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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 27 — Dec. 17, 2012
  • pp: 28846–28854
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Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in all-solid chalcogenide-tellurite photonic bandgap fiber

Tonglei Cheng, Meisong Liao, Weiqing Gao, Zhongchao Duan, Takenobu Suzuki, and Yasutake Ohishi  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 27, pp. 28846-28854 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.028846


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Abstract

A new way to suppress stimulated Brillouin scattering by using an all-solid chalcogenide-tellurite photonic bandgap fiber is presented in the paper. The compositions of the chalcogenide and the tellurite glass are As2Se3 and TeO2-ZnO-Li2O-Bi2O3. The light and the acoustic wave are confined in the fiber by photonic bandgap and acoustic bandgap mechanism, respectively. When the pump wavelength is within the photonic bandgap and the acoustic wave generated by the pump light is outside the acoustic bandgap, the interaction between the optical and the acoustic modes is very weak, thus stimulated Brillouin scattering is suppressed in the photonic bandgap fiber.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in optical fiber is a prominent nonlinear effect because of the lower threshold than other nonlinear effects, and has been extensively studied during the last several years [1

1. E. P. Ippen and R. H. Stolen, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21(11), 539–541 (1972). [CrossRef]

,2

2. J. O. White, A. Vasilyev, J. P. Cahill, N. Satyan, O. Okusaga, G. Rakuljic, C. E. Mungan, and A. Yariv, “Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers using a linearly chirped diode laser,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15872–15881 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. It has been exploited in a lot of applications, from Brillouin lasers and amplifiers to strain/temperature sensing [3

3. R. Parvizi, H. Arof, N. M. Ali, H. Ahmad, and S. W. Harun, “0.16 nm spaced multi-wavelength Brillouin fiber laser in a figure-of-eight configuration,” Opt. Laser Technol. 43(4), 866–869 (2011). [CrossRef]

7

7. W. Li, N. H. Zhu, and L. X. Wang, “Brillouin-assisted microwave frequency measurement with adjustable measurement range and resolution,” Opt. Lett. 37(2), 166–168 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, when SBS occurs in the optical fiber, most of the input power is backscattered and the transmitted signal is seriously degraded. Thus for many applications, such as the telecommunication systems, the nonlinear devices [8

8. M. Takahashi, J. Hiroishi, M. Tadakuma, and T. Yagi, “Improvement of FWM conversion efficiency by SBS-suppressed highly nonlinear dispersion-decreasing fiber with a strain distribution,” in Proc. ECOC (2008).

], the high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers [9

9. H. Lee and G. P. Agrawal, “Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers using fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 11(25), 3467–3472 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,10

10. R. Parvizi, S. W. Harun, N. S. Shahabuddin, Z. Yusoff, and H. Ahmad, “Multi-wavelength bismuth-based erbium-doped fiber laser based on four-wave mixing effect in photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42(8), 1250–1252 (2010). [CrossRef]

], SBS is not useful and it is necessary to decrease Brillouin gain (BG) or increase SBS threshold. Many approaches have been investigated for suppressing SBS, such as varying the refractive index profile in a longitudinal direction [11

11. K. Shiraki, M. Ohashi, and M. Tateda, “Performance of strain-free stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(4), 549–554 (1996). [CrossRef]

], using fiber with a strain/temperature distribution [12

12. J. Hansryd, F. Dross, M. Westlund, P. A. Andrekson, and S. N. Knudsen, “Increase of the SBS threshold in a short highly nonlinear fiber by applying a temperature distribution,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19(11), 1691–1697 (2001). [CrossRef]

]or fiber Bragg gratings [2

2. J. O. White, A. Vasilyev, J. P. Cahill, N. Satyan, O. Okusaga, G. Rakuljic, C. E. Mungan, and A. Yariv, “Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers using a linearly chirped diode laser,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15872–15881 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], reducing the interaction between the optical and the acoustic modes in the co-doped optical fiber [13

13. M. J. Li, X. Chen, J. Wang, S. Gray, A. Liu, J. A. Demeritt, A. B. Ruffin, A. M. Crowley, D. T. Walton, and L. A. Zenteno, “Al/Ge co-doped large mode area fiber with high SBS threshold,” Opt. Express 15(13), 8290–8299 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16

16. C. K. Jen, J. E. B. Oliveira, N. Goto, and K. Abe, “Role of guided acoustic wave properties in single-mode optical fibre design,” Electron. Lett. 24(23), 1419–1420 (1988). [CrossRef]

], and designing hole-assisted structure fiber [17

17. T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui, K. Shiraki, and T. Kurashima, “SBS Suppressed Fiber With Hole-Assisted Structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(20), 4401–4406 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. As SBS occurs due to the interaction between the pump light and the acoustic wave in an optical fiber, reducing the interaction is a good way to suppress SBS and increase SBS threshold.

Photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) with unique and remarkable properties of the light and the acoustic wave have been widely investigated for SBS [18

18. L. F. Zou, X. Y. Bao, and L. Chen, “Brillouin scattering spectrum in photonic crystal fiber with a partially germanium-doped core,” Opt. Lett. 28(21), 2022–2024 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20

20. R. Cherif, M. Zghal, and L. Tartara, “Characterization of stimulated Brillouin scattering in small core microstructured chalcogenide fiber,” Opt. Commun. 285(3), 341–346 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. Especially the tellurite and chalcogenide PCFs, with higher nonlinearity and higher Brillouin gain coefficient (gB), have been widely used in SBS application [21

21. G. S. Qin, A. Mori, and Y. Ohishi, “Brillouin lasing in a single-mode tellurite fiber,” Opt. Lett. 32(15), 2179–2181 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23

23. K. S. Abedin, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering in single-mode tellurite glass fiber,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11766–11772 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Light confinement in PCF is explained by two different mechanisms: the total internal reflection (TIR) and the photonic bandgap (PBG) effect. Acoustic wave confinement is also explained by two mechanisms: TIR and acoustic bandgap (ABG) [24

24. V. Laude, A. Khelif, S. Benchabane, M. Wilm, T. Sylvestre, B. Kibler, A. Mussot, J. M. Dudley, and H. Maillotte, “Photonic bandgap guidance of acoustic modes in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. B 71(4), 045107 (2005). [CrossRef]

26

26. M. M. Sigalas, “Elastic wave band gaps and defect states in two-dimensional composites,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 101(3), 1256–1261 (1997). [CrossRef]

]. If the effective acoustic velocity in the cladding region is faster than that in the core region, the acoustic wave will be localized in the core by TIR mechanism. Otherwise, the acoustic wave will be confined by ABG mechanism, and by using this mechanism, it is possible to design a novel PBG fiber (PBGF) to reduce the optic-acoustic effect for increasing the SBS threshold and suppressing SBS.

In this paper, we present a numerical investigation on Brillouin gain spectra (BGS) to explain how to increase the SBS threshold and suppress SBS in an all-solid chalcogenide-tellurite PBGF. The compositions of the chalcogenide and the tellurite glass are As2Se3 and TeO2-ZnO-Li2O-Bi2O3 (TZLB), respectively. Light is confined by PBG mechanism. On the other hand, as the effective acoustic velocity in As2Se3 is slower than that in the tellurite core, the effective acoustic index in cladding region is higher than that in the core region. Therefore, the acoustic wave is confined by ABG mechanism. When the pump light at λ = 1.55 μm is within the PBG and the acoustic wave generated by the pump light is outside the ABG, the interaction between the optical and the acoustic modes is very weak and SBS threshold is very high. Thus SBS is suppressed in all-solid chalcogenide-tellurite PBGF.

2. Brillouin gain spectra-theoretical formulation

In PCFs, the acoustic modes contain proportions of shear (S) and longitudinal (L) modes, which travel at different phase velocities in the fiber. Although some S-acoustic modes have certain contribution to BGS, the L-acoustic modes are the dominant components. Therefore, we take only L-acoustic modes into consideration. Various theoretical methods have been reported which can be used to calculate BGS by solving the optical and the acoustic wave equations [27

27. P. J. Thomas, N. L. Rowell, H. M. Vandriel, and G. I. Stegeman, “Normal acoustic modes and Brillouin scattering in single-mode optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. B 19(10), 4986–4998 (1979). [CrossRef]

30

30. S. Dasgupta, F. Poletti, S. Liu, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and S. Herstrøm, “Modeling Brillouin Gain Spectrum of Solid and Microstructured Optical Fibers Using a Finite Element Method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(1), 22–30 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. The optical mode field (E) and the L-acoustic mode field (u) in PBGF can be obtained by solving the optical and the acoustic wave equations by means of the FEM, respectively [30

30. S. Dasgupta, F. Poletti, S. Liu, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and S. Herstrøm, “Modeling Brillouin Gain Spectrum of Solid and Microstructured Optical Fibers Using a Finite Element Method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(1), 22–30 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. The equations can be expressed as 2D scalar-wave equations
t2E+(2πλ)(n2neff)E=0
(1)
t2u+(ωa2v2βa2)u=0
(2)
where λ is the pump wavelength, n is the refractive index of the fiber, neff is the effective index of the fundamental optical mode, ωa is the angular frequency of the acoustic wave, v is the velocity of the L-acoustic mode, and βa is the propagation constant of the acoustic mode. The backward SBS only occurs under the phase matching condition βa = 2βopt, where βopt = 2πneff /λ is the propagation constant of the optical mode.

fB,i=2neffviλ
(3)

The contribution of ith-order acoustic mode to BGS SB,i(f), which is evaluated from the overlap between E(x,y) and ui(x,y), is given by
SB,i(f)=Δf2B4(ffB,i)2+Δf2BIigB,i
(4)
where f is the Brillouin frequency shift and ΔfB is the full linewidth at half-maximum (FWHM) of the ith-order acoustic mode, which is assumed to be 23.6 MHz for all modes in tellurite fiber. Ii is the overlap integral of both the optical and the ith-order acoustic modes, and it is given by
Ii=(|E(x,y)|2ui*(x,y)dxdy)2|E(x,y)|4dxdy|ui(x,y)|2dxdy
(5)
gB,i is given by
gB,i=4πneff8p122λ3ρcfB,iΔfB
(6)
where p12 = 0.241 and ρ = 5900 kg/m3 are the longitudinal photo-elastic coefficient and the density of the tellurite glass [31

31. G. S. Qin, H. Sotobayashi, M. Tsuchiya, A. Mori, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in a Single-Mode Tellurite Fiber for Amplification, Lasing, and Slow Light Generation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(5), 492–498 (2008). [CrossRef]

], respectively. And c is the velocity of light in vacuum.

Since all the acoustic modes are statistically independent, the total BGS of PBGF is the sum of BGS from each mode and can be expressed as

SB(f)=iSB,i(f)
(7)

The onset of SBS is determined by SBS threshold (Pth) which is affected by a few factors [13

13. M. J. Li, X. Chen, J. Wang, S. Gray, A. Liu, J. A. Demeritt, A. B. Ruffin, A. M. Crowley, D. T. Walton, and L. A. Zenteno, “Al/Ge co-doped large mode area fiber with high SBS threshold,” Opt. Express 15(13), 8290–8299 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].
PthKAeffαiG(vmax,L)Ii
(8)
where αi is the acoustic attenuation coefficient for the acoustic mode of order i, Aeff is the optical effective mode area, G(νmax) is the effective gain coefficient at the peak frequency and K is the polarization factor. From this we can see the SBS threshold increases with the reduction of Ii.

3. PBG and ABG theory

For all-solid chalcogenide-tellurite PBGF, light can be guided in the low index core due to the existence of PBG, which can be explained by the antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide (ARROW) model [32

32. M. A. Duguay, Y. Kukubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, “Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2-Si multiplayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(1), 13–15 (1986). [CrossRef]

34

34. A. K. Abeeluck, N. M. Litchinitser, C. Headley, and B. J. Eggleton, “Analysis of spectral characteristics of photonic bandgap waveguides,” Opt. Express 10(23), 1320–1333 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The high-index rods in the cladding can be considered as a Fabry-Perot (FP) resonator. When the light satisfies the resonant condition, it will be confined in the cladding and corresponding to the transmission minima in the core. Otherwise the light will be confined in the core and corresponding to the transmission maximum in the core. So PBG of the all-solid PBGF can be expressed by the transmission spectrum which is defined as the ratio of the integrated power within the core region. White et al. have already reported that PBG can be expressed by the confinement loss calculated by the multi-pole method [35

35. T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, C. Martijnde Sterke, N. M. Litchinitser, and B. J. Eggleton, “Resonance and scattering in microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 27(22), 1977–1979 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. We can represent the fields of the wave propagating in the x-z plane as a series of J-type Bessel functions by using the expansion
exp(ilx+ihziwt)=exp(ihziwt)×n=Jn(lr)exp(inθ)
(9)
where l = kcos(α) and h = ksin(α), k = /c. The scattered fields are expressed in terms of Hankel Hn(1)(lr) functions centered on the cylinder, and the fields inside the cylinder are expressed as a J-type Bessel function series.

Same to the light transmission in PBG, when the acoustic wave is inside ABG, it will be confined in the core of all-solid chalcogenide-tellurite PBGF. Otherwise the acoustic wave will be confined in the cladding. So ABG can also be expressed by the acoustic wave transmission characteristics. The acoustic modes in the all-solid PBGF can be calculated by the finite element method (FEM) [24

24. V. Laude, A. Khelif, S. Benchabane, M. Wilm, T. Sylvestre, B. Kibler, A. Mussot, J. M. Dudley, and H. Maillotte, “Photonic bandgap guidance of acoustic modes in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. B 71(4), 045107 (2005). [CrossRef]

], from which ABG can be obtained. The acoustic mode fields (u(x,y,z)) can be expressed as
ux(x,y,z;t)=P(x,y)Tuxcos(ωtkz)uy(x,y,z;t)=P(x,y)Tuycos(ωtkz)uz(x,y,z;t)=P(x,y)Tuzsin(ωtkz)}
(10)
where u=(ux,uy,uz)Tis the vector of the 3n displacements at the n nodes of the finite element and the P is a vector of n Lagrange interpolation polynomials. From the waveguide FEM, we can obtain the acoustic modes guided by a plain cylinder with a circular cross section, and ABG of the all-solid chalcogenide-tellurite PBGF can also be obtained.

In the paper, first PBG of the all-solid chalcogenide-tellurite PBGF with different parameters is calculated by the multi-pole method in order to guarantee the light at λ = 1.55 μm is within PBG. Then from the parameters that satisfy this condition, a further selection is made by making sure the acoustic mode is outside ABG, which is calculated by the FEM.

4. Structure of all-solid chalcogenide-tellurite PBGF

All-solid chalcogenide-tellurite PBGF can be fabricated by the stack-and-draw technique and Liao et al. have already fabricated and reported the chalcogenide-tellurite composite microstructure fiber [36

36. M. S. Liao, C. Chaudhari, G. S. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, M. Matsumoto, and T. Misumi, “Fabrication and characterization of a chalcogenide-tellurite composite microstructure fiber with high nonlinearity,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21608–21614 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The all–solid chalcogenide-tellurite PBGF can also be fabricated in future. The high-index rods are made from the As2Se3 glass. The low-index core and cladding are made from the TZLB glass. Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The cross-sectional structure of all-solid chalcogenide-tellurite PBGF.
shows the cross-sectional structure of all-solid chalcogenide-tellurite PBGF. To make sure the light at λ = 1.55 μm is within PBG while the acoustic wave generated by the pump light is outside ABG, the parameters—the pitch Λ = 1.82 μm and the As2Se3 rod diameter D = 1.02 μm are selected based on PBG and APG theory by large amount of calculation. The refractive indexes of the As2Se3 rod (n1) and the tellurite glass (n2) are given by the Sellmeier equation
n2(λ)=1+i=1lAiλ2λ2Li2
(11)
At λ = 1.55 μm, n1 = 2.68 and n2 = 2.003. Figure 2
Fig. 2 The refractive index (a), and the velocity of the longitudinal acoustic wave (b) profile along the X axis of all-solid chalcogenide-tellurite PBGF.
shows the profiles of the refractive index (a) and the velocity of the longitudinal acoustic wave (b) along the X axis shown in Fig. 1. v1 = 2250 m/s is the velocity of the acoustic wave in the As2Se3 rod while v2 = 3042.70 m/s that in the tellurite glass [23

23. K. S. Abedin, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering in single-mode tellurite glass fiber,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11766–11772 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 31

31. G. S. Qin, H. Sotobayashi, M. Tsuchiya, A. Mori, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in a Single-Mode Tellurite Fiber for Amplification, Lasing, and Slow Light Generation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(5), 492–498 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. In order to draw an analogy with optical fields, the acoustic refractive index is introduced and it increases with a decreased acoustic velocity [14

14. P. D. Dragic, C. Liu, G. C. Papen, and A. Galvanauskas, “Optical fiber with an acoustic guiding layer for stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression,” in Proc. CLEO (2005).

]. So there is ABG effect in PBGF.

5. Simulation results and discussion

PBG of all-solid chalcogenide-tellurite PBGF can be expressed as the confinement loss gap which is calculated by the multipole method [35

35. T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, C. Martijnde Sterke, N. M. Litchinitser, and B. J. Eggleton, “Resonance and scattering in microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 27(22), 1977–1979 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], as shown in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The confinement loss of all-solid chalcogenide-tellurite PBGF.
. We can see that there are two PBGs from 1.1 μm to 1.9 μm. The light at λ = 1.55 μm and 1.65μm are within PBG.

The FEM is used to calculate BGS and it has already been successfully tested on PCF. Figure 4
Fig. 4 BGS of all-solid chalcogenide-tellurite PBGF at λ = 1.55 μm.
shows BGS of all-solid chalcogenide-tellurite PBGF at λ = 1.55 μm. There is only one peak at fB,1 = 7.83 GHz and the peak value is about 1.109 × 10−13 m/W. For comparison, BGS of air-hole (n0 = 1.0) tellurite PCF with the same parameters as Fig. 1 is calculated, as shown in Fig. 5
Fig. 5 BGS of air-hole tellurite PBGF at λ = 1.55 μm.
. We can see that the peak value is about 1.32 × 10−10 m/W at fB,1 = 7.77 GHz. It is obvious that the BGS peak value of all-solid chalcogenide-tellurite PBGF is much smaller than that of air-hole tellurite PCF. Thus SBS is suppressed in the former fiber.

In order to explain the suppression of SBS and verify the contribution of the acoustic mode, the fundamental optical and the acoustic mode distributions are calculated at λ = 1.55 μm. Figure 6
Fig. 6 The fundamental optical mode (a), and the acoustic mode (b) of all-solid chalcogenide-tellurite PBGF at λ = 1.55 μm.
shows the fundamental optical and the acoustic modes of all-solid chalcogenide-tellurite PBGF. From Fig. 3 we can see that λ = 1.55 μm is within PBG, thus the optical mode is confined in the core, as shown in Fig. 6(a). Because of ABG mechanism, the acoustic wave generated by the pump light through the effect of electrostriction is outside ABG, and it will tend to transmit in the high acoustic refractive index region−the As2Se3 rods, forming the high-order acoustic mode, as shown in Fig. 6(b). Under this condition, the interaction between the optical and the acoustic modes is very weak in the core, and BG is very small. Besides, from Eq. (8) we can also see that SBS threshold increases as the interaction reduces. The higher the SBS threshold, the more difficultly SBS will generate. Thus the SBS effect in all-solid chalcogenide-tellurite PBGF will be suppressed. This is very useful for the high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers, telecommunication systems and the nonlinear devices. However, due to PBG effect, a little amount of light leaks in the As2Se3 rod and will interact with the high-order acoustic mode, so there is still a little peak of BGS, as shown in Fig. 4.

The fundamental optical mode (a) and the acoustic mode (b) of air-hole tellurite PCF with the same parameters (Λ and D) are also calculated at λ = 1.55 μm, as shown in Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The fundamental optical mode (a), and the acoustic mode (b) of air-hole tellurite PBGF at λ = 1.55 μm.
. Because there is no PBG or ABG in air-hole tellurite PCF, the optical and the acoustic modes are confined in the core by TIR mechanism. The interaction between two modes is strong and SBS is very obvious. So the peak value of BGS (Fig. 5) is larger, and SBS threshold is lower than that of all-solid chalcogenide-tellurite PBGF. Therefore, SBS is not suppressed in the air-hole tellurite PCF.

With different wavelengths pumping all-solid chalcogenide-tellurite PBGF, the acoustic wave will be within ABG, and be confined in the core by ABG mechanism. For example, at λ = 1.65 μm, the wavelength is within PBG (Fig. 3), and the acoustic mode is also within ABG, which is different from Fig. 6(b). Figure 8
Fig. 8 BGS of all-solid chalcogenide-tellurite PBGF at λ = 1.65 μm.
shows BGS at λ = 1.65 μm. fB,i is decreasing with the pump wavelength increasing. The peak value is about 6.03 × 10−11 m/W at fB,1 = 7.28 GHz, and it has the same magnitude with air-hole tellurite PCF at λ = 1.55 μm. From this we can see that SBS is not suppressed at λ = 1.65 μm. SBS is suppressed only under the condition that the pump wavelength is within PBG and the acoustic wave is outside ABG, thus the parameters of all-solid chalcogenide-tellurite PBGF must be matched. Figure 9
Fig. 9 The fundamental optical mode (a), and the acoustic mode (b) of all-solid chalcogenide-tellurite PBGF at λ = 1.65 μm.
shows the fundamental optical mode (a), and the acoustic mode (b) of all-solid chalcogenide-tellurite PBGF at λ = 1.65 μm. They are confined in the core by PBG and ABG mechanism, respectively. The interaction between these two modes is nearly as strong as air-hole tellurite PCF. Therefore, SBS is not suppressed in all-solid chalcogenide-tellurite PBGF at λ = 1.65 μm.

6. Conclusions

In summary, a new way to suppress SBS by using an all-solid chalcogenide-tellurite PBGF is reported in the paper. In the PGBF, the pump wavelength must be within PBG while the acoustic wave which is generated by the pump light must be outside ABG. Under this condition, the interaction between the optical and the acoustic modes is very weak, and consequently suppression in SBS and the high SBS threshold are obtained. This new PBGF is very useful for the telecommunication systems, the high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers, and the nonlinear devices.

Acknowledgment

The authors are grateful to Dr. Rim Cherif of University of Carthage, Tunisia, for her support. This work is supported by MEXT, the Support Program for Forming Strategic Research Infrastructure (2011-2015).

References and links

1.

E. P. Ippen and R. H. Stolen, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21(11), 539–541 (1972). [CrossRef]

2.

J. O. White, A. Vasilyev, J. P. Cahill, N. Satyan, O. Okusaga, G. Rakuljic, C. E. Mungan, and A. Yariv, “Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers using a linearly chirped diode laser,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15872–15881 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

R. Parvizi, H. Arof, N. M. Ali, H. Ahmad, and S. W. Harun, “0.16 nm spaced multi-wavelength Brillouin fiber laser in a figure-of-eight configuration,” Opt. Laser Technol. 43(4), 866–869 (2011). [CrossRef]

4.

R. K. Yamashita, W. W. Zou, Z. Y. He, and K. Hotate, “Measurement Range Elongation Based on Temporal Gating in Brillouin Optical Correlation Domain Distributed Simultaneous Sensing of Strain and Temperature,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(12), 1006–1008 (2012). [CrossRef]

5.

R. Pant, A. Byrnes, C. G. Poulton, E. B. Li, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic-chip-based tunable slow and fast light via stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Opt. Lett. 37(5), 969–971 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Chin, L. Thévenaz, J. Sancho, S. Sales, J. Capmany, P. Berger, J. Bourderionnet, and D. Dolfi, “Broadband true time delay for microwave signal processing, using slow light based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 18(21), 22599–22613 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W. Li, N. H. Zhu, and L. X. Wang, “Brillouin-assisted microwave frequency measurement with adjustable measurement range and resolution,” Opt. Lett. 37(2), 166–168 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

M. Takahashi, J. Hiroishi, M. Tadakuma, and T. Yagi, “Improvement of FWM conversion efficiency by SBS-suppressed highly nonlinear dispersion-decreasing fiber with a strain distribution,” in Proc. ECOC (2008).

9.

H. Lee and G. P. Agrawal, “Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers using fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 11(25), 3467–3472 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

R. Parvizi, S. W. Harun, N. S. Shahabuddin, Z. Yusoff, and H. Ahmad, “Multi-wavelength bismuth-based erbium-doped fiber laser based on four-wave mixing effect in photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42(8), 1250–1252 (2010). [CrossRef]

11.

K. Shiraki, M. Ohashi, and M. Tateda, “Performance of strain-free stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(4), 549–554 (1996). [CrossRef]

12.

J. Hansryd, F. Dross, M. Westlund, P. A. Andrekson, and S. N. Knudsen, “Increase of the SBS threshold in a short highly nonlinear fiber by applying a temperature distribution,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19(11), 1691–1697 (2001). [CrossRef]

13.

M. J. Li, X. Chen, J. Wang, S. Gray, A. Liu, J. A. Demeritt, A. B. Ruffin, A. M. Crowley, D. T. Walton, and L. A. Zenteno, “Al/Ge co-doped large mode area fiber with high SBS threshold,” Opt. Express 15(13), 8290–8299 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

P. D. Dragic, C. Liu, G. C. Papen, and A. Galvanauskas, “Optical fiber with an acoustic guiding layer for stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression,” in Proc. CLEO (2005).

15.

K. Shiraki, M. Ohashi, and M. Tateda, “Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in a fibre by changing the core radius,” Electron. Lett. 31(8), 668–669 (1995). [CrossRef]

16.

C. K. Jen, J. E. B. Oliveira, N. Goto, and K. Abe, “Role of guided acoustic wave properties in single-mode optical fibre design,” Electron. Lett. 24(23), 1419–1420 (1988). [CrossRef]

17.

T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui, K. Shiraki, and T. Kurashima, “SBS Suppressed Fiber With Hole-Assisted Structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(20), 4401–4406 (2009). [CrossRef]

18.

L. F. Zou, X. Y. Bao, and L. Chen, “Brillouin scattering spectrum in photonic crystal fiber with a partially germanium-doped core,” Opt. Lett. 28(21), 2022–2024 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

P. Dainese, P. S. J. Russell, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, G. S. Wiederhecher, H. L. Fragnito, V. Laude, and A. Khelif, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering from multi-GHz-guided acoustic phonons in nanostructured photonic crystal fibres,” Nat. Phys. 2(6), 388–392 (2006). [CrossRef]

20.

R. Cherif, M. Zghal, and L. Tartara, “Characterization of stimulated Brillouin scattering in small core microstructured chalcogenide fiber,” Opt. Commun. 285(3), 341–346 (2012). [CrossRef]

21.

G. S. Qin, A. Mori, and Y. Ohishi, “Brillouin lasing in a single-mode tellurite fiber,” Opt. Lett. 32(15), 2179–2181 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

C. Florea, M. Bashkansky, Z. Dutton, J. Sanghera, P. Pureza, and I. Aggarwal, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering in single-mode As2S3 and As2Se3 chalcogenide fibers,” Opt. Express 14(25), 12063–12070 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

K. S. Abedin, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering in single-mode tellurite glass fiber,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11766–11772 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

V. Laude, A. Khelif, S. Benchabane, M. Wilm, T. Sylvestre, B. Kibler, A. Mussot, J. M. Dudley, and H. Maillotte, “Photonic bandgap guidance of acoustic modes in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. B 71(4), 045107 (2005). [CrossRef]

25.

I. Enomori, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “Fundamental characteristics of localized acoustic modes in photonic crystal fibers,”IEICE Trans. Electron ,” E88-C(2), 876–882 (2005).

26.

M. M. Sigalas, “Elastic wave band gaps and defect states in two-dimensional composites,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 101(3), 1256–1261 (1997). [CrossRef]

27.

P. J. Thomas, N. L. Rowell, H. M. Vandriel, and G. I. Stegeman, “Normal acoustic modes and Brillouin scattering in single-mode optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. B 19(10), 4986–4998 (1979). [CrossRef]

28.

W. W. Zou, Z. Y. He, and K. Hotate, “Two-dimensional finite element modal analysis of Brillouin gain spectra in optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2487–2489 (2006). [CrossRef]

29.

B. Ward and J. Spring, “Finite element analysis of Brillouin gain in SBS-suppressing optical fibers with non-uniform acoustic velocity profiles,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15685–15699 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

30.

S. Dasgupta, F. Poletti, S. Liu, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and S. Herstrøm, “Modeling Brillouin Gain Spectrum of Solid and Microstructured Optical Fibers Using a Finite Element Method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(1), 22–30 (2011). [CrossRef]

31.

G. S. Qin, H. Sotobayashi, M. Tsuchiya, A. Mori, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in a Single-Mode Tellurite Fiber for Amplification, Lasing, and Slow Light Generation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(5), 492–498 (2008). [CrossRef]

32.

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kukubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, “Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2-Si multiplayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(1), 13–15 (1986). [CrossRef]

33.

N. M. Litchinitser, A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, and B. J. Eggleton, “Antiresonant reflecting photonic crystal optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 27(18), 1592–1594 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

34.

A. K. Abeeluck, N. M. Litchinitser, C. Headley, and B. J. Eggleton, “Analysis of spectral characteristics of photonic bandgap waveguides,” Opt. Express 10(23), 1320–1333 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

35.

T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, C. Martijnde Sterke, N. M. Litchinitser, and B. J. Eggleton, “Resonance and scattering in microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 27(22), 1977–1979 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

36.

M. S. Liao, C. Chaudhari, G. S. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, M. Matsumoto, and T. Misumi, “Fabrication and characterization of a chalcogenide-tellurite composite microstructure fiber with high nonlinearity,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21608–21614 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(060.2280) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber design and fabrication
(290.5900) Scattering : Scattering, stimulated Brillouin
(060.4005) Fiber optics and optical communications : Microstructured fibers

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: September 27, 2012
Revised Manuscript: November 2, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: November 16, 2012
Published: December 12, 2012

Citation
Tonglei Cheng, Meisong Liao, Weiqing Gao, Zhongchao Duan, Takenobu Suzuki, and Yasutake Ohishi, "Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in all-solid chalcogenide-tellurite photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Express 20, 28846-28854 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-27-28846


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References

  1. E. P. Ippen and R. H. Stolen, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.21(11), 539–541 (1972). [CrossRef]
  2. J. O. White, A. Vasilyev, J. P. Cahill, N. Satyan, O. Okusaga, G. Rakuljic, C. E. Mungan, and A. Yariv, “Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers using a linearly chirped diode laser,” Opt. Express20(14), 15872–15881 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. Parvizi, H. Arof, N. M. Ali, H. Ahmad, and S. W. Harun, “0.16 nm spaced multi-wavelength Brillouin fiber laser in a figure-of-eight configuration,” Opt. Laser Technol.43(4), 866–869 (2011). [CrossRef]
  4. R. K. Yamashita, W. W. Zou, Z. Y. He, and K. Hotate, “Measurement Range Elongation Based on Temporal Gating in Brillouin Optical Correlation Domain Distributed Simultaneous Sensing of Strain and Temperature,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(12), 1006–1008 (2012). [CrossRef]
  5. R. Pant, A. Byrnes, C. G. Poulton, E. B. Li, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic-chip-based tunable slow and fast light via stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Opt. Lett.37(5), 969–971 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Chin, L. Thévenaz, J. Sancho, S. Sales, J. Capmany, P. Berger, J. Bourderionnet, and D. Dolfi, “Broadband true time delay for microwave signal processing, using slow light based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers,” Opt. Express18(21), 22599–22613 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. W. Li, N. H. Zhu, and L. X. Wang, “Brillouin-assisted microwave frequency measurement with adjustable measurement range and resolution,” Opt. Lett.37(2), 166–168 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Takahashi, J. Hiroishi, M. Tadakuma, and T. Yagi, “Improvement of FWM conversion efficiency by SBS-suppressed highly nonlinear dispersion-decreasing fiber with a strain distribution,” in Proc. ECOC (2008).
  9. H. Lee and G. P. Agrawal, “Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers using fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express11(25), 3467–3472 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. Parvizi, S. W. Harun, N. S. Shahabuddin, Z. Yusoff, and H. Ahmad, “Multi-wavelength bismuth-based erbium-doped fiber laser based on four-wave mixing effect in photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Laser Technol.42(8), 1250–1252 (2010). [CrossRef]
  11. K. Shiraki, M. Ohashi, and M. Tateda, “Performance of strain-free stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol.14(4), 549–554 (1996). [CrossRef]
  12. J. Hansryd, F. Dross, M. Westlund, P. A. Andrekson, and S. N. Knudsen, “Increase of the SBS threshold in a short highly nonlinear fiber by applying a temperature distribution,” J. Lightwave Technol.19(11), 1691–1697 (2001). [CrossRef]
  13. M. J. Li, X. Chen, J. Wang, S. Gray, A. Liu, J. A. Demeritt, A. B. Ruffin, A. M. Crowley, D. T. Walton, and L. A. Zenteno, “Al/Ge co-doped large mode area fiber with high SBS threshold,” Opt. Express15(13), 8290–8299 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. P. D. Dragic, C. Liu, G. C. Papen, and A. Galvanauskas, “Optical fiber with an acoustic guiding layer for stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression,” in Proc. CLEO (2005).
  15. K. Shiraki, M. Ohashi, and M. Tateda, “Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in a fibre by changing the core radius,” Electron. Lett.31(8), 668–669 (1995). [CrossRef]
  16. C. K. Jen, J. E. B. Oliveira, N. Goto, and K. Abe, “Role of guided acoustic wave properties in single-mode optical fibre design,” Electron. Lett.24(23), 1419–1420 (1988). [CrossRef]
  17. T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui, K. Shiraki, and T. Kurashima, “SBS Suppressed Fiber With Hole-Assisted Structure,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(20), 4401–4406 (2009). [CrossRef]
  18. L. F. Zou, X. Y. Bao, and L. Chen, “Brillouin scattering spectrum in photonic crystal fiber with a partially germanium-doped core,” Opt. Lett.28(21), 2022–2024 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. P. Dainese, P. S. J. Russell, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, G. S. Wiederhecher, H. L. Fragnito, V. Laude, and A. Khelif, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering from multi-GHz-guided acoustic phonons in nanostructured photonic crystal fibres,” Nat. Phys.2(6), 388–392 (2006). [CrossRef]
  20. R. Cherif, M. Zghal, and L. Tartara, “Characterization of stimulated Brillouin scattering in small core microstructured chalcogenide fiber,” Opt. Commun.285(3), 341–346 (2012). [CrossRef]
  21. G. S. Qin, A. Mori, and Y. Ohishi, “Brillouin lasing in a single-mode tellurite fiber,” Opt. Lett.32(15), 2179–2181 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. C. Florea, M. Bashkansky, Z. Dutton, J. Sanghera, P. Pureza, and I. Aggarwal, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering in single-mode As2S3 and As2Se3 chalcogenide fibers,” Opt. Express14(25), 12063–12070 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. K. S. Abedin, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering in single-mode tellurite glass fiber,” Opt. Express14(24), 11766–11772 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. V. Laude, A. Khelif, S. Benchabane, M. Wilm, T. Sylvestre, B. Kibler, A. Mussot, J. M. Dudley, and H. Maillotte, “Photonic bandgap guidance of acoustic modes in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. B71(4), 045107 (2005). [CrossRef]
  25. I. Enomori, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “Fundamental characteristics of localized acoustic modes in photonic crystal fibers,”IEICE Trans. Electron,” E88-C(2), 876–882 (2005).
  26. M. M. Sigalas, “Elastic wave band gaps and defect states in two-dimensional composites,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.101(3), 1256–1261 (1997). [CrossRef]
  27. P. J. Thomas, N. L. Rowell, H. M. Vandriel, and G. I. Stegeman, “Normal acoustic modes and Brillouin scattering in single-mode optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. B19(10), 4986–4998 (1979). [CrossRef]
  28. W. W. Zou, Z. Y. He, and K. Hotate, “Two-dimensional finite element modal analysis of Brillouin gain spectra in optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(23), 2487–2489 (2006). [CrossRef]
  29. B. Ward and J. Spring, “Finite element analysis of Brillouin gain in SBS-suppressing optical fibers with non-uniform acoustic velocity profiles,” Opt. Express17(18), 15685–15699 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. S. Dasgupta, F. Poletti, S. Liu, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and S. Herstrøm, “Modeling Brillouin Gain Spectrum of Solid and Microstructured Optical Fibers Using a Finite Element Method,” J. Lightwave Technol.29(1), 22–30 (2011). [CrossRef]
  31. G. S. Qin, H. Sotobayashi, M. Tsuchiya, A. Mori, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in a Single-Mode Tellurite Fiber for Amplification, Lasing, and Slow Light Generation,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(5), 492–498 (2008). [CrossRef]
  32. M. A. Duguay, Y. Kukubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, “Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2-Si multiplayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.49(1), 13–15 (1986). [CrossRef]
  33. N. M. Litchinitser, A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, and B. J. Eggleton, “Antiresonant reflecting photonic crystal optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett.27(18), 1592–1594 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. A. K. Abeeluck, N. M. Litchinitser, C. Headley, and B. J. Eggleton, “Analysis of spectral characteristics of photonic bandgap waveguides,” Opt. Express10(23), 1320–1333 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, C. Martijnde Sterke, N. M. Litchinitser, and B. J. Eggleton, “Resonance and scattering in microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.27(22), 1977–1979 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. M. S. Liao, C. Chaudhari, G. S. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, M. Matsumoto, and T. Misumi, “Fabrication and characterization of a chalcogenide-tellurite composite microstructure fiber with high nonlinearity,” Opt. Express17(24), 21608–21614 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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