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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 27 — Dec. 17, 2012
  • pp: 27981–27991
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Combined utilization of partial-response coding and equalization for high-speed WDM-PON with centralized lightwaves

Qi Guo and An V. Tran  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 27, pp. 27981-27991 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.027981


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Abstract

In this paper, we investigate the transmission impairments in a high-speed single-feeder wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) employing low-bandwidth upstream transmitter. A 1-GHz reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) is operated at the rates of 10 Gb/s and 20 Gb/s in the proposed WDM-PON. Since the system performance is seriously limited by its uplink in both capacity and reach owing to inter-symbol interference and reflection noise, we present a novel technique with simultaneous capability of spectral efficiency enhancement and transmission distance extension in the uplink via coding and equalization that exploit the principles of partial-response (PR) signal. It is experimentally demonstrated that the proposed system supports the delivery of 10 Gb/s and 20 Gb/s upstream signals over 75-km and 25-km bidirectional fiber, respectively. The configuration of PR equalizer is optimized for its best performance-complexity trade-off. The reflection tolerance of 10 Gb/s and 20 Gb/s channels is improved by 8 dB and 6 dB, respectively, with PR coding. The proposed cost-effective signal processing scheme has great potential for the next-generation access networks.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

In recent years, wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical networks (WDM-PONs) have gained overwhelming research and development interests, as they offer a large number of excellent features, including high-quality data service with guaranteed large bandwidth, simplified network architecture thanks to extended reach, and excellent scalability and security [1

1. G. Maier, M. Martinelli, A. Pattavina, and E. Salvadori, “Design and cost performance of the multistage WDM-PON access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18(2), 125–143 (2000). [CrossRef]

, 2

2. A. Banerjee, Y. Park, F. Clarke, H. Song, S. H. Yang, G. Kramer, K. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) technologies for broadband access: a review,” J. Opt. Netw. 4(11), 737–758 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. Despite all these merits, the mass deployment of WDM-PON is still hindered by its high implementation expenses. Among various reported architectures, lightwave-centralized WDM-PON with reflective optical network unit (ONU) has been regarded as a promising strategy for the colorless operation at the user terminals. Given a wide optical bandwidth, reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) is generally considered as an attractive candidate for the colorless ONU [3

3. W. Lee, M. Y. Park, S. H. Cho, J. H. Lee, C. Kim, G. Jeong, and B. W. Kim, “Bidirectional WDM-PON based on gain-saturated reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(11), 2460–2462 (2005). [CrossRef]

, 4

4. T. Y. Kim and S. K. Han, “Reflective SOA-based bidirectional WDM-PON sharing optical source for up/downlink data and broadcasting transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(22), 2350–2352 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. RSOA can directly modulate the data onto the injected light and simultaneously amplifies the signal power. To maximize the upstream performance, continuous-wave (cw) light needs to be delivered from the optical line terminal (OLT) as the seed light. However, there are several intrinsic deficits of RSOA-based WDM-PON. The most critical challenges are the low electrical bandwidth of the RSOA [5

5. K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “10-Gb/s Operation of RSOA for WDM PON,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1533–1535 (2008). [CrossRef]

] and the interferometric crosstalk resulted from the reflected light [6

6. Q. Guo and A. V. Tran, “Reduction of backscattering noise in 2.5 and 10 Gbit/s RSOA-based WDM-PON,” Electron. Lett. 47(24), 1333–1334 (2011). [CrossRef]

].

2. Operating principles

2.1 Issues of ISI and RN in WDM-PON

2.2 PR coding

Investigations on PR coding reveal that the generation of a signal with correlated levels permits overall spectrum shaping in addition to the individual pulse shaping [20

20. P. Kabal and S. Pasupathy, “Partial-response signaling,” IEEE. Trans. Commun. COM 23(9), 921–934 (1975). [CrossRef]

]. PR coding alters the signal’s power distribution via superposition of adjacent symbols in a specific rule to generate a special 1 bit/symbol multilevel signal. Since a channel can be expressed by the samples of its impulse response, the PR coder as a linear system can be characterized by a polynomial in the delay operator D [20

20. P. Kabal and S. Pasupathy, “Partial-response signaling,” IEEE. Trans. Commun. COM 23(9), 921–934 (1975). [CrossRef]

]:
G(D)=k=0N1gkDk
(2)
where N is the smallest number of contiguous samples that span all nonzero values, and gk are integers with a greatest common divisor equal to one. A data sequence {ak} can also be represented by D-transform power series:
A(D)=k=0akDk
(3)
For a given input sequence A(D), the encoded output sequence {bk} represented by
B(D)=k=0bkDk
(4)
is determined by
B(D)=G(D)×A(D)
(5)
PR codes with G(D) containing polynomial (1-D) have been proven capable of redistributing the signal energy to higher frequencies and eliminate the DC content [20

20. P. Kabal and S. Pasupathy, “Partial-response signaling,” IEEE. Trans. Commun. COM 23(9), 921–934 (1975). [CrossRef]

]. The selected PR code in our proposed systems is the dicode code which has the simplest form among all DC-balanced PR codes. Figure 4
Fig. 4 Dicode coding diagram; D is 1-bit delay.
illustrates the dicode coding procedure characterized by its transfer function as (1-D). The generation of a dicode signal can be simply realized by a delay-and-subtract shift register. The output and input sequences of the coder in Fig. 4 give an example of the coding results. It would be beneficial to make use of dicode coding in WDM-PON, since RN has high concentration at low frequencies. Unlike DC-balanced line codes such as 8b10b code [14

14. M. Presi, A. Chiuchiarelli, R. Proietti, P. Choudhury, G. Contestabile, and E. Ciaramella, “Single Feeder Bidirectional WDM-PON with Enhanced Resilience to Rayleigh-Backscattering,” Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) Conference, paper OThG2 (2010).

] and Manchester code [15

15. A. Murakami, Y. J. Lee, K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, A. Agata, K. Tanaka, Y. Horiuchi, and Y. C. Chung, “Enhanced reflection tolerance of upstream signal in RSOA-based WDM-PON using Manchester coding,” Proc. SPIE, paper 67832I (2007)

], dicode imposes no coding overhead or complex circuitry. This merit is particularly helpful for the target of high channel output.

2.2 PR equalizer

3. Detailed system setup

3.1 Experimental setup

Experimental setup of the RSOA-based upstream transmission employing PR coding and PR equalizer is depicted in Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Experimental setup for transmission studies.
. The proof-of-concept network is demonstrated on one channel in C band. We assume that users close to the central office and those far from it are assigned with different upstream bandwidth, so both 10 Gb/s and 20 Gb/s signals are conveyed in this network using the same ONU but with different reach. A cw lightwave at 1550 nm is generated by a DFB laser (linewidth: 5 MHz) with the launched power adjusted by a variable optical attenuator (VOA). Two cyclic arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs) have spacing of 100 GHz. After passing through a length of SSMF, the seed light is injected into a 1-GHz RSOA which is biased at 60 mA and directly modulated by a dicode-coded 215-1 pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS). The upstream signal is transmitted to the OLT and directed to the receiver via an optical circulator. An optical amplifier (AMP) is applied at the receiver for the 10 Gb/s experiments. A VOA is put in front of the 18 GHz photodetector (PD) to control the received optical power to a stable value at all fiber lengths. The optical filter at the receiver is detuned to increase the channel bandwidth for 20 Gb/s operation of the RSOA following the method in [8

8. Q. Guo and A. V. Tran, “20-Gb/s Single-Feeder WDM-PON Using Partial-response maximum likelihood equalizer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(23), 1802–1804 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. Hence a tunable optical bandpass filter with −0.13 nm detuning is added before the PD in the experiments at 20 Gb/s. The received signal is captured by a storage oscilloscope at 1 sample/bit with a length of 4 × 106 bits for offline processing including PR equalization and bit error rate (BER) calculation. Taking into account the storage oscilloscope, the overall receiver bandwidth is limited to 15 GHz.

3.2 Digital signal processing (DSP) at the receiver

After the signal samples are recorded by the oscilloscope, they are processed offline. Equalizers founded on finite impulse response (FIR) filters have the advantages of short delay and simple implementation, compared with maximum likelihood sequence estimator (MLSE), thus they are preferred in cost-sensitive access networks. Since the FBF is proven necessary in the experiment, the PR equalizer is built by a DFE. Figure 8
Fig. 8 Block diagram of the DSP at the receiver.
displays the diagram describing the DSP procedures at the receiver after the PD. There are four key components: a HPF, a LPF, a PR-DFE and a slicer. The HPF with 100 MHz cut-off frequency is applied to filter out the RN in the low-frequency range near the DC. Signals from different ONUs may contain different amount of ISI due to various factors such as distance, transmitted power, and wavelength. The LPF seeks to increase the working range of the PR equalizer by adjusting the received signals to similar quality so that the same equalizer can be exploited for different channels with different distances. Therefore, the input into the DFE stays stable for different channels. The LPF approximately shapes the captured signal to the TIR, and then the resulting sequence is equalized adaptively by the DFE comprising of two FIR filters: FFF and FBF. The tap weights of the filters are adaptively set by least mean square (LMS) algorithm. Adaptive equalization is useful owing to the channel variation among the ONUs. Finally, the output of the DFE, which is the equalized PR signal with residual ISI, is detected by a slicer with multiple thresholds corresponding to the TIR. In the case of 10 Gb/s transmission, a 3.5 GHz 4th-order Bessel LPF are put in front of the DFE. As a three level PR signal, the (1-D3) signal has a special property: the upper and lower levels represent binary “0”, while the middle level represents binary “1”. This feature allows easy symbol-by-symbol detection. In the case of 20 Gb/s transmission, a 3 GHz 3rd-order Bessel LPF is in use. Because both (1-D2) and (1-D3) signals have three levels and the same one-to-one relationship with the binary levels, the same equalizer and the same slicer are used in the two types of receivers.

4. Results and discussions

4.1 Transmission experiments

At first, in order to find the optimal parameters of the PR-DFE for the 10-Gb/s 75-km and the 20-Gb/s 25-km uplinks, we measure the BERs of the received signal under different equalizer designs via changing the tap numbers of the FFF and FBF in the DFE, shown in Figs. 9(a)
Fig. 9 BER curves of (a) 10-Gb/s 75-km channel and (b) 20-Gb/s 25-km channel.
and 9(b). The tap numbers of the FFF and FBF are altered from 9 to 19 and from 1 to 5, respectively. The minimal total number of taps in the DFE to obtain the BER below FEC limit of 3.8 × 10−3 is 15 for FFF and 3 for FBF in the 10 Gb/s link. Hence (15, 3) DFE attains the best balance between the performance and complexity of the equalizer for 10-Gb/s 75-km RSOA-based transmission among all combinations of parameters in comparison. Based on the results in Fig. 9(b), 13-tap FFF is sufficient for the error-free transmission of 20 Gb/s signal over 25 km with FEC. However, the same receiver setup should be used for all upstream channels to simplify the system design, except the HPF and LPF parameters which depend on the bit rate. Therefore, (15, 3) DFE is chosen as the equalizer setup as it offers good performance for both types of channels and is close to the optimal design for both 10 Gb/s and 20 Gb/s uplinks. Furthermore, the hard decision units after the equalizers are also the same for the two PR signals. Consequently, the 10 Gb/s and 20 Gb/s receivers are nearly identical, which is a valuable advantage for practical network deployment.

4.2 Reflection studies

For studies on reflection tolerance, the b2b BERs of 10 Gb/s and 20 Gb/s channels are measured with the coexistence of the intentionally added cw light reflections. To evaluate the capability of dicode coding in mitigating only the reflected cw light, the experimental setup shown by Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Experimental setup for reflection studies.
is adopted. The power of the seed light is split into two branches by a 20:80 coupler. The upper branch comprising the RSOA has the input of 20% seed power and produces the dicode signal, while the lower one acquires 80% seed power to generate cw-light-induced crosstalk for the signal. The crosstalk to signal ratio (CSR) of the received signal is calculated as the power ratio between Point “a” and Point “b” in Fig. 12. The crosstalk level is adjusted by tuning the VOA in the lower branch and monitored by the power meter. The BER curves in Fig. 13
Fig. 13 BER vs. CSR for 10 Gb/s and 20 Gb/s transmission in the format of binary or dicode (all results are measured with PR-DFE).
are provided by adjusting the power of the simulated reflected cw light to sweep the CSR of the received signal from −32 dB to −17 dB. The 10 Gb/s binary transmission under comparison makes use of a triobinary PR-DFE, while the corresponding dicode one is detected by a (1-D3) PR-DFE. The 20 Gb/s binary transmission under comparison makes use of a duobinary PR-DFE, while the corresponding dicode one is detected by a (1-D2) PR-DFE. For low CSR when there is negligible crosstalk, the dicode coding has signal-to-noise ratio penalty because of the multilevel signaling, but outperforms the binary modulation at CSRs over −25 dBm for both 10 Gb/s and 20 Gb/s. The measured CSRs of the 10 Gb/s 75 km transmission and 20 Gb/s 25 km transmission are about −7.5 dB and −20.5 dB, which are all above −25 dBm. Moreover, it is confirmed by the experiments that dicode coding improves the system tolerance to RN by around 8 dB at the BER of 2 × 10−5 for the rate of 10 Gb/s and around 6 dB for the rate of 20 Gb/s at the BER of 3 × 10−4.

5. Conclusions

References and links

1.

G. Maier, M. Martinelli, A. Pattavina, and E. Salvadori, “Design and cost performance of the multistage WDM-PON access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18(2), 125–143 (2000). [CrossRef]

2.

A. Banerjee, Y. Park, F. Clarke, H. Song, S. H. Yang, G. Kramer, K. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) technologies for broadband access: a review,” J. Opt. Netw. 4(11), 737–758 (2005). [CrossRef]

3.

W. Lee, M. Y. Park, S. H. Cho, J. H. Lee, C. Kim, G. Jeong, and B. W. Kim, “Bidirectional WDM-PON based on gain-saturated reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(11), 2460–2462 (2005). [CrossRef]

4.

T. Y. Kim and S. K. Han, “Reflective SOA-based bidirectional WDM-PON sharing optical source for up/downlink data and broadcasting transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(22), 2350–2352 (2006). [CrossRef]

5.

K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “10-Gb/s Operation of RSOA for WDM PON,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1533–1535 (2008). [CrossRef]

6.

Q. Guo and A. V. Tran, “Reduction of backscattering noise in 2.5 and 10 Gbit/s RSOA-based WDM-PON,” Electron. Lett. 47(24), 1333–1334 (2011). [CrossRef]

7.

Q. Guo, A. V. Tran, and C. J. Chae, “10-Gb/s WDM-PON based on low-bandwidth RSOA using partial response equalization,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1442–1444 (2011). [CrossRef]

8.

Q. Guo and A. V. Tran, “20-Gb/s Single-Feeder WDM-PON Using Partial-response maximum likelihood equalizer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(23), 1802–1804 (2011). [CrossRef]

9.

M. Omella, V. Polo, J. Lazaro, B. Schrenk, and J. Prat, “10 Gb/s RSOA transmission by direct duobinary modulation,” Proc. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), paper Tu.3.E.4 (2008).

10.

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. F. Wu, H. Y. Chen, Y. H. Lin, J. Y. Sung, Y. Liu, and C. L. Pan, “13 Gbit/s WDM-OFDM PON using RSOA-based colourless ONU with seeding light source in local exchange,” Electron. Lett. 47(22), 1235–1236 (2011). [CrossRef]

11.

M. Omella, I. Papagiannakis, B. Schrenk, D. Klonidis, J. A. Lázaro, A. N. Birbas, J. Kikidis, J. Prat, and I. Tomkos, “10 Gb/s full-duplex bidirectional transmission with RSOA-based ONU using detuned optical filtering and decision feedback equalization,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5008–5013 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

K. Y. Cho, A. Murakami, Y. J. Lee, A. Agata, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Demonstration of RSOA-based WDM PON operating at symmetric rate of 1.25 Gb/s with high reflection tolerance,” Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) Conference, paper OTuH4 (2008).

13.

S. P. Jung, Y. Takushima, K. Y. Cho, S. J. Park, and Y. C. Chung, “Demonstration of RSOA-based WDM PON employing self-homodyne receiver with high reflection tolerance,” Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) Conference, paper JWA69 (2009).

14.

M. Presi, A. Chiuchiarelli, R. Proietti, P. Choudhury, G. Contestabile, and E. Ciaramella, “Single Feeder Bidirectional WDM-PON with Enhanced Resilience to Rayleigh-Backscattering,” Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) Conference, paper OThG2 (2010).

15.

A. Murakami, Y. J. Lee, K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, A. Agata, K. Tanaka, Y. Horiuchi, and Y. C. Chung, “Enhanced reflection tolerance of upstream signal in RSOA-based WDM-PON using Manchester coding,” Proc. SPIE, paper 67832I (2007)

16.

F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and J. F. Kerdiles, “Simple measurement of fiber dispersion and of chirp parameter of intensity modulated light emitter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11(12), 1937–1940 (1993). [CrossRef]

17.

J. Xu, M. Li, and L.-K. Chen, “Rayleigh noise reduction in 10-Gb/s carrier distributed WDM-PONs using in-band optical filtering,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(24), 3632–3639 (2011). [CrossRef]

18.

R. K. Staubli and P. Gysel, “Statistical properties of single-mode fiber Rayleigh backscattered intensity and resulting detector current,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 40(6), 1091–1097 (1992). [CrossRef]

19.

Q. Guo and A. V. Tran, “Improved Resilience to Reflection Noise for Remotely-seeded WDM-PON”, Proc. OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC), paper 3A1–3 (2012).

20.

P. Kabal and S. Pasupathy, “Partial-response signaling,” IEEE. Trans. Commun. COM 23(9), 921–934 (1975). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.2360) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics links and subsystems
(250.5980) Optoelectronics : Semiconductor optical amplifiers

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: August 27, 2012
Revised Manuscript: October 12, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: October 12, 2012
Published: December 3, 2012

Citation
Qi Guo and An V. Tran, "Combined utilization of partial-response coding and equalization for high-speed WDM-PON with centralized lightwaves," Opt. Express 20, 27981-27991 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-27-27981


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References

  1. G. Maier, M. Martinelli, A. Pattavina, and E. Salvadori, “Design and cost performance of the multistage WDM-PON access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol.18(2), 125–143 (2000). [CrossRef]
  2. A. Banerjee, Y. Park, F. Clarke, H. Song, S. H. Yang, G. Kramer, K. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) technologies for broadband access: a review,” J. Opt. Netw.4(11), 737–758 (2005). [CrossRef]
  3. W. Lee, M. Y. Park, S. H. Cho, J. H. Lee, C. Kim, G. Jeong, and B. W. Kim, “Bidirectional WDM-PON based on gain-saturated reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(11), 2460–2462 (2005). [CrossRef]
  4. T. Y. Kim and S. K. Han, “Reflective SOA-based bidirectional WDM-PON sharing optical source for up/downlink data and broadcasting transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(22), 2350–2352 (2006). [CrossRef]
  5. K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “10-Gb/s Operation of RSOA for WDM PON,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(18), 1533–1535 (2008). [CrossRef]
  6. Q. Guo and A. V. Tran, “Reduction of backscattering noise in 2.5 and 10 Gbit/s RSOA-based WDM-PON,” Electron. Lett.47(24), 1333–1334 (2011). [CrossRef]
  7. Q. Guo, A. V. Tran, and C. J. Chae, “10-Gb/s WDM-PON based on low-bandwidth RSOA using partial response equalization,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(20), 1442–1444 (2011). [CrossRef]
  8. Q. Guo and A. V. Tran, “20-Gb/s Single-Feeder WDM-PON Using Partial-response maximum likelihood equalizer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(23), 1802–1804 (2011). [CrossRef]
  9. M. Omella, V. Polo, J. Lazaro, B. Schrenk, and J. Prat, “10 Gb/s RSOA transmission by direct duobinary modulation,” Proc. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), paper Tu.3.E.4 (2008).
  10. C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. F. Wu, H. Y. Chen, Y. H. Lin, J. Y. Sung, Y. Liu, and C. L. Pan, “13 Gbit/s WDM-OFDM PON using RSOA-based colourless ONU with seeding light source in local exchange,” Electron. Lett.47(22), 1235–1236 (2011). [CrossRef]
  11. M. Omella, I. Papagiannakis, B. Schrenk, D. Klonidis, J. A. Lázaro, A. N. Birbas, J. Kikidis, J. Prat, and I. Tomkos, “10 Gb/s full-duplex bidirectional transmission with RSOA-based ONU using detuned optical filtering and decision feedback equalization,” Opt. Express17(7), 5008–5013 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K. Y. Cho, A. Murakami, Y. J. Lee, A. Agata, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Demonstration of RSOA-based WDM PON operating at symmetric rate of 1.25 Gb/s with high reflection tolerance,” Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) Conference, paper OTuH4 (2008).
  13. S. P. Jung, Y. Takushima, K. Y. Cho, S. J. Park, and Y. C. Chung, “Demonstration of RSOA-based WDM PON employing self-homodyne receiver with high reflection tolerance,” Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) Conference, paper JWA69 (2009).
  14. M. Presi, A. Chiuchiarelli, R. Proietti, P. Choudhury, G. Contestabile, and E. Ciaramella, “Single Feeder Bidirectional WDM-PON with Enhanced Resilience to Rayleigh-Backscattering,” Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) Conference, paper OThG2 (2010).
  15. A. Murakami, Y. J. Lee, K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, A. Agata, K. Tanaka, Y. Horiuchi, and Y. C. Chung, “Enhanced reflection tolerance of upstream signal in RSOA-based WDM-PON using Manchester coding,” Proc. SPIE, paper 67832I (2007)
  16. F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and J. F. Kerdiles, “Simple measurement of fiber dispersion and of chirp parameter of intensity modulated light emitter,” J. Lightwave Technol.11(12), 1937–1940 (1993). [CrossRef]
  17. J. Xu, M. Li, and L.-K. Chen, “Rayleigh noise reduction in 10-Gb/s carrier distributed WDM-PONs using in-band optical filtering,” J. Lightwave Technol.29(24), 3632–3639 (2011). [CrossRef]
  18. R. K. Staubli and P. Gysel, “Statistical properties of single-mode fiber Rayleigh backscattered intensity and resulting detector current,” IEEE Trans. Commun.40(6), 1091–1097 (1992). [CrossRef]
  19. Q. Guo and A. V. Tran, “Improved Resilience to Reflection Noise for Remotely-seeded WDM-PON”, Proc. OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC), paper 3A1–3 (2012).
  20. P. Kabal and S. Pasupathy, “Partial-response signaling,” IEEE. Trans. Commun. COM23(9), 921–934 (1975). [CrossRef]

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