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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 27 — Dec. 17, 2012
  • pp: 28409–28417
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Polarisation-resolved near-field mapping of a coupled gold nanowire array

Patrick Uebel, Markus A. Schmidt, Howard W. Lee, and Philip St.J. Russell  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 27, pp. 28409-28417 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.028409


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Abstract

We report direct observation of the 2D transverse near-field intensity and polarisation distribution of surface plasmon polaritons guided on metal nanowires. Quadrupolar modes are excited on an array of coupled nanowires arranged around the central glass core in a photonic crystal fibre, with lobes whose orientation depends on the polarisation state of the launched core light. The radial electric field is resolved using a polarization sensitive near-field probe in light-collection mode.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) arise at metal-dielectric interfaces as a result of collective oscillations of the electron ensemble that couples to an electromagnetic (EM) wave [1

1. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings 1st ed., (Springer, 1988).

4

4. H. A. Atwater, “The Promise of Plasmonics,” Sci. Am. 296(4), 56–62 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Their evanescent fields penetrate a few tens of nm into the metal and less than a vacuum wavelength into the dielectric. Power dissipation in the metal limits their propagation length to several tens of μm [5

5. D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the Diffraction Limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010). [CrossRef]

, 6

6. E. T. Arakawa, M. W. Williams, R. N. Hamm, and R. H. Ritchie, “Effect of Damping on Surface Plasmon Dispersion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 31(18), 1127–1129 (1973). [CrossRef]

]. The sub-wavelength dimensions of the transverse SPP field means that end-fire excitation is very inefficient, so that special techniques such as prism coupling [7

7. E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, “Radiative Decay of non radiative Surface Plasmons excited by light,” Z. Naturforsch. A 23, 2135–2136 (1968).

, 8

8. A. Otto, “Excitation of nonradiative Surface Plasma Waves in Silver by Method of frustrated total Reflection,” Z. Phys. 216(4), 398–410 (1968). [CrossRef]

], scattering at topological surface irregularities [9

9. B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, “Local Excitation, Scattering, and Interference of Surface Plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(9), 1889–1892 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 10

10. H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver Nanowires as Surface Plasmon Resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(25), 257403 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] or nanoscale optical antennas [11

11. L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, “Antennas for Light,” Nat. Photonics 5(2), 83–90 (2011). [CrossRef]

] are required to excite them. SPPs can be confined or waveguided in nano-scale metallic structures fabricated using techniques such as electron beam lithography or focused ion beam milling. Devices based on guided SPPs, such as splitters [12

12. R. A. Wahsheh, Z. L. Lu, and M. A. G. Abushagur, “Nanoplasmonic Couplers and Splitters,” Opt. Express 17(21), 19033–19040 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], switches [13

13. K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Samson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active Plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009). [CrossRef]

, 14

14. J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: A Metal-Oxide-Si Field Effect plasmonic Modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and couplers [15

15. V. A. Zenin, V. S. Volkov, Z. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Directional coupling in Channel Plasmon-Polariton Waveguides,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6124–6134 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 16

16. A. Kriesch, J. Wen, D. Ploss, P. Banzer, and U. Peschel, “Probing nanoplasmonic Waveguides and Couplers with optical Antennas,” in CLEO/Europe and EQEC (Munich, 2011).

] provide new design ideas for plasmonic circuitry [17

17. T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface-Plasmon Circuitry,” Phys. Today 61(5), 44–50 (2008). [CrossRef]

].

Scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) is commonly used to directly measure the intensity distribution of SPPs. It involves bringing a nanoscale aperture [18

18. S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local Detection of electromagnetic Energy Transport below the Diffraction Limit in metal nanoparticle Plasmon Waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] or a scattering tip [19

19. M. Schnell, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared Energy with tapered Transmission Lines,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 283–287 (2011). [CrossRef]

] close enough to the metal surface to probe the evanescent field. In recent years polarization and phase sensitive SNOM techniques, suitable for optical characterisation of nanophotonic devices, have been developed [20

20. K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector Field microscopic Imaging of Light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007). [CrossRef]

23

23. R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, J. Dorfmüller, A. Dmitriev, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, “Direct near-field optical Imaging of higher Order plasmonic Resonances,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3155–3159 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. These techniques have allowed EM-field distributions on the top surface of two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal or nanoplasmonic structures to be measured in detail. However, direct measurement of the field profile and local polarisation state in the transverse plane of a SPP waveguide has not yet been reported. The main reason for this is that scanning a nm-scale waveguide perpendicular to its axis in the two transverse dimensions is practically difficult in the near-field microscopes currently used.

In this paper we report the use of SNOM to measure the transverse 2D near-field distribution and polarisation state of SPP modes on the nanoscale. The SPPs are guided on a hexagonal array of gold nanowires incorporated into the cladding of a fused silica photonic crystal fibre (PCF) with a central glass core (Fig. 1(a)
Fig. 1 Design of the device. (a) Schematic of the structure. (b) SEM of the polished cross-section of the sample with six rings of gold nanowires, making 120 in total. Dark grey is silica and light grey is gold.
). The sample length was 900 μm, the wire radius was 325 nm and the centre-centre spacing (pitch) was 2.85 μm. A scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of the structure is shown in Fig. 1(b).

We investigate plasmonic supermodes (pSMs) formed by nearest-neighbour coupling between quadrupolar (azimuthal order m = 2) SPP modes on the nanowires (each individual nanowire actually also supports m = 0 and 1 modes in the wavelength range of interest). We find that one of these pSMs, which is concentrated in the ring of six nanowires nearest the centre, can be excited by launching light into the glass core.

Using an optical fibre-based calibration technique for the near-field tips in collection mode, the local nanoscale polarisation distributions both of a single quadrupolar SPP mode and of the entire coupled nanowire array are measured. All the experimental results are in good agreement with finite-element (FE) modelling.

2. Mode analysis of the sample

The theoretically modelled near-field intensity pattern on an isolated nanowire is shown in the left-hand image of Fig. 2(a)
Fig. 2 Operation of the gold filled PCF (a) Calculated intensity distributions (vertical polarisation of the core light) at 840 nm for: the quadrupolar SPP mode of an isolated nanowire (left, the white dashed circle indicates the gold-silica interface), the even core-pSM mode (centre) and the odd core-pSM mode (right). The scale-bar corresponds to 0.5 µm for the left-hand panel and 3 µm for the centre and right-hand panels. (b) Refractive index difference (real part) between the simulated even and odd core-pSM modes (blue and black curves) and the glass core mode in the empty PCF (grey curve): Δn = (nSMnempty). The dashed red curve shows the same quantity for an isolated m = 2 SPP mode; it lies on top of the curve for the even core-pSM mode and cuts off at ~845 nm (red circle). The green dashed vertical line marks the wavelength (785 nm) of the laser diode used in the SNOM experiments. (c) Attenuation of the even and odd modes and of the isolated m = 2 SPP. The odd core-pSM cuts off at 890 nm. (d) Experiment (purple) and modelled attenuation (orange). The dashed purple horizontal line indicates the limit of the dynamic range of the optical spectrum analyser used.
. The wire diameters are more than 10 × larger than the skin depth of the EM-field inside the metal at optical frequencies, so that the guided SPP modes can be approximated by planar SPPs propagating on helical trajectories around the nanowire surface [24

24. M. A. Schmidt and P. St. J. Russell, “Long-range spiralling surface plasmon Modes on metallic Nanowires,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13617–13623 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Guided modes are formed when the azimuthal component of the wavevector multiplied by the circumference equals a multiple of 2π. The effective index of the guided SPP mode can then be written as
nm=εMεDεM+εD(m1k0ρ)2
(1)
where εM and εD are the frequency-dependent dielectric functions of gold and silica, m is the mode order, k0 is the vacuum wavevector and the radius of the wire is ρ. The quadrupolar SPP mode (m = 2, shown as the red curve in Fig. 2(b)) cuts off at 845 nm.

The effective index of an isolated m = 2 SPP mode comes close to that of the glass core mode of the empty PCF, but cuts off before they can match (Fig. 2(b)). Since the coupling rate between SPP and dielectric mode strongly dominates over the dephasing rate, a pronounced anti-crossing (blue and black curves in Fig. 2(b)) forms at 840 nm. The blue branch corresponds to even modes of the coupled core-pSM system and the black branch to odd modes (Fig. 2(a) shows the intensity pattern of the even and odd). An animation of the wavelength dependence of the intensity patterns of the core-pSM modes is available online.

The attenuation of even and odd core-pSMs (see Fig. 2(c)) is a result from energy dissipation in the metal and share the same value of loss at the centre of the anti-crossing (~90 dB/mm at 840 nm). There is a decrease in loss for the odd core-pSM at long wavelengths because it cuts off at 890 nm.

3. Nearest-neighbor coupling model

4. Experiments and discussion

4.1 Sample fabrication

The PCF was drawn from a fused silica preform fabricated using the stack-and-draw method [27

27. P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Science 299(5605), 358–362 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 28

28. J. C. Knight, “Photonic Crystal Fibres,” Nature 424(6950), 847–851 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. It had a hexagonal array of sub-micrometer diameter hollow channels surrounding a central solid glass core and running along the entire length of the fiber. The nanowire array was formed by pumping molten gold into the hollow channels using pressure-assisted melt-filling [29

29. H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, R. F. Russell, N. Y. Joly, H. K. Tyagi, P. Uebel, and P. St. J. Russell, “Pressure-assisted melt-filling and optical Characterization of Au nano-wires in microstructured Fibers,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12180–12189 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. A 900 μm long sample was prepared by cleaving and polishing using focused ion beam milling.

4.2 Loss measurement

The loss of the gold-filled sample (purple curve in Fig. 2(d)) was experimentally estimated by comparing its transmission spectrum [29

29. H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, R. F. Russell, N. Y. Joly, H. K. Tyagi, P. Uebel, and P. St. J. Russell, “Pressure-assisted melt-filling and optical Characterization of Au nano-wires in microstructured Fibers,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12180–12189 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], using a supercontinuum (SC) source, with that of an empty PCF (cut-back was not possible because the sample was only 900 µm long). This was necessary because of variations in SC intensity with wavelength. The theoretical attenuation (orange curve) is based on a superposition of the even and odd core-pSM modes, weighted so that the power in the pSM mode is zero at the fibre input, assuming a Gaussian beam incident on the core [30

30. A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, 1983).

]. It deviates noticeably from a Lorentzian shape at the long wavelength side of the resonance, where the odd core-pSM mode cuts off. Comparing theory to experiment shows that the measured resonance position at ~840 nm is in excellent agreement with the FE simulations. The transmitted signal on-resonance was however so low that it could not be detected by the optical spectrum analyser within the range 800 to 880 nm, indicated by the horizontal dashed purple line. The width of the resonance is greater in the experiment, which we attribute to inhomogeneous broadening caused by the wire diameters not being perfectly equal. The overall increase in attenuation towards longer wavelength results from the increasing overlap of the glass core mode with the metal.

4.3 Near-field mapping of the intensity distribution

Transverse scans of the near-field at the end-face of the fibre for vertical and horizontal input polarisation are shown in Figs. 4(b) and 4(c) for 785 nm excitation wavelength without analyser. For both polarisation states, quadrupolar mode patterns are clearly seen on each nanowire in the first ring. The residual light between the nanowires results from cladding modes excited at the input of the sample. According to the above discussion, the quadrupolar patterns result from excitation of a pSM consisting of six coupled quadrupolar SPP modes. Depending on the input polarisation state, the lobes of these SPP modes are rotated relative to each other in a particular arrangement, in perfect agreement with the FE simulations.

The close-ups in Figs. 4(b) and 4(c) show the patterns of the same wire for the two polarisation states. It can be seen that for the vertical case, the lobes of the SPP mode are aligned along the line connecting the centres of PCF core and wire, while for horizontal polarisation the lobes are rotated by 45° relative to this line.

Some nanowires show an intensity pattern on the surface of the wires, e.g., see the top left-hand image in Fig. 4(c). These patterns may be caused by excitation of standing-wave SPP resonances on the end-faces of the wires.

Between 820 nm and 880 nm no light was observed either in the core or on the nanowires – a result of the large on-resonance attenuation (>70 dB over the sample). For λ < 750 nm light was observed only in the glass core, the wires remaining dark, as expected since the pSM mode is not phase-matched to the core mode in this range.

When we repeated the same experiment without a cantilever, light was observed only in the glass core mode, the nanowires remaining dark. This is as expected, since the very fine nano-scale features in the near-field are unable to radiate into the far-field.

4.4 Polarisation-resolved experiment

When such a polarisation-maintaining cantilever was used, we found that the local transverse near-field polarisation state could be directly transferred into the far-field without any scrambling. We then repeated the near-field measurements on the gold filled sample for vertical input polarisation state, an additional analyser being inserted between output objective and detector (see Fig. 4(a)).

Figure 5
Fig. 5 Polarisation-resolved near-field measurements and FE results at 785 nm for vertical input polarisation. The logarithmic intensity profiles of the modes are shown for two orientations of the analyser relative to the vertical input polarisation: (a) parallel configuration (b) orthogonal configuration (indicated by the yellow double-headed arrows). The modes shown in this figure correspond to the one shown in Fig. 4 (white dashed circles/squares, white double-headed arrows and color scale are the same).
shows the measured and calculated near-field intensity distributions at the end-face of the fibre. When the transmission axes of analyser and input light are parallel (Fig. 5(a)), the pSM patterns in the ring are strongly modified compared to those in Fig. 4(b), while the glass core mode remains almost unchanged. A close-up scan of the top wire (same as in Fig. 4(b)) shows that light is transmitted only from the upper and lower field lobes, while the left- and right-hand ones are blocked. This means that the electric field vectors in the upper and lower lobes are either parallel or anti-parallel, i.e., they oscillate either in- or out-of-phase. When the analyser is rotated by 90° relative to the vertical input polarisation (Fig. 5(b)), the core mode vanishes (some residual light is seen, resulting from cladding modes), distinct near-field features remaining in the vicinity of the wires. These features are linked to the evanescent fields of the left- and right-hand lobes of the SPP modes, as visible in the close-up in Fig. 5(b). The two weak additional lobes below the nanowire result from the excitation close to resonance, and are not present in an isolated m = 2 nanowire mode. All the measured near-fields (even the weak lobes just mentioned) are in excellent agreement with FE-simulations.

To obtain the local polarization of the near-field an additional measurement was performed with the analyser oriented at 45° to the horizontal axis. This measurement, together with the patterns from two other analyser positions (Fig. 5), gave sufficient information for unambiguously determining the transverse polarization state of the SPP modes. The orientations and amplitudes of the electric field vectors are shown in Fig. 6(a)
Fig. 6 Spatially resolved polarisation state of the near-field of a quadrupolar SPP mode. (a) The white double-headed arrows show the orientation of the electric field vectors (90 nm spacing) for the SNOM measurement, their lengths being proportional to the absolute value of the transverse electric field. For clarity, no arrows are shown at regions where the intensity is low. The red double-headed arrow shows the input polarisation state. (b) FE-simulations showing the local transverse electric field at a fixed moment in time. The underlying intensity patterns are the same as the two upper left-hand images in Fig. 3(b).
as white double-headed arrows overlaid on the intensity pattern of Fig. 4(b). Inside one lobe the electric vectors are oriented approximately radially, their length being longest in the regions of highest intensity. This is in very good agreement with the simulations (Fig. 6(b)), and shows that we are able not only to reliably super-resolve the near-field of a SPP mode, but can also measure its local transverse polarisation state. Note that the axial field component of the SPP cannot be resolved because the cantilever is an aperture sprobe and to first order transmits only the local transverse fields.

4. Conclusion

In conclusion, gold-filled PCF offers the possibility of measuring near-fields across nanowires, and allows easy excitation of SPP modes in nanowire arrays. By careful characterisation of hollow cantilever tips, it is possible to measure the local polarisation state of light in the near-field well below the Rayleigh resolution limit. The polarisation-resolved near-field technique described is likely to be useful in many areas of nanophotonics.

References and links

1.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings 1st ed., (Springer, 1988).

2.

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications 1st ed., (Springer, 2007).

3.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface Plasmon subwavelength Optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

H. A. Atwater, “The Promise of Plasmonics,” Sci. Am. 296(4), 56–62 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the Diffraction Limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010). [CrossRef]

6.

E. T. Arakawa, M. W. Williams, R. N. Hamm, and R. H. Ritchie, “Effect of Damping on Surface Plasmon Dispersion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 31(18), 1127–1129 (1973). [CrossRef]

7.

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, “Radiative Decay of non radiative Surface Plasmons excited by light,” Z. Naturforsch. A 23, 2135–2136 (1968).

8.

A. Otto, “Excitation of nonradiative Surface Plasma Waves in Silver by Method of frustrated total Reflection,” Z. Phys. 216(4), 398–410 (1968). [CrossRef]

9.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, “Local Excitation, Scattering, and Interference of Surface Plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(9), 1889–1892 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver Nanowires as Surface Plasmon Resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(25), 257403 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, “Antennas for Light,” Nat. Photonics 5(2), 83–90 (2011). [CrossRef]

12.

R. A. Wahsheh, Z. L. Lu, and M. A. G. Abushagur, “Nanoplasmonic Couplers and Splitters,” Opt. Express 17(21), 19033–19040 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Samson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active Plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009). [CrossRef]

14.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: A Metal-Oxide-Si Field Effect plasmonic Modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

V. A. Zenin, V. S. Volkov, Z. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Directional coupling in Channel Plasmon-Polariton Waveguides,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6124–6134 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

A. Kriesch, J. Wen, D. Ploss, P. Banzer, and U. Peschel, “Probing nanoplasmonic Waveguides and Couplers with optical Antennas,” in CLEO/Europe and EQEC (Munich, 2011).

17.

T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface-Plasmon Circuitry,” Phys. Today 61(5), 44–50 (2008). [CrossRef]

18.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local Detection of electromagnetic Energy Transport below the Diffraction Limit in metal nanoparticle Plasmon Waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

M. Schnell, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, L. Arzubiaga, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, A. Chuvilin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanofocusing of mid-infrared Energy with tapered Transmission Lines,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 283–287 (2011). [CrossRef]

20.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector Field microscopic Imaging of Light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007). [CrossRef]

21.

E. Verhagen, M. Spasenović, A. Polman, and L. K. Kuipers, “Nanowire Plasmon Excitation by adiabatic Mode Transformation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(20), 203904 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved Mapping of the near-field Vector and Polarization State in Nanoscale Antenna Gaps,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3524–3528 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, J. Dorfmüller, A. Dmitriev, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, and K. Kern, “Direct near-field optical Imaging of higher Order plasmonic Resonances,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3155–3159 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

M. A. Schmidt and P. St. J. Russell, “Long-range spiralling surface plasmon Modes on metallic Nanowires,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13617–13623 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

P. G. Etchegoin, E. C. Le Ru, and M. Meyer, “An analytic Model for the optical Properties of Gold,” J. Chem. Phys. 125, 164705 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

I. H. Malitson, “Interspecimen Comparison of Refractive Index of fused Silica,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55(10), 1205–1208 (1965). [CrossRef]

27.

P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Science 299(5605), 358–362 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28.

J. C. Knight, “Photonic Crystal Fibres,” Nature 424(6950), 847–851 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

29.

H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, R. F. Russell, N. Y. Joly, H. K. Tyagi, P. Uebel, and P. St. J. Russell, “Pressure-assisted melt-filling and optical Characterization of Au nano-wires in microstructured Fibers,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12180–12189 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

30.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, 1983).

31.

http://www.witec.de/en/home/

32.

P. Biagioni, D. Polli, M. Labardi, A. Pucci, G. Ruggeri, G. Cerullo, M. Finazzi, and L. Duo, “Unexpected Polarization Behavior at the Aperture of hollow-pyramid near-field Probes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 223112 (2005). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(230.7370) Optical devices : Waveguides
(240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
(180.4243) Microscopy : Near-field microscopy
(060.5295) Fiber optics and optical communications : Photonic crystal fibers

ToC Category:
Optics at Surfaces

History
Original Manuscript: September 13, 2012
Revised Manuscript: November 5, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: November 6, 2012
Published: December 7, 2012

Virtual Issues
Vol. 8, Iss. 1 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Patrick Uebel, Markus A. Schmidt, Howard W. Lee, and Philip St.J. Russell, "Polarisation-resolved near-field mapping of a coupled gold nanowire array," Opt. Express 20, 28409-28417 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-27-28409


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References

  1. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings 1st ed., (Springer, 1988).
  2. S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications 1st ed., (Springer, 2007).
  3. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface Plasmon subwavelength Optics,” Nature424(6950), 824–830 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. A. Atwater, “The Promise of Plasmonics,” Sci. Am.296(4), 56–62 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the Diffraction Limit,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 83–91 (2010). [CrossRef]
  6. E. T. Arakawa, M. W. Williams, R. N. Hamm, and R. H. Ritchie, “Effect of Damping on Surface Plasmon Dispersion,” Phys. Rev. Lett.31(18), 1127–1129 (1973). [CrossRef]
  7. E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, “Radiative Decay of non radiative Surface Plasmons excited by light,” Z. Naturforsch. A23, 2135–2136 (1968).
  8. A. Otto, “Excitation of nonradiative Surface Plasma Waves in Silver by Method of frustrated total Reflection,” Z. Phys.216(4), 398–410 (1968). [CrossRef]
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