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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 27 — Dec. 17, 2012
  • pp: 28764–28771
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A multi-ring optical packet and circuit integrated network with optical buffering

Hideaki Furukawa, Satoshi Shinada, Takaya Miyazawa, Hiroaki Harai, Wataru Kawasaki, Tatsuhiko Saito, Koji Matsunaga, Tatuya Toyozumi, and Naoya Wada  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 27, pp. 28764-28771 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.028764


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Abstract

We newly developed a 3 × 3 integrated optical packet and circuit switch-node. Optical buffers and burst-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifiers with the gain flatness are installed in the 3 × 3 switch-node. The optical buffer can prevent packet collisions and decrease packet loss. We constructed a multi-ring optical packet and circuit integrated network testbed connecting two single-ring networks and a client network by the 3 × 3 switch-node. For the first time, we demonstrated 244 km fiber transmission and 5-node hopping of multiplexed 14-wavelength 10 Gbps optical paths and 100 Gbps optical packets encapsulating 10 Gigabit Ethernet frames on the testbed. Error-free (frame error rate < 1 × 10−4) operation was achieved with optical packets of various packet lengths. In addition, successful avoidance of packet collisions by optical buffers was confirmed.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

2. 3 × 3 central OPCI node with optical buffers

A 2 × 2 OPCI node for ring networks mainly consists of seven 10 Gbps optical transport network (10G-OTN) transponders, a 100 Gbps optical packet (100G-OP) transponder, two wavelength-selective switches (WSS) for add/drop functions, an OPS system and some optical amplifiers [7

7. H. Furukawa, H. Harai, T. Miyazawa, S. Shinada, W. Kawasaki, and N. Wada, “Development of optical packet and circuit integrated ring network testbed,” Opt. Express 19(26), B242–B250 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The OPS system is composed of an electronic switch controller (SW-CONT) and a broadcast-and-selective 4 × 4 semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) switch subsystem [14

14. K. Sone, S. Yoshida, Y. Kai, G. Nakagawa, G. Ishikawa, and S. Kinoshita, “High-speed 4×4 SOA switch subsystem for DWDM systems,” in Proc. 16th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (2011), no.8A2_2.

,15

15. G. Nakagawa, Y. Kai, K. Sone, S. Yoshida, S. Tanaka, K. Morito, and S. Kinoshita, “Ultra-high extinction ratio and low cross talk characteristics of 4-array integrated SOA module with compact-packaging technologies,” in Proc. 37th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (2011), no. Mo.2.LeSaleve.4.

]. Wavelength resources are divided by waveband and allocated to OPS and OCS links. WSSs are used for combining or dividing OPS and OCS wavebands. Also, two WSSs are used as an OCS system. In OCS links, to send data on optical paths, a 10G-OTN transponder encapsulates 10 Gigabit Ethernet (10GbE) frames from a client network into OTN format. Because optical paths are established by control packets in advance, there is no need to read the IP destination address of incoming 10GbE frames. In OPS links, a 100G-OP transponder encapsulates an incoming 10GbE frame from the client side into a 100 Gbps colored optical packet which consists of ten 10 Gbps optical payloads with different wavelengths and a destination optical label [16

16. H. Harai and N. Wada, “More than 10 Gbps photonic packet-switched networks using WDM-based packet compression,” in Proc. 8th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference pp. 703–704 (2003)

]. The destination label is determined according to a mapping table between destination labels and the IP destination addresses of incoming 10GbE frames. A SW-CONT reads the destination label and controls a SOA switch subsystem to forward an optical packet to the correct output port according to a switching table in each input port. Also, control optical packets for path signaling and wavelength resource control are exchanged via OPS links.

For a multi-ring network, a central OPCI node has 3 × 3 input/output ports to connect two single-ring networks and a client network. Figures 2(a)
Fig. 2 (a) Photograph and (b) configuration diagram of central 3 × 3 OPCI node with optical buffers.
and 2(b) show a photograph and a configuration diagram of a 3 × 3 OPCI node, respectively. The 3 × 3 OPCI node is based on the 2 × 2 one with an extended OPS system. The extended OPS system has 3 × 3 input/output ports and three optical buffers, each of which is attached to each output port. The optical buffer consists of a 4 × 4 SOA switch subsystem and 4-fiber delay lines (FDLs) with different lengths (called as Delay 0, 1, 2, 3 in ascending order according to length), and acts as both switching and buffering functions. The buffer size is 3 packets. The SOA switch subsystem has a switching speed of several nanoseconds, low polarization-dependency within C-band, and loss compensation. Previously, the switch subsystem had a minimum channel-space limitation of 400 GHz to avoid the crosstalk caused by a four-wave mixing effect. This time, the switch subsystem separates 100 GHz-spacing colored optical packets into four wavelength groups by using 100/400 GHz interleavers to switch each wavelength group [14

14. K. Sone, S. Yoshida, Y. Kai, G. Nakagawa, G. Ishikawa, and S. Kinoshita, “High-speed 4×4 SOA switch subsystem for DWDM systems,” in Proc. 16th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (2011), no.8A2_2.

,15

15. G. Nakagawa, Y. Kai, K. Sone, S. Yoshida, S. Tanaka, K. Morito, and S. Kinoshita, “Ultra-high extinction ratio and low cross talk characteristics of 4-array integrated SOA module with compact-packaging technologies,” in Proc. 37th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (2011), no. Mo.2.LeSaleve.4.

]. Therefore, the optical buffer based on the switch subsystem can handle 100 GHz-spacing colored optical packets without crosstalk. Note that a 2 × 2 SOA switch subsystem and 2-FDLs are attached to output port 3 due to the limited number of SOA components. Therefore, the buffer size is 1 packet in the optical buffer attached to output port 3. This OPS system has an extra input/output port to upgrade into a 4 × 4 OPCI node.

From two OPCI ring networks and a client network, optical packets are input to the 3 × 3 OPS system. If optical packets from different input ports are switched into the same output port at the almost same timing, the collision of those packets might be caused at the output port. Here, the SW-CONT of the extended OPS system has buffer management function which can support asynchronously arriving and variable-length optical packets [17

17. H. Furukawa, H. Harai, M. Ohta, and N. Wada, “Implementation of high-speed buffer management for asynchronous variable-length optical packet switch,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conference (2010), no. OWM4.

]. To avoid packet collisions, the SW-CONT receives labels of optical packets from all input ports before optical packets arrive at SOA switch subsystems, and acquires packet-destination, arrival-timing and packet-length information of all optical packets. By using the information, the SW-CONT determines an appropriate output port to the destination and calculates a delay value which is given to each packet coming from all ports to avoid packet collisions. Then, control signals are output to all SOA switch subsystems from the SW-CONT. Each optical packet is broadcasted to all SOA switch subsystems by couplers. Since each SOA component opens or closes according to control signals, each optical packet is switched to an output port to the destination and to a FDL which delayed for an appropriate time corresponding to the given delay value. Because optical packets with the possibility of collisions are switched to different FDLs respectively, packet collisions are avoided. If the number of buffered optical packets exceeds the buffer size, some optical packets are discarded by switch-closing.

In OPS links, a transient-suppressed EDFA (TS-EDFA) was used to eliminate optical surges and gain transients for shorter optical packets (~100 ns) [13

13. Y. Awaji, H. Furukawa, N. Wada, P. Chan, and R. Man, “Mitigation of transient response of Erbium-doped fiber amplifier for traffic of high speed optical packets,” in Proc. Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2007), no. JTuA133.

]. Here, we newly improve the TS-EDFA by optimizing EDF doping profile to further increase the saturation power and to have a better transient performance. Then, we install a custom gain flattening filter (GFF) to the TS-EDFA to maintain the gain flatness for the C-band. We put the improved TS-EDFAs in front and back of each SOA switch subsystem.

3. Multi-ring optical packet and circuit integrated network demonstration

Figure 3 also shows tables of 2, 3, 4, or 5 node hopping routes on OPS and OCS links. At a sender node, an incoming 10GbE frame from a client network is converted to a 100 Gbps colored optical packet with a label by a 100G-OP transponder. Additionally, the 100G-OP transponder has a copy function of optical packets to easily increase the optical packet rate for experiments. At a transit node, according to a switching table, an optical packet is forwarded to a correct route. At a receiver node, a 10GbE frame is recovered from a received optical packet and sent to a client. In OCS links, a sender node and a receiver node are directly connected and data are transmitted. Each node can send a data on optical paths and optical packets not only to other nodes but also to itself via the multi-ring network for an optical loopback test.

Next, we examined the operation of an optical buffer in the central 3 × 3 OPCI node. We sent optical packets from three input ports to output port 1 at the same time. It means that packet collisions might occur. From OPCI ring networks 1 and 2, optical packets accommodating 64 byte and 9000 byte 10GbE frames, whose optical packet duration times were fixed at 19.2 ns and 140.8 ns, were launched into input port 1 and 2 of the 3 × 3 OPCI node, respectively. From a client network, optical packets accommodating 1518 byte 10GbE frames, whose optical packet duration time was fixed at 57.6 ns, were launched into input port 3. In operation, the optical packet rate at each input port was randomly changed within a range from 1% to 10% to generate a bursty traffic. The length of each FDL is increased by 20 m, which corresponding delay time is about 100 ns. In the optical buffer attached at output port 1, optical packets were switched to Delays 0, 1, 2, 3 or discarded according to traffic conditions. The switched optical packets were merged in front of output port 1. Figure 7
Fig. 7 Optical packet sequences at input ports 1, 2, 3 and output port 1 of OPS system in buffering operation.
shows input packet sequences at input ports 1, 2, 3 and a merged packet sequence at output port 1, which were measured at different timing. We measured the packet loss rates in the optical buffer under conditions that the optical packet rate at each input port was randomly changed within a range from 1% to 10% (called as Case 1) and from 5% to 10% (called as Case 2). In Case 1, the average throughputs were 0.48, 1.57 and 1.25 Gbps at input port 1, 2 and 3, respectively. In Case 2, the average throughputs were 1.73, 5.74 and 4.59 Gbps at input port 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The packet loss rate is defined as the ratio of the number of discarded packets to that of all input packets from three input ports in the optical buffer. The SW-CONT with buffer management function has a packet counter for buffering operation. Figure 8(a)
Fig. 8 (a) Packet count of switched optical packets to each delay line and discarded one by each input port in Case 1. (b) Average throughput at each input port, the total of the average throughput at three input ports and the packet loss rates in Case 1 and Case 2.
shows the number of switched optical packets to Delays 0, 1, 2, 3 and discarded packets by each input port in Case 1. Figure 8(b) shows the average throughput at each input port, the total of the average throughput at three input ports and the packet loss rates. In Case 1 and Case 2, the packet loss rates were 3.8 × 10−5 and 2.38 × 10−4, respectively. These results showed that the optical buffer successfully operated to avoid packet collisions.

4. Conclusion

We developed a novel 3 × 3 integrated OPS/OCS node with optical buffers and built a multi-ring optical packet and circuit integrated network testbed. We demonstrated 5-node hopping 244 km transmission of 100 Gbps colored optical packets with 14-wavelength 10 Gbps optical paths. In addition, we achieved the successful operation of optical buffering of 100 Gbps optical packets in the 3 × 3 OPCI node. On the other hand, as the total offered load at a 3 × 3 OPCI node increases, the packet loss rate gets higher in optical buffers. This is due to the increase of the possibility of packet collisions by the higher load and the small buffer size of 3 packets in optical buffers. Therefore, our future work is to install the larger-scale optical buffers into the 3 × 3 OPCI node and to make it work stably. Recently, it was reported that the buffer size in the core routers could be reduced to 10-20 packets at the expense of a small amount of bandwidth utilization [19

19. D. Wischik and N. McKeown, “Part I: Buffer sizes for core routers,” ACM SIGCOMM Comp. Comm. Rev. 35(3), 75–78 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. To realize the buffer size of 10-20 packets, we need large-scale optical switches in optical buffers, for example, 4 × 16 or 4 × 32 switches. However, broadcast-and-selective switching architecture such as our SOA switch subsystem causes high coupling loss due to many couplers as the scale of switch is enlarged. Therefore, large-scale optical switches with low insertion loss are indispensable to solve the scalability issue of optical buffers. In addition, low polarization-dependency in wide-band is also required for handling wide-colored optical packets. Before now, we have demonstrated an optical buffer with 31 packets buffer size by cascaded 1 × 8 Plomb Lanthanum Zirconate Titanate (PLZT) optical switches with low polarization-dependency on bench-top [20

20. H. Furukawa, H. Harai, N. Wada, T. Miyazaki, N. Takezawa, and K. Nashimoto, “A 31-FDL buffer based on trees of 1×8 PLZT optical switches, ” in Proc. 32nd European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (2006), no. Tu4.6.5.

]. However, the insertion loss of the cascaded 1 × 8 PLZT switches was over 28 dB. In the near future, we intend to improve the insertion loss of PLZT switches and show the possibility of large-scale optical buffers.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Takeshi Makino, Wei Ping Ren, Ryo Mikami and Tomoji Tomuro of the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology for their support in the experiments.

References and links

1.

“AKARI architecture conceptual design ver1.0 (2007),” http://akari-project.nict.go.jp/eng/index2.htm.

2.

H. Harai, “Optical packet & circuit integrated network for future networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun. E95-B(3), 714–722 (2012).

3.

S. Das, G. Parulkar, N. McKeown, P. Singh, D. Getachew, and L. Ong, “Packet and circuit network convergence with OpenFlow,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conference (2010), no. OTuG1.

4.

H. Wang, A. S. Garg, K. Bergman, and M. Glick, “Design and demonstration of an all-optical hybrid packet and circuit switched network platform for next generation data centers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conference (2010), no. OTuP3.

5.

S. Shinada, H. Furukawa, and N. Wada, “Huge capacity optical packet switching and buffering,” Opt. Express 19(26), B406–B414 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

T. Miyazawa, H. Furukawa, K. Fujikawa, N. Wada, and H. Harai, “Development of an autonomous distributed control system for optical packet and circuit integrated networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4(1), 25–37 (2012). [CrossRef]

7.

H. Furukawa, H. Harai, T. Miyazawa, S. Shinada, W. Kawasaki, and N. Wada, “Development of optical packet and circuit integrated ring network testbed,” Opt. Express 19(26), B242–B250 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

D. Chiaroni, “Optical packet add/drop multiplexers for packet ring networks,” in Proc. 34th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (2008), no. Th.2.E.1.

9.

H. Furukawa, S. Shinada, T. Miyazawa, H. Harai, W. Kawasaki, T. Saito, K. Matsunaga, T. Toyozumi, and N. Wada, “A multi-ring optical packet and circuit integrated network with optical buffering,” in Proc. 38th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (2012), no. We.2.D.2.

10.

H. Yang and S. J. B. Yoo, “All-optical variable buffering strategies and switch fabric architectures for future all-optical data routers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(10), 3321–3330 (2005). [CrossRef]

11.

T. Zhang, K. Lu, and J. P. Jue, “Shared fiber delay line buffers in asynchronous optical packet switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 24(4), 118–127 (2006). [CrossRef]

12.

T. Tanemura, I. M. Soganci, T. Oyama, T. Ohyama, S. Mino, K. A. Williams, N. Calabretta, H. J. S. Dorren, and Y. Nakano, “Large-capacity compact optical buffer based on InP integrated phased-array switch and coiled fiber delay lines,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(4), 396–402 (2011). [CrossRef]

13.

Y. Awaji, H. Furukawa, N. Wada, P. Chan, and R. Man, “Mitigation of transient response of Erbium-doped fiber amplifier for traffic of high speed optical packets,” in Proc. Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2007), no. JTuA133.

14.

K. Sone, S. Yoshida, Y. Kai, G. Nakagawa, G. Ishikawa, and S. Kinoshita, “High-speed 4×4 SOA switch subsystem for DWDM systems,” in Proc. 16th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (2011), no.8A2_2.

15.

G. Nakagawa, Y. Kai, K. Sone, S. Yoshida, S. Tanaka, K. Morito, and S. Kinoshita, “Ultra-high extinction ratio and low cross talk characteristics of 4-array integrated SOA module with compact-packaging technologies,” in Proc. 37th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (2011), no. Mo.2.LeSaleve.4.

16.

H. Harai and N. Wada, “More than 10 Gbps photonic packet-switched networks using WDM-based packet compression,” in Proc. 8th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference pp. 703–704 (2003)

17.

H. Furukawa, H. Harai, M. Ohta, and N. Wada, “Implementation of high-speed buffer management for asynchronous variable-length optical packet switch,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conference (2010), no. OWM4.

18.

ITU-T Recommendation Y.1541.

19.

D. Wischik and N. McKeown, “Part I: Buffer sizes for core routers,” ACM SIGCOMM Comp. Comm. Rev. 35(3), 75–78 (2005). [CrossRef]

20.

H. Furukawa, H. Harai, N. Wada, T. Miyazaki, N. Takezawa, and K. Nashimoto, “A 31-FDL buffer based on trees of 1×8 PLZT optical switches, ” in Proc. 32nd European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (2006), no. Tu4.6.5.

OCIS Codes
(060.4250) Fiber optics and optical communications : Networks
(060.4510) Fiber optics and optical communications : Optical communications

ToC Category:
Backbone and Core Networks

History
Original Manuscript: October 1, 2012
Revised Manuscript: December 1, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: December 4, 2012
Published: December 12, 2012

Virtual Issues
European Conference on Optical Communication 2012 (2012) Optics Express

Citation
Hideaki Furukawa, Satoshi Shinada, Takaya Miyazawa, Hiroaki Harai, Wataru Kawasaki, Tatsuhiko Saito, Koji Matsunaga, Tatuya Toyozumi, and Naoya Wada, "A multi-ring optical packet and circuit integrated network with optical buffering," Opt. Express 20, 28764-28771 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-27-28764


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References

  1. “AKARI architecture conceptual design ver1.0 (2007),” http://akari-project.nict.go.jp/eng/index2.htm .
  2. H. Harai, “Optical packet & circuit integrated network for future networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun.E95-B(3), 714–722 (2012).
  3. S. Das, G. Parulkar, N. McKeown, P. Singh, D. Getachew, and L. Ong, “Packet and circuit network convergence with OpenFlow,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conference (2010), no. OTuG1.
  4. H. Wang, A. S. Garg, K. Bergman, and M. Glick, “Design and demonstration of an all-optical hybrid packet and circuit switched network platform for next generation data centers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conference (2010), no. OTuP3.
  5. S. Shinada, H. Furukawa, and N. Wada, “Huge capacity optical packet switching and buffering,” Opt. Express19(26), B406–B414 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Miyazawa, H. Furukawa, K. Fujikawa, N. Wada, and H. Harai, “Development of an autonomous distributed control system for optical packet and circuit integrated networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw.4(1), 25–37 (2012). [CrossRef]
  7. H. Furukawa, H. Harai, T. Miyazawa, S. Shinada, W. Kawasaki, and N. Wada, “Development of optical packet and circuit integrated ring network testbed,” Opt. Express19(26), B242–B250 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. Chiaroni, “Optical packet add/drop multiplexers for packet ring networks,” in Proc. 34th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (2008), no. Th.2.E.1.
  9. H. Furukawa, S. Shinada, T. Miyazawa, H. Harai, W. Kawasaki, T. Saito, K. Matsunaga, T. Toyozumi, and N. Wada, “A multi-ring optical packet and circuit integrated network with optical buffering,” in Proc. 38th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (2012), no. We.2.D.2.
  10. H. Yang and S. J. B. Yoo, “All-optical variable buffering strategies and switch fabric architectures for future all-optical data routers,” J. Lightwave Technol.23(10), 3321–3330 (2005). [CrossRef]
  11. T. Zhang, K. Lu, and J. P. Jue, “Shared fiber delay line buffers in asynchronous optical packet switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.24(4), 118–127 (2006). [CrossRef]
  12. T. Tanemura, I. M. Soganci, T. Oyama, T. Ohyama, S. Mino, K. A. Williams, N. Calabretta, H. J. S. Dorren, and Y. Nakano, “Large-capacity compact optical buffer based on InP integrated phased-array switch and coiled fiber delay lines,” J. Lightwave Technol.29(4), 396–402 (2011). [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Awaji, H. Furukawa, N. Wada, P. Chan, and R. Man, “Mitigation of transient response of Erbium-doped fiber amplifier for traffic of high speed optical packets,” in Proc. Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2007), no. JTuA133.
  14. K. Sone, S. Yoshida, Y. Kai, G. Nakagawa, G. Ishikawa, and S. Kinoshita, “High-speed 4×4 SOA switch subsystem for DWDM systems,” in Proc. 16th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (2011), no.8A2_2.
  15. G. Nakagawa, Y. Kai, K. Sone, S. Yoshida, S. Tanaka, K. Morito, and S. Kinoshita, “Ultra-high extinction ratio and low cross talk characteristics of 4-array integrated SOA module with compact-packaging technologies,” in Proc. 37th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (2011), no. Mo.2.LeSaleve.4.
  16. H. Harai and N. Wada, “More than 10 Gbps photonic packet-switched networks using WDM-based packet compression,” in Proc. 8th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference pp. 703–704 (2003)
  17. H. Furukawa, H. Harai, M. Ohta, and N. Wada, “Implementation of high-speed buffer management for asynchronous variable-length optical packet switch,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conference (2010), no. OWM4.
  18. ITU-T Recommendation Y.1541.
  19. D. Wischik and N. McKeown, “Part I: Buffer sizes for core routers,” ACM SIGCOMM Comp. Comm. Rev.35(3), 75–78 (2005). [CrossRef]
  20. H. Furukawa, H. Harai, N. Wada, T. Miyazaki, N. Takezawa, and K. Nashimoto, “A 31-FDL buffer based on trees of 1×8 PLZT optical switches, ” in Proc. 32nd European Conf. and Exhibition on Optical Communication (2006), no. Tu4.6.5.

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