taper applied to an all-fiber Tm3+ doped double-clad fiber laser,” Laser Phys.20(11), 1978–1980 (2010). [CrossRef]
  28. A. Diez, M. V. Andres, and D. O. Culverhouse, “In-line polarizers and filters made of metal-coated tapered fibers: Resonant excitation of hybrid plasma modes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.10(6), 833–835 (1998). [CrossRef]
  29. S. G. Lee, J. P. Sokoloff, B. P. McGinnis, and H. Sasabe, “Fabrication of a side-polished fiber polarizer with a biref ringent polymer overlay,” Opt. Lett.22(9), 606–608 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. M. Davanço and K. Srinivasan, “Efficient spectroscopy of single embedded emitters using optical fiber taper waveguides,” Opt. Express17(13), 10542–10563 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. M. T. Rakher, R. Bose, C. W. Wong, and K. Srinivasan, “Fiber-based cryogenic and time-resolved spectroscopy of PbS quantum dots,” Opt. Express19(3), 1786–1793 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. L. Su, T. H. Lee, and S. R. Elliott, “Evanescent-wave excitation of surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates by an optical-fiber taper,” Opt. Lett.34(17), 2685–2687 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. M. H. Cordaro, D. L. Rode, T. S. Barry, and R. R. Krchnavek, “Precision fabrication of D-shaped single-mode optical fibers by in situ monitoring,” J. Lightwave Technol.12(9), 1524–1531 (1994). [CrossRef]
  34. J. M. Kvavle, S. M. Schultz, and R. H. Selfridge, “Low loss elliptical core D-fiber to PANDA fiber fusion splicing,” Opt. Express16(18), 13552–13559 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. T. L. Lowder, B. R. Tebbs, R. H. Selfridge, S. M. Schultz, K. H. Smith, and T. D. Monte, “Polarization analysis of surface-relief D-fiber Bragg gratings,” Appl. Opt.46(13), 2387–2393 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, S. Faucher, and D. C. Johnson, “Low-loss highly overcoupled fused couplers: Fabrication and sensitivity to external pressure,” J. Lightwave Technol.6(10), 1476–1482 (1988). [CrossRef]
  37. Y. Takeuchi and J. Noda, “Novel fiber coupler tapering process using a microheater,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.4(5), 465–467 (1992). [CrossRef]
  38. D. Donlagic, “In-line higher order mode filters based on long highly uniform fiber tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(9), 3532–3539 (2006). [CrossRef]
  39. H. S. Haddock, P. M. Shankar, and R. Mutharasan, “Fabrication of biconical tapered optical fibers using hydrofluoric acid,” Mat. Sci. Eng. B-Solid97(1), 87–93 (2003). [CrossRef]
  40. J. P. Laine, B. E. Little, and H. A. Haus, “Etch-eroded fiber coupler for whispering-gallery-mode excitation in high-Q silica microspheres,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(11), 1429–1430 (1999). [CrossRef]
  41. E. J. Zhang, W. D. Sacher, and J. K. S. Poon, “Hydrofluoric acid flow etching of low-loss subwavelength-diameter biconical fiber tapers,” Opt. Express18(21), 22593–22598 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, and W. J. Stewart, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. I. Adiabaticity criteria,” IEEE Proc.-J138(5), 343–354 (1991).
  43. L. M. Xiao, M. D. W. Grogan, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Williams, R. England, W. J. Wadsworth, and T. A. Birks, “Tapered fibers embedded in silica aerogel,” Opt. Lett.34(18), 2724–2726 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. G. Brambilla, F. Xu, P. Horak, Y. Jung, F. Koizumi, N. P. Sessions, E. Koukharenko, X. Feng, G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and D. J. Richardson, “Optical fiber nanowires and microwires: fabrication and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photon.1(1), 107–161 (2009). [CrossRef]
  45. S. Pevec, E. Cibula, B. Lenardic, and D. Donlagic, “Micromachining of Optical Fibers Using Selective Etching Based on Phosphorus Pentoxide Doping,” IEEE Photon. J3(4), 627–632 (2011). [CrossRef]
  46. D. Donlagic, “All-fiber micromachined microcell,” Opt. Lett.36(16), 3148–3150 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited