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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 26 — Dec. 10, 2012
  • pp: B357–B364
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Low-driving-current InGaAsP photonic-wire optical switches using III-V CMOS photonics platform

Yuki Ikku, Masafumi Yokoyama, Osamu Ichikawa, Masahiko Hata, Mitsuru Takenaka, and Shinichi Takagi  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 26, pp. B357-B364 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.00B357


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Abstract

Electrically-driven Mach-Zehnder interferometer type InGaAsP photonic-wire optical switches have been demonstrated using a III-V-on-insulator structure bonded on a thermally oxidized Si with an Al2O3/InP bonding interfacial layer which enables strong wafer bonding and low propagation loss. Lateral p-i-n junctions in the InGaAsP photonic-wire waveguides were formed by using ion implantation for changing refractive index in the InGaAsP waveguide through carrier injection. Optical switching with 10 dB extinction ratio was achieved with driving current of 200 µA which is approximately 10 times smaller than that of Si photonic-wire optical switch owing to larger free-carrier effect in InGaAsP than that in Si.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

A low-power-consumption optical switch on Si photonics platform is expected to be one of fundamental building blocks for routing optical packets in future photonic network because of its scalability and manufacturability through the complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible process. In particular, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) type Si photonic-wire switch or modulator using lateral p-i-n diodes has been widely developed [1

1. W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17106–17113 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4

4. G. V. Treyz, P. G. May, and J.-M. Halbout, “Silicon Mach–Zehnder waveguide interferometers based on the plasma dispersion effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(7), 771–773 (1991). [CrossRef]

] because of its wide bandwidth operation and high fabrication tolerance. Although optical switching based on carrier plasma effect [5

5. R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987). [CrossRef]

] was achieved with injection current of a few mA on Si photonics platform, further reduction in drive current will be required for large scale integration. As is well known, direct band gap semiconductors such as InGaAsP have larger carrier-induced refractive index change than Si [6

6. B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. Del Alamo, “Carrier-induced change in refractive index of InP, GaAs, and InGaAsP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(1), 113–122 (1990). [CrossRef]

], enabling more efficient optical switching. However, as compared with a Si photonic-wire waveguide [7

7. Y. Vlasov and S. McNab, “Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1622–1631 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9

9. P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004). [CrossRef]

], a conventional InP-based deeply-etched waveguide [10

10. Y. Barbarin, X. J. M. Leijtens, E. A. J. M. Bente, C. M. Louzao, J. R. Kooiman, and M. K. Smit, “Extremely small AWG demultiplexer fabricated on InP by using a double-etch process,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2478–2480 (2004). [CrossRef]

,11

11. C. van Dam, L. H. Spiekman, F. P. G. M. van Ham, F. H. Groen, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, I. Moerman, W. W. Pascher, M. Hamacher, H. Heidrich, C. M. Weinert, and M. K. Smit, “Novel compact polarization converters based on ultra short bends,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(10), 1346–1348 (1996). [CrossRef]

] is not suitable for large scale integration because its weak optical confinement in the vertical direction prevents a bending radius of the waveguide from being scaled down to be less than a few μm [7

7. Y. Vlasov and S. McNab, “Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1622–1631 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The high aspect ratio in the deeply-etched waveguide is also not compatible to fine lithography in the standard CMOS process. To overcome these problems, we have investigated III-V CMOS photonics platform [12

12. M. Takenaka, M. Yokoyama, M. Sugiyama, Y. Nakano, and S. Takagi, “Ultrasmall arrayed waveguide grating multiplexer using InP-based photonic wire waveguide on Si wafer for III-V CMOS photonics,” in proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OThS5, San Diego, USA (2010).

], which enables monolithic integration with high-performance III-V semiconductor based CMOS transistors and InP-based photonic-wire waveguide devices [13

13. M. Takenaka and Y. Nakano, “InP photonic wire waveguide using InAlAs oxide cladding layer,” Opt. Express 15(13), 8422–8427 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] on a III-V on insulator (III-V-OI) structure bonded on a thermally oxidized Si wafer as shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Concept of III-V CMOS photonics platform.
.

The strong optical confinement of the III-V-OI wafer enables drastic reduction of the sizes of III-V photonic devices as like Si photonic-wire devices. A Si-based waveguide itself does not allow active functionalities, while InP-based photonic-wire enables active/passive integration. In addition, InGaAs MOSFETs exhibiting superior performance than Si MOSFETs have been successfully demonstrated owing to its high electron mobility [14

14. Y. Xuan, Y. Q. Wu, and P. D. Ye, “High-performance inversion-type enhancement-mode InGaAs MOSFET with maximum drain current exceeding 1 A/mm,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(4), 294–296 (2008). [CrossRef]

17

17. M. Yokoyama, R. Iida, S. H. Kim, N. Taoka, Y. Urabe, H. Takagi, T. Yasuda, H. Yamada, N. Fukuhara, M. Hata, M. Sugiyama, Y. Nakano, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Sub-10-nm extremely thin body InGaAs-on-insulator MOSFETs on Si wafers with ultrathin Al2O3 buried oxide layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(9), 1218–1220 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. The International semiconductor roadmap 2012 expects that Si MOSFETs will be replaced by InGaAs MOSFETs in the future technology nodes for logic large-scaled integrated circuits (LSIs) [18

18. International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS), http://www.itrs.net.

]. The III-V-OI bonded on a thermally oxidized Si wafer also enables us to use the standard CMOS process owing to its high thermal stability, as compared with benzocyclobutene (BCB) based bonded wafers. Thus, III-V CMOS photonics is a promising platform of electronic-photonic integrated circuits (EPICs) outperforming Si photonics with respect to not only photonics but also electronics. Using this platform, a sharp bend waveguide with 5-µm bend radius and an ultra-small arrayed waveguide grating multiplexer have been demonstrated [19

19. M. Takenaka, M. Yokoyama, M. Sugiyama, Y. Nakano, and S. Takagi, “InGaAsP photonic wire based ultrasmall arrayed waveguide grating multiplexer on Si wafer,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(12), 122201 (2009). [CrossRef]

].

In this paper, we have demonstrated electrically-driven Mach-Zehnder interferometer type InGaAsP photonic-wire optical switches fabricated on III-V CMOS photonics platform using the CMOS compatible process. Owing to large refractive index change by current injection through a lateral p-i-n structure formed by ion implantation, optical switching with 10 dB extinction ratio was obtained with driving current of 200 μA, which is approximately 10 times smaller than that of Si photonic-wire optical switches.

2. Carrier-induced index change in InGaAsP

Carrier-induced effects that contribute to refractive index change in InGaAsP are bandfilling effect, bandgap shrinkage and free carrier plasma effect [6

6. B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. Del Alamo, “Carrier-induced change in refractive index of InP, GaAs, and InGaAsP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(1), 113–122 (1990). [CrossRef]

]. In Si, on the other hand, only free carrier plasma effect contributes to refractive index change since Si is an indirect band gap semiconductor. Therefore, InGaAsP photonic-wire optical switches can be driven by lower current compared to Si. To calculate the amount of refractive index change in InGaAsP, we used the theoretical model depicted in Ref. 6

6. B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. Del Alamo, “Carrier-induced change in refractive index of InP, GaAs, and InGaAsP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(1), 113–122 (1990). [CrossRef]

and Ref. 20

20. J. P. Weber, “Optimization of the carrier-induced effective index change in InGaAsP waveguides-application to tunable Bragg filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(8), 1801–1816 (1994). [CrossRef]

, which can take into account bandfilling, bandgap shrinkage, and plasma effect.

{me=0.070.0308ymhh=0.60.218y+0.07y2mlh=0.120.078+0.002y2.
(2)

C(y)=(1.0041.318y+0.517y2)×105[cm1eV1/2].
(4)

Bandgap shrinkage caused by free carriers can be calculated by [20

20. J. P. Weber, “Optimization of the carrier-induced effective index change in InGaAsP waveguides-application to tunable Bragg filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(8), 1801–1816 (1994). [CrossRef]

]
ΔEg(N)=0.13εs(NNcr1)1/3.
(5)
where εs is the static dielectric constant and Ncr is the carrier density below which shrinkage doesn’t occur. Ncr is given by [6

6. B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. Del Alamo, “Carrier-induced change in refractive index of InP, GaAs, and InGaAsP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(1), 113–122 (1990). [CrossRef]

]
Ncr=1.6×1024(me1.4εs)3.
(6)
By replacing Eg(y) in (3) withEg(y)+ΔEg(N), we can obtain absorption change that takes into account both bandfilling and bandgap shrinkage. Then, the refractive index change due to band filling effect and bandgap shrinkage is obtained from absorption change through Kramers-Kronig relation.

Finally, we have calculated index change in InGaAsP that considers all these three effects. Figure 2(b) shows the index change at 1.55-μm wavelength as a function of carrier concentration. At carrier concentration of 1 × 1017 cm−3, index change in InGaAsP (λg = 1.25 μm) is predicted to be approximately four times larger than that in Si. Hence, we can expect that driving current of InGaAsP photonic-wire switches is much lower than that of Si optical switches.

3. Propagation loss in InGaAsP photonic-wire waveguides

We have evaluated propagation loss in InGaAsP photonic-wire waveguides. Previously we have used O2 plasma assisted direct wafer bonding to fabricate the III-V-OI wafer. However, O2 plasma irradiation of the InGaAsP surface caused the InGaAsP oxide formation, which might result in increase in propagation loss of InGaAsP photonic-wire waveguides. In addition, the surface energy of the bonded interface with the O2 plasma activated bonding was still not enough for CMOS processes. To solve these problems, we have examined an atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 bonding interfacial layer for direct wafer bonding of an InGaAsP/InP wafer and a Si wafer. Figure 3
Fig. 3 Wafer bonding process using ALD Al2O3 bonding interfacial layer.
shows the bonding process.

Firstly, 5.5-nm-thick Al2O3 layer was deposited on a 2-inch InGaAsP (λg = 1.25μm)/InP wafer and a SiO2/Si wafer by ALD at 200 °C. The 2.5-μm-thick SiO2 buried oxide on Si was formed by wet oxide of the Si wafer. After surface cleaning, the ALD Al2O3 deposited wafers were bonded manually and annealed at 330 °C for 15 min. Thus, the wafers were bonded without any plasma irradiation. Figure 4(a)
Fig. 4 (a) IR image of the bonded wafer and (b) surface energy of the bonded interfaces.
is an infrared (IR) image of the bonded wafer. We can find that most part of the wafer was successfully bonded. Figure 4(b) shows the surface energy of the bonded interfaces with ALD Al2O3 interlayer and O2 plasma irradiation. The surface energy was evaluated by the crack opening method [23

23. W. P. Maszara, G. Goetz, A. Caviglia, and J. B. McKitterick, “Bonding of silicon wafers for silicon-on-insulator,” J. Appl. Phys. 64(10), 4943–4950 (1988). [CrossRef]

].

The surface energy of the ALD Al2O3 interlayer bonding with no plasma irradiation was approximately twice of that of the O2 plasma activated interface. Then, the InP substrate was selectively etched by HCl. Figure 5(a)
Fig. 5 Cross sectional TEM image of the III-V-OI wafer (a) without 25-nm-thick InP layer and (b) with InP layer.
shows the cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of the bonded wafer. No interfacial oxide layer was observed at the bonded interface as shown in Fig. 5(a) because of the plasma-less wafer bonding process.

To improve the bonding interface further, we have introduced 25-nm-thick InP layers on the top and bottom of the InGaAsP layer. Figure 5(b) shows the bonded interface which has the 25-nm-thick InP layer between the InGaAsP and Al2O3 layers. The root-mean-square (RMS) roughness at the bonded interface extracted from the TEM image was improved from 0.38 nm to 0.16 nm by the InP layer, which is probably attributable to chemical stability of InP against chemical reaction during the ALD process because InP contains single Group-V atom as compared with InGaAsP. The InP interlayer is also expected to reduce optical scattering at the bottom and top of the waveguide owing to the graded index change structure.

To confirm the effect of these improvements in wafer bonding, we have fabricated waveguides and measured propagation loss. A fabrication process after bonding is as follows. After patterning by photolithography, the waveguide mesa was formed by reactive ion etching (RIE) with CH4/H2 and O2 gases. The waveguide width was 2 μm. Then, 500-nm-thick SiO2 passivation layer were deposited. We have also introduced Al2O3 passivation layer to suppress the optical scattering from the sidewall by the graded index change structure [24

24. T. Alasaarela, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, A. Säynätjoki, A. Tervonen, R. Palmer, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and S. Honkanen, “Reduced propagation loss in silicon strip and slot waveguides coated by atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11529–11538 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The fabricated devices were measured with a continuous-wave (CW) laser source at 1.55-μm wavelength. The CW light was input into the waveguides by a lensed fiber. The output power was monitored by an infrared (IR) camera and an InGaAs power meter. Figure 6
Fig. 6 (a) Structures of waveguides and (b) propagation loss of each waveguide.
shows the structure of the fabricated waveguides and their propagation losses evaluated by the cut-back method.

The propagation loss in the waveguide with the ALD Al2O3 bonding interlayer (1) was 1.7dB/mm, which was approximately two times smaller than that of the photonic wire waveguide on the III-V-OI wafer with O2 plasma treatment reported in Ref. 19

19. M. Takenaka, M. Yokoyama, M. Sugiyama, Y. Nakano, and S. Takagi, “InGaAsP photonic wire based ultrasmall arrayed waveguide grating multiplexer on Si wafer,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(12), 122201 (2009). [CrossRef]

. The propagation loss was reduced further from 1.7 dB/mm to 0.8 dB/mm by inserting the 25-nm-thick InP layer owing to the smooth interface between InP and Al2O3. Finally we achieved 0.4-dB/mm propagation loss by passivating the waveguide sidewalls with the 11-nm-thick Al2O3 layer before SiO2 passivation.

4. InGaAsP photonic-wire optical switch

We have fabricated InGaAsP photonic-wire optical switch on the III-V-OI wafer using the standard CMOS process. The 25-nm-InP layer on the top and bottom of the InGaAsP layer and Al2O3 passivation were introduced to minimize the propagation loss. Figure 7
Fig. 7 Fabrication process of optical switches.
shows the fabrication process of optical switches after waveguide formation.

Ion implantation of Si and Be was used to form lateral p-i-n structures at the MZI arms. Si ions were implanted at an acceleration energy of 15 keV and a dose of 2 × 1014 cm−2 for n + region and Be ions were implanted at an acceleration energy of 10 keV and a dose of 1 × 1015 cm−2 for p + region. To activate the implanted region, rapid thermal annealing (RTA) was performed at 600 °C for 10 s. In general, high temperature process is not acceptable for bonded wafers because outgassing from bonded interfaces generates voids [25

25. D. Liang, A. W. Fang, D. C. Oakley, A. Napoleone, D. C. Chapman, C.-L. Chen, P. W. Juodawlkis, O. Raday, and J. E. Bowers, “150 mm InP-to-silicon direct wafer bonding for silicon photonic integrated circuits,” in Proceedings of 214th Electrochemical Society Meeting, paper 2220, Honolulu, USA (2008).

]. However, no void generation was observed in our samples even at 600 °C probably because the thick SiO2 box layer absorbed gas generated at the bonded interface [25

25. D. Liang, A. W. Fang, D. C. Oakley, A. Napoleone, D. C. Chapman, C.-L. Chen, P. W. Juodawlkis, O. Raday, and J. E. Bowers, “150 mm InP-to-silicon direct wafer bonding for silicon photonic integrated circuits,” in Proceedings of 214th Electrochemical Society Meeting, paper 2220, Honolulu, USA (2008).

]. Then, 300-nm-thick SiO2 passivation layer was deposited. After opening contact holes for the n + and p + regions by BHF, Pt electrodes were formed by sputtering and lift-off process.

At first, we have evaluated the characteristics of 3-dB MMI couplers which are indispensable for constructing an MZI interferometer. Figure 8(a)
Fig. 8 (a) Top view and (b) output of the fabricated MMI coupler.
is an image of a fabricated MMI coupler, whose width and length were 6 μm and 43 μm, respectively. Figure 8(b) is an image of output from the 3-dB MMI coupler monitored by an IR camera. The imbalance between the two output ports was approximately 0.4 dB.

Finally, we have measured switching characteristics of the optical switch. Figure 9
Fig. 9 Plan-view photograph of InGaAsP photonic-wire optical switch.
is a plan-view photograph of the fabricated InGaAsP photonic-wire optical switch.

The length of the phase sifter was 500 μm. We have evaluated the switching properties of the fabricated device by injecting current with forward bias to the p-i-n junction. Figure 10(a)
Fig. 10 (a) Images of output when current were injected and (b) measured output power.
is images of output power. When injected current was 0 μA, output light came from the cross port. When injected current was increased to 200 μA, output light was observed from the bar port. Figure 10(b) shows the output powers of the cross and bar ports as a function of injected current. We obtained optical switching with 10-dB extinction ratio at 200 µA driving current. This driving current is approximately 10 times smaller than that of Si-based optical switches [1

1. W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17106–17113 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3

3. G. R. Zhou, M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, F. Gan, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. S. Orcutt, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Effect of carrier lifetime on forward-biased silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5218–5226 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] owing to the large carrier-induced refractive index change in InGaAsP.

5. Conclusion

We have successfully demonstrated the InGaAsP photonic-wire optical switch fabricated on III-V CMOS photonics platform. The propagation loss of the InGaAsP photonic-wire waveguide was reduced to be 0.4 dB/mm by an Al2O3/InP bonding interfacial layer and Al2O3 device passivation. Owing to larger carrier-induced refractive index change in InGaAsP than that in Si, the InGaAsP photonic-wire optical switch can be driven by lower current than silicon optical switches. The driving current required for optical switching was 200 µA, which is approximately 10 times smaller than that of Si photonic-wire optical switches.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (A) from MEXT.

References and links

1.

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17106–17113 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

J. V. Campenhout, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Low-power, 2×2 silicon electro-optic switch with 110-nm bandwidth for broadband reconfigurable optical networks,” Opt. Express 17(26), 24020–24029 (2007).

3.

G. R. Zhou, M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, F. Gan, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. S. Orcutt, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Effect of carrier lifetime on forward-biased silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5218–5226 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

G. V. Treyz, P. G. May, and J.-M. Halbout, “Silicon Mach–Zehnder waveguide interferometers based on the plasma dispersion effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(7), 771–773 (1991). [CrossRef]

5.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987). [CrossRef]

6.

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. Del Alamo, “Carrier-induced change in refractive index of InP, GaAs, and InGaAsP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(1), 113–122 (1990). [CrossRef]

7.

Y. Vlasov and S. McNab, “Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1622–1631 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, L. C. Kimerling, J. Shin, and F. Cerrina, “Fabrication of ultralow-loss Si/SiO2 waveguides by roughness reduction,” Opt. Lett. 26(23), 1888–1890 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004). [CrossRef]

10.

Y. Barbarin, X. J. M. Leijtens, E. A. J. M. Bente, C. M. Louzao, J. R. Kooiman, and M. K. Smit, “Extremely small AWG demultiplexer fabricated on InP by using a double-etch process,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2478–2480 (2004). [CrossRef]

11.

C. van Dam, L. H. Spiekman, F. P. G. M. van Ham, F. H. Groen, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, I. Moerman, W. W. Pascher, M. Hamacher, H. Heidrich, C. M. Weinert, and M. K. Smit, “Novel compact polarization converters based on ultra short bends,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(10), 1346–1348 (1996). [CrossRef]

12.

M. Takenaka, M. Yokoyama, M. Sugiyama, Y. Nakano, and S. Takagi, “Ultrasmall arrayed waveguide grating multiplexer using InP-based photonic wire waveguide on Si wafer for III-V CMOS photonics,” in proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OThS5, San Diego, USA (2010).

13.

M. Takenaka and Y. Nakano, “InP photonic wire waveguide using InAlAs oxide cladding layer,” Opt. Express 15(13), 8422–8427 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

Y. Xuan, Y. Q. Wu, and P. D. Ye, “High-performance inversion-type enhancement-mode InGaAs MOSFET with maximum drain current exceeding 1 A/mm,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(4), 294–296 (2008). [CrossRef]

15.

P. D. Ye, G. D. Wilk, B. Yang, J. Kwo, H.-J. L. Gossmann, M. Hong, K. K. Ng, and J. Bude, “Depletion-mode InGaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor with oxide gate dielectric grown by atomic-layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(3), 434–436 (2004). [CrossRef]

16.

T. D. Lin, H. C. Chiu, P. Chang, L. T. Tung, C. P. Chen, and M. Hong, aJ. Kwo, W. Tsai, and Y. C. Wang, “High-performance self-aligned inversion-channel In0.53Ga0.47As metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor with Al2O3/Ga2O3(Gd2O3) as gate dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 033516 (2008).

17.

M. Yokoyama, R. Iida, S. H. Kim, N. Taoka, Y. Urabe, H. Takagi, T. Yasuda, H. Yamada, N. Fukuhara, M. Hata, M. Sugiyama, Y. Nakano, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Sub-10-nm extremely thin body InGaAs-on-insulator MOSFETs on Si wafers with ultrathin Al2O3 buried oxide layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(9), 1218–1220 (2011). [CrossRef]

18.

International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS), http://www.itrs.net.

19.

M. Takenaka, M. Yokoyama, M. Sugiyama, Y. Nakano, and S. Takagi, “InGaAsP photonic wire based ultrasmall arrayed waveguide grating multiplexer on Si wafer,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(12), 122201 (2009). [CrossRef]

20.

J. P. Weber, “Optimization of the carrier-induced effective index change in InGaAsP waveguides-application to tunable Bragg filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(8), 1801–1816 (1994). [CrossRef]

21.

F. Stern, “Dispersion of the index of refraction near the absorption edge of semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. A 133, 1653–1664 (1964).

22.

T. P. Pearsall, GaInAsP Alloy Semiconductors (Wiley, 1982).

23.

W. P. Maszara, G. Goetz, A. Caviglia, and J. B. McKitterick, “Bonding of silicon wafers for silicon-on-insulator,” J. Appl. Phys. 64(10), 4943–4950 (1988). [CrossRef]

24.

T. Alasaarela, D. Korn, L. Alloatti, A. Säynätjoki, A. Tervonen, R. Palmer, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, and S. Honkanen, “Reduced propagation loss in silicon strip and slot waveguides coated by atomic layer deposition,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11529–11538 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

D. Liang, A. W. Fang, D. C. Oakley, A. Napoleone, D. C. Chapman, C.-L. Chen, P. W. Juodawlkis, O. Raday, and J. E. Bowers, “150 mm InP-to-silicon direct wafer bonding for silicon photonic integrated circuits,” in Proceedings of 214th Electrochemical Society Meeting, paper 2220, Honolulu, USA (2008).

OCIS Codes
(250.5300) Optoelectronics : Photonic integrated circuits
(130.4815) Integrated optics : Optical switching devices

ToC Category:
Waveguide and Optoelectronic Devices

History
Original Manuscript: October 2, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: November 11, 2012
Published: November 29, 2012

Virtual Issues
European Conference on Optical Communication 2012 (2012) Optics Express

Citation
Yuki Ikku, Masafumi Yokoyama, Osamu Ichikawa, Masahiko Hata, Mitsuru Takenaka, and Shinichi Takagi, "Low-driving-current InGaAsP photonic-wire optical switches using III-V CMOS photonics platform," Opt. Express 20, B357-B364 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-26-B357


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References

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