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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 26 — Dec. 10, 2012
  • pp: B315–B321
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1.3 μm InAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers on Si rib structures with current injection across direct-bonded GaAs/Si heterointerfaces

Katsuaki Tanabe, Katsuyuki Watanabe, and Yasuhiko Arakawa  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 26, pp. B315-B321 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.00B315


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Abstract

An InAs/GaAs quantum dot laser on a Si rib structure has been demonstrated. The double heterostructure laser structure grown on a GaAs substrate is layer-transferred onto a patterned Si substrate by GaAs/Si direct wafer bonding without oxide or metal mediation. This Fabry-Perot laser operates with current injection through the GaAs/Si rib interface and exhibits InAs quantum dot ground state lasing at 1.28 μm at room temperature, with a threshold current density of 480 A cm−2.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

III-V semiconductor compound light sources integrated onto Si chips or waveguides are promising candidates for the realization of photonic integrated circuits that utilize well-established complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) fabrication technologies [1

1. D. A. B. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electric chips,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 728–749 (2000). [CrossRef]

,2

2. Y. Urino, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, N. Hatori, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, S. Akiyama, T. Usuki, D. Okamoto, M. Miura, M. Noguchi, J. Fujikata, D. Shimura, H. Okayama, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, E. Saito, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “First demonstration of high density optical interconnects integrated with lasers, optical modulators, and photodetectors on single silicon substrate,” Opt. Express 19(26), B159–B165 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Such III-V/Si hybrid devices would compensate for the poor ability of silicon to act as a light source, owing to its low radiative recombination rate, which stems from indirect energy bandgaps. In particular, III-V quantum dot (QD) lasers yield low lasing threshold currents and high temperature stability [3

3. Y. Arakawa and H. Sakaki, “Multidimensional quantum well laser and temperature dependence of its threshold current,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(11), 939–941 (1982). [CrossRef]

], which can minimize and address the problem of thermal accumulation, which therefore makes them suitable for high-density integration.

For III-V/Si hybrid integration, the direct epitaxial growth of III-V compounds on Si substrates would be the most desirable approach [4

4. Z. Mi, J. Yang, P. Bhattacharya, and D. L. Huffaker, “Self-organised quantum dots as dislocation filters: the case of GaAs-based lasers on silicon,” Electron. Lett. 42(2), 121–122 (2006). [CrossRef]

,5

5. T. Wang, H. Liu, A. Lee, F. Pozzi, and A. Seeds, “1.3-μm InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers monolithically grown on Si substrates,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11381–11386 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]; however, heteroepitaxy typically introduces a substantial crystalline defect density owing to the large lattice mismatch and the polar-nonpolar nature of the III-V/IV semiconductor system, which can adversely affect the devices' performance [6

6. H. Kroemer, T.-Y. Liu, and P. M. Petroff, “GaAs on Si and related systems: Problems and prospects,” J. Cryst. Growth 95(1-4), 96–102 (1989). [CrossRef]

,7

7. M. Sugo, Y. Takanashi, M. M. Al-Jassim, and M. Yamaguchi, “Heteroepitaxial growth and characterization of InP on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 68(2), 540–547 (1990). [CrossRef]

]. Wafer bonding, on the other hand, is not subject to the lattice matching limitations associated with epitaxial growth, and heterostructure devices fabricated via wafer bonding can, in principle, offer a level of performance close to those obtained by homoepitaxy by confining the defect network that is needed for lattice mismatch accommodation to the bonded interfaces [8

8. Q.-Y. Tong and U. Gosele, Semiconductor wafer bonding: Science and technology (Wiley, New Jersey, 1998).

,9

9. K. Tanabe, K. Watanabe, and Y. Arakawa, “III-V/Si hybrid photonic devices by direct fusion bonding,” Nat. Sci. Rep. 2, 349 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In particular, semiconductor-semiconductor direct bonding without an oxide or metal bonding agent offers advantages in terms of both optical transparency and electrical conductivity. For evanescent III-V/Si hybrid laser structures [10

10. A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9203–9210 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,11

11. J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6744–6749 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], vertical current injection across direct-bonded III-V/Si heterointerfaces through the Si waveguide ribs prevents the carriers from spreading toward the laser stripe edges, as seen in lateral current injection, as well as makes the fabrication process much simpler [12

12. S. Palit, J. Kirch, G. Tsvid, L. Mawst, T. Kuech, and N. M. Jokerst, “Low-threshold thin-film III-V lasers bonded to silicon with front and back side defined features,” Opt. Lett. 34(18), 2802–2804 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,13

13. K. Tanabe, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Novel III-V/Si hybrid laser structures with current injection across conductive wafer-bonded heterointerfaces: A proposal and analysis,” IEICE Electron. Express 8(8), 596–603 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. In the present work, we have fabricated Fabry-Perot InAs/GaAs QD lasers on Si rib structures in order to produce lateral current confinement as well as to mimic Si waveguides, by means of direct GaAs/Si wafer bonding with no mediating agent. Our device exhibits room-temperature lasing at the 1.3-μm optical communication O-band, with a threshold current density of 480 A cm−2. This demonstration is a significant step towards the realization of direct-bonded evanescent III-V QD/Si hybrid lasers.

2. Experimental

Figure 1
Fig. 1 Schematic flow diagram of the fabrication process for the InAs/GaAs QD lasers on Si rib structures.
shows a schematic flow diagram of our fabrication process for InAs/GaAs QD lasers on Si rib structures. A double heterostructure InAs/GaAs QD laser structure was grown on a GaAs substrate and layer-transferred onto a Si rib structure patterned on a Si substrate by means of GaAs/Si rib direct bonding and subsequent removal of the GaAs substrate.

2.1 Epitaxial growth of InAs/GaAs QD laser structures on GaAs substrates

The InAs/GaAs QD laser structure was grown on a GaAs (100) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy [14

14. T. Kageyama, K. Nishi, M. Yamaguchi, R. Machida, Y. Maeda, K. Takemasa, Y. Tanaka, T. Yamamoto, M. Sugawara, and Y. Arakawa, “Extremely high temperature (220 °C) continuous-wave operation of 1300-nm-range quantum-dot lasers,” in CLEO/Europe and EQEC 2011 Conference Digest (Optical Society of America), paper PDA_1 (2011).

]. The laser structure consisted of a GaAs layer embedded with eight layers of self-assembled InAs QDs with a per-layer density of 6 × 1010 cm−2. The GaAs layer was clad with p- and n-type Al0.4Ga0.6As layers. An Al0.7Ga0.3As etch-stop layer with a thickness of 1 μm was grown between the GaAs substrate and the lower Al0.4Ga0.6As clad. Figure 2
Fig. 2 Atomic force microscope image of the as-grown InAs QDs.
shows an atomic force microscope image of the as-grown InAs QDs, which are seen to be uniformly sized, coalescence-free, high-density QDs. Figure 3
Fig. 3 Room-temperature photoluminescence spectrum of the as-grown InAs/GaAs QD laser structure.
shows a room-temperature photoluminescence spectrum of the as-grown laser structure, which exhibits a peak associated with the ground state emission of the InAs QDs at 1.25 μm, with a full width at half maximum of 28 meV.

2.2 Layer transfer and device fabrication

First, the laser wafer and an epi-ready p-type Si (100) wafer doped with boron with a doping concentration of 3 × 1019 cm−3 were coated with a photoresist in order to protect the bonding surface from particles generated in the dicing process. The laser and Si wafers were then diced into ~1 cm2-area dies.

Next, Si rib stripes were formed on the Si wafer by photolithography and wet chemical etching, as follows. First, the photoresist on the Si die surface was removed with acetone at room temperature. A 100-nm-thick SiO2 layer was then deposited by magnetron sputtering as an etch mask onto the Si die. Next, the SiO2 layer was photolithographically patterned into a ~3-μm-wide, 500-μm-pitched stripe by using an etch with a buffered HF solution at room temperature. Si ribs were then formed by etching the parts that were not covered by the masking SiO2 layer to a depth of around 400 nm with KOH aq. (30 wt%) for 2 min at 80 °C.

Immediately before bonding, the photoresist on the laser die was removed with acetone at room temperature. The native oxide on the laser die and the masking SiO2 layer on the Si rib die were then removed by dipping both the dies in HF aq. (20 vol%) for 30 s at room temperature. The two die pieces were then brought into contact with each other with their (011) edges aligned—an arrangement that facilitates cleavage during laser fabrication—and were then annealed at 300 °C in ambient air for 3 h under a uniaxial pressure of 0.1 MPa.

After bonding, the GaAs substrate was removed at room temperature by selective chemical etching with H3PO4-H2O2 (3:7 vol.), followed by 50% citric acid-H2O2 (4:1 vol.); the edges of the laser die were coated with a photoresist to prevent undercutting of the QD laser structure. The compositions of the H3PO4-H2O2 and citric acid-H2O2 solutions were chosen so as to maximize the etching rate of GaAs and the etching selectivity between GaAs and AlGaAs, respectively [15

15. K. Tanabe, M. Nomura, D. Guimard, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Room temperature continuous wave operation of InAs/GaAs quantum dot photonic crystal nanocavity laser on silicon substrate,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7036–7042 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The Al0.7Ga0.3As etch-stop layer was then removed with HCl aq. (conc.) at room temperature. Figure 4
Fig. 4 Scanning electron microscope image of a laser structure grown on a GaAs substrate direct-bonded to a Si rib.
shows a cross-sectional scanning microscope image of a laser structure bonded to a Si rib.

Following the wafer bonding and layer transfer, broad-area Fabry-Perot lasers with cleaved facets and a cavity length of 2.2 mm were formed by applying Au/AuGeNi electrodes by means of electron-beam evaporation to the top (100-μm-wide stripes) and bottom of the structure. A high-reflection coating was not applied to the cleaved edges.

3. Results and discussion

We have fabricated hundreds of lasers in a single wafer-bonding step, thus demonstrating the advantages this approach offers for high volume, low cost integration, as compared to the conventional pick-and-place scheme [16

16. E. E. L. Friedrich, M. G. Oberg, B. Broberg, S. Nilsson, and S. Valette, “Hybrid integration of semiconductor lasers with Si-based single-mode ridge waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(3), 336–340 (1992). [CrossRef]

,17

17. K. Kato and Y. Tohmori, “PLC hybrid integration technology and its application to photonic components,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 4–13 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. Our laser fabrication yield however is not very high at this point presumably due mainly to the mechanical instability of the III-V thin films bonded onto the Si ribs with very small contacting fraction (n.b., ~3-μm-wide, 500-μm-pitched rib stripes), which can be improved for example by installing supporting bumps parallel to the Si ribs. Evanescent optical coupling to underlying waveguides in order to fabricate so-called hybrid Si lasers [10

10. A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9203–9210 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,11

11. J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6744–6749 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,13

13. K. Tanabe, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Novel III-V/Si hybrid laser structures with current injection across conductive wafer-bonded heterointerfaces: A proposal and analysis,” IEICE Electron. Express 8(8), 596–603 (2011). [CrossRef]

] can be realized simply by replacing the Si substrate with a commercially available SOI (silicon-on-insulator) substrate, because we have already established the feasibility of waveguide rib fabrication and bonding with the ribs. In contrast to the oxide-mediated bonding that has been used for hybrid laser fabrication until now [10

10. A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9203–9210 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,11

11. J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6744–6749 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], conductive wafer-bonded heterointerfaces enable vertical carrier injection that prevents current from spreading towards the cavity stripe edges. Therefore, direct-bonded hybrid lasers offer the advantages of higher quantum efficiencies and simpler fabrication, without mesa etching or ion implantation for carrier confinement that was required in the fabrication of earlier lateral-current-injection III-V/Si hybrid lasers [13

13. K. Tanabe, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Novel III-V/Si hybrid laser structures with current injection across conductive wafer-bonded heterointerfaces: A proposal and analysis,” IEICE Electron. Express 8(8), 596–603 (2011). [CrossRef]

].

4. Conclusions

In summary, we have demonstrated InAs/GaAs QD lasers on Si rib structures by using a GaAs/Si direct bonding technique. Our device realized electrical carrier injection across the bonded III-V laser/Si rib heterointerface. The device exhibited room-temperature lasing at 1.3 μm, which is the optical communication O-band. This work is a significant step toward the realization of direct-bonded III-V QD/Si evanescent hybrid lasers.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Kenichi Nishi and Mitsuru Sugawara of QD Laser, Inc. for carrying out the laser structure growth and Masatoshi Kitamura of Kobe University for his advice on the Si rib fabrication. This work was supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) through the “Funding Program for World-Leading Innovative R&D on Science and Technology (FIRST Program),” the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Japan, through the Project for Developing Innovation Systems, and Intel Corporation.

References and links

1.

D. A. B. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electric chips,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 728–749 (2000). [CrossRef]

2.

Y. Urino, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, N. Hatori, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, S. Akiyama, T. Usuki, D. Okamoto, M. Miura, M. Noguchi, J. Fujikata, D. Shimura, H. Okayama, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, E. Saito, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “First demonstration of high density optical interconnects integrated with lasers, optical modulators, and photodetectors on single silicon substrate,” Opt. Express 19(26), B159–B165 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

Y. Arakawa and H. Sakaki, “Multidimensional quantum well laser and temperature dependence of its threshold current,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(11), 939–941 (1982). [CrossRef]

4.

Z. Mi, J. Yang, P. Bhattacharya, and D. L. Huffaker, “Self-organised quantum dots as dislocation filters: the case of GaAs-based lasers on silicon,” Electron. Lett. 42(2), 121–122 (2006). [CrossRef]

5.

T. Wang, H. Liu, A. Lee, F. Pozzi, and A. Seeds, “1.3-μm InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers monolithically grown on Si substrates,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11381–11386 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

H. Kroemer, T.-Y. Liu, and P. M. Petroff, “GaAs on Si and related systems: Problems and prospects,” J. Cryst. Growth 95(1-4), 96–102 (1989). [CrossRef]

7.

M. Sugo, Y. Takanashi, M. M. Al-Jassim, and M. Yamaguchi, “Heteroepitaxial growth and characterization of InP on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 68(2), 540–547 (1990). [CrossRef]

8.

Q.-Y. Tong and U. Gosele, Semiconductor wafer bonding: Science and technology (Wiley, New Jersey, 1998).

9.

K. Tanabe, K. Watanabe, and Y. Arakawa, “III-V/Si hybrid photonic devices by direct fusion bonding,” Nat. Sci. Rep. 2, 349 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9203–9210 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6744–6749 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

S. Palit, J. Kirch, G. Tsvid, L. Mawst, T. Kuech, and N. M. Jokerst, “Low-threshold thin-film III-V lasers bonded to silicon with front and back side defined features,” Opt. Lett. 34(18), 2802–2804 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

K. Tanabe, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Novel III-V/Si hybrid laser structures with current injection across conductive wafer-bonded heterointerfaces: A proposal and analysis,” IEICE Electron. Express 8(8), 596–603 (2011). [CrossRef]

14.

T. Kageyama, K. Nishi, M. Yamaguchi, R. Machida, Y. Maeda, K. Takemasa, Y. Tanaka, T. Yamamoto, M. Sugawara, and Y. Arakawa, “Extremely high temperature (220 °C) continuous-wave operation of 1300-nm-range quantum-dot lasers,” in CLEO/Europe and EQEC 2011 Conference Digest (Optical Society of America), paper PDA_1 (2011).

15.

K. Tanabe, M. Nomura, D. Guimard, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Room temperature continuous wave operation of InAs/GaAs quantum dot photonic crystal nanocavity laser on silicon substrate,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7036–7042 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

E. E. L. Friedrich, M. G. Oberg, B. Broberg, S. Nilsson, and S. Valette, “Hybrid integration of semiconductor lasers with Si-based single-mode ridge waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(3), 336–340 (1992). [CrossRef]

17.

K. Kato and Y. Tohmori, “PLC hybrid integration technology and its application to photonic components,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 4–13 (2000). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(040.6040) Detectors : Silicon
(230.5590) Optical devices : Quantum-well, -wire and -dot devices
(250.5300) Optoelectronics : Photonic integrated circuits
(250.5960) Optoelectronics : Semiconductor lasers

ToC Category:
Waveguide and Optoelectronic Devices

History
Original Manuscript: October 1, 2012
Revised Manuscript: October 30, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: October 30, 2012
Published: November 29, 2012

Virtual Issues
European Conference on Optical Communication 2012 (2012) Optics Express

Citation
Katsuaki Tanabe, Katsuyuki Watanabe, and Yasuhiko Arakawa, "1.3 μm InAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers on Si rib structures with current injection across direct-bonded GaAs/Si heterointerfaces," Opt. Express 20, B315-B321 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-26-B315


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References

  1. D. A. B. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electric chips,” Proc. IEEE88(6), 728–749 (2000). [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Urino, T. Shimizu, M. Okano, N. Hatori, M. Ishizaka, T. Yamamoto, T. Baba, T. Akagawa, S. Akiyama, T. Usuki, D. Okamoto, M. Miura, M. Noguchi, J. Fujikata, D. Shimura, H. Okayama, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, E. Saito, T. Nakamura, and Y. Arakawa, “First demonstration of high density optical interconnects integrated with lasers, optical modulators, and photodetectors on single silicon substrate,” Opt. Express19(26), B159–B165 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. Arakawa and H. Sakaki, “Multidimensional quantum well laser and temperature dependence of its threshold current,” Appl. Phys. Lett.40(11), 939–941 (1982). [CrossRef]
  4. Z. Mi, J. Yang, P. Bhattacharya, and D. L. Huffaker, “Self-organised quantum dots as dislocation filters: the case of GaAs-based lasers on silicon,” Electron. Lett.42(2), 121–122 (2006). [CrossRef]
  5. T. Wang, H. Liu, A. Lee, F. Pozzi, and A. Seeds, “1.3-μm InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers monolithically grown on Si substrates,” Opt. Express19(12), 11381–11386 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. Kroemer, T.-Y. Liu, and P. M. Petroff, “GaAs on Si and related systems: Problems and prospects,” J. Cryst. Growth95(1-4), 96–102 (1989). [CrossRef]
  7. M. Sugo, Y. Takanashi, M. M. Al-Jassim, and M. Yamaguchi, “Heteroepitaxial growth and characterization of InP on Si substrates,” J. Appl. Phys.68(2), 540–547 (1990). [CrossRef]
  8. Q.-Y. Tong and U. Gosele, Semiconductor wafer bonding: Science and technology (Wiley, New Jersey, 1998).
  9. K. Tanabe, K. Watanabe, and Y. Arakawa, “III-V/Si hybrid photonic devices by direct fusion bonding,” Nat. Sci. Rep.2, 349 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express14(20), 9203–9210 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express15(11), 6744–6749 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. Palit, J. Kirch, G. Tsvid, L. Mawst, T. Kuech, and N. M. Jokerst, “Low-threshold thin-film III-V lasers bonded to silicon with front and back side defined features,” Opt. Lett.34(18), 2802–2804 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. K. Tanabe, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Novel III-V/Si hybrid laser structures with current injection across conductive wafer-bonded heterointerfaces: A proposal and analysis,” IEICE Electron. Express8(8), 596–603 (2011). [CrossRef]
  14. T. Kageyama, K. Nishi, M. Yamaguchi, R. Machida, Y. Maeda, K. Takemasa, Y. Tanaka, T. Yamamoto, M. Sugawara, and Y. Arakawa, “Extremely high temperature (220 °C) continuous-wave operation of 1300-nm-range quantum-dot lasers,” in CLEO/Europe and EQEC 2011 Conference Digest (Optical Society of America), paper PDA_1 (2011).
  15. K. Tanabe, M. Nomura, D. Guimard, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Room temperature continuous wave operation of InAs/GaAs quantum dot photonic crystal nanocavity laser on silicon substrate,” Opt. Express17(9), 7036–7042 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. E. E. L. Friedrich, M. G. Oberg, B. Broberg, S. Nilsson, and S. Valette, “Hybrid integration of semiconductor lasers with Si-based single-mode ridge waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.10(3), 336–340 (1992). [CrossRef]
  17. K. Kato and Y. Tohmori, “PLC hybrid integration technology and its application to photonic components,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(1), 4–13 (2000). [CrossRef]

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