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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 27 — Dec. 17, 2012
  • pp: 28912–28922
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Computer modeling and experimental study of non-chain pulsed electric-discharge DF laser

Peng Ruan, Jijiang Xie, Laiming Zhang, Jin Guo, Jingjiang Xie, Guilong Yang, Dianjun Li, Qikun Pan, Gaijuan Tan, Fanjiang Meng, and Shiming Li  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 27, pp. 28912-28922 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.028912


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Abstract

Computer simulation and experimental study of a pulsed electrical-discharge DF laser pumped by the SF6-D2 non-chain reaction are presented. The computer model encompassing 28 reactions is based on laser rate equations theory, and applied to approximately describe the chemical processes of non-chain DF laser. A comprehensive study of the dependence of number density on time for all particles in the gain area is conducted by numerical calculation adopting Runge-Kutta method. The output performance of non-chain pulsed DF laser as a function of the output mirror reflectivity and the mixture ratio are analyzed. The calculation results are compared with experimental data, showing good agreement with each other. Both the theoretical analysis and experimental results present that the laser output performance can be improved by optimizing the mixture ratio and output mirror reflectivity. The optimum values of mixture ratio and output mirror reflectivity are respectively 10:1 and 30%. The single pulse energy of 4.95J, pulse duration of 148.8ns and peak power of 33.27 MW are achieved under the optimum conditions.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

Deuterium fluoride (DF) laser radiates in the spectral range 3.6~4.2μm, which is the infrared atmospheric transparency window covering the absorption peaks of many atoms and molecules, so this laser has significant applications in many fields such as spectroscopy, laser radar transmitters, laser ranging, atmospheric monitoring, military, etc [1

1. G. Wilson, B. R. Graves, S. P. Patterson, and R. H. Wank, “Deuterium fluoride laser technology and demonstrators,” Proc. SPIE 5414, 41–51 (2004). [CrossRef]

7

7. F. Bachmann, “High Power Laser Sources for Industry and their Applications,” Proc. SPIE 6735, 1–13 (2007).

].

DF laser can be excited by two ways, one is the traditional chain reaction and the other one is non-chain reaction, the former’ output laser energy is not directly limited by the input energy, which means it can reach high energy, high efficiency laser output. However the gas mixture is usually using corrosive and inflammable F2 + D2, which has the risk of premature ignition and explosion. On the contrary non-chain pulsed DF laser has no risk of corrosion and explosion. Besides, it has other advantages, such as compact structure, easy operation, good beam quality, high peak power, high energy, etc. Non-chain DF laser becomes more attractive due to all these advantages [8

8. V. F. Tarasenko and A. N. Panchenko, “Efficient discharge-pumped non-chain HF and DF lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6101, 1–9 (2006).

10

10. V. D. Bulaev, V. S. Gusev, S. Yu. Kazantsev, I. G. Kononov, S. L. Lysenko, Yu. B. Morozov, A. N. Poznyshev, and K. N. Firsov, “High-power repetitively pulsed electric-discharge HF laser,” Quantum Electron. 40(7), 615–618 (2010). [CrossRef]

].

The chemical and kinetic characteristics of DF molecule are very similar to HF molecule, so computer modeling mostly focuses on HF laser. In this paper, the main parameters of non-chain pulsed DF laser are calculated according to rate equations theory. The dependences of photon density in laser cavity, output laser energy and power on mixture ratio and output mirror reflectivity are analyzed. Experimental study on the non-chain pulsed DF laser with UV pre-ionization discharge is done to verify the theoretical results.

The working medium used are SF6 and D2, the reactions contained in this model are as follows:

  • 1) F atoms formation reactions:
    SF6+eSF5+F+e
    SF6+eSF5++F+2e
    SF6+eSF4+2F+e
  • 2) Pumping reactions:
    F+D2DF(v)+D  (v=0,1,2,3,4)
  • 3) De-excitation reactions:
    DF(v)+DFDF(v1)+DF
    DF(v)+D2DF(v1)+D2
    DF(v)+DDF(v1)+D
    DF(v)+FDF(v1)+F  (v=1,2,3,4)
  • 4) Stimulated radiation:
    DF(v)+hυDF(v1)+2hυ  (v=1,2,3,4)

As can be seen from above processes, the output performance of non-chain DF laser mainly depends on the relative rate of excited DF molecule’s generation and its de-excitation through vibrational relaxation processes, namely the density of excited DF. The generation rate of excited DF is limited by the number density of D2 and the production rate of F; the de-excitation rate mainly depends on relaxation effects of ground state DF, D2, D and F on the excited DF through collision processes. Accordingly, the ratio of SF6-D2 mixture should be properly selected for optimizing the output performance of DF laser.

The purpose of the present research is to create an appropriate computer model to study the optical characteristics of non-chain pulsed DF laser and give insight into the factors that affect the output performance of the SF6-D2 electric-discharge chemical laser.

2. Computer model

On the basis of premixed continuous-wave model theory [11

11. R. W. Gross and J. F. Bott, Handbook of Chemical Lasers (John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 1976), Chap. 8.

], the kinetic model of non-chain pulsed DF laser is established including 13 rate equations listed below. This paper only considers the transitions between vibrational levels. The major assumptions of the model are summarized as follows: 1) the working mixture is homogeneous in the gain area; 2) The only significant source of fluoride atoms on the relevant time scale is the dissociation of SF6 by electrons collision; 3) F atoms form instantaneously after electrical discharge and distribute homogeneously in the gain area; 4) The gas temperature in the stimulated radiation transition process keeps unchanged.

According to above theory and assumptions, the rate equations of non-chain pulsed electric-discharge DF laser can be expressed as follows:
d[SF6]dt=kene[SF6]
(1)
d[F]dt=kene[SF6]k[D2][F]
(2)
d[D2]dt=k[D2][F]
(3)
d[D]dt=k[D2][F]
(4)
d[DF(4)]dt=k4[D2][F]σ4c([DF(4)][DF(3)])q4ik4i[DF(4)][Mi]
(5)
d[DF(3)]dt=k3[D2][F]+σ4c([DF(4)][DF(3)])q4+ik4i[DF(4)][Mi]σ3c([DF(3)][DF(2)])q3ik3i[DF(3)][Mi]
(6)
d[DF(2)]dt=k2[D2][F]+σ3c([DF(3)][DF(2)])q3+ik3i[DF(3)][Mi]σ2c([DF(2)][DF(1)])q2ik2i[DF(2)][Mi]
(7)
d[DF(1)]dt=k1[D2][F]+σ2c([DF(2)][DF(1)])q2+ik2i[DF(2)][Mi]σ1c([DF(1)][DF(0)])q1ik1i[DF(1)][Mi]
(8)
d[DF(0)]dt=k0[D2][F]+σ1c([DF(1)][DF(0)])q1+ik1i[DF(1)][Mi]
(9)
dqvdt=Av,v1[DF(v)]+σvc([DF(v)][DF(v1)])qv+clnR2Lqv
(10)
Where ke is the rate constant for dissociation of F from SF6 by electrons collision, ke = 0.15 × 10−7cm3/s [12

12. A. N. Panchenko, V. M. Orlovskii, V. F. Tarasenko, and E. H. Baksht, “Efficient operation modes of a non-chain HF laser pumped by self-sustained discharge,” Proc. SPIE 5137, 303–310 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. k is the total reaction rate constant of the reaction F + D2→DF + D, kv is the individual vibrational rate constants, and k = k0 + k1 + k2 + k3 + k4. Mi (i = 1, 2, 3, 4) is the number density of particle i which is effective in relaxation of excited DF. These de-excitation particles in turn are ground state DF, D2, D and F. kvi is the relaxation rate constant for vibrational level v caused by species i. The formation and de-excitation rate constants for DF are calculated by the formula given by Perry and Polanyi [13

13. D. S. Perry and J. C. Polanyi, “Energy distribution among reaction products, IX. F+H2, HF, and D,” J. Chem. Phys. 57(4), 1574–1586 (1972). [CrossRef]

]. σv is the cross-section for stimulated emission of vibrational level v, the value of σv is 10−18~10−16cm2 [14

14. K. L. Kompa, Chemical Lasers (Springer-Verlag, 1973).

]. Av,v-1 is the spontaneous emission coefficient of vibrational level v, and A4,3 = 155.1 s−1, A3,2 = 131.5 s−1, A2,1 = 98.1 s−1, A1,0 = 54.5 s−1 [15

15. E. Arunan, D. W. Setser, and J. F. Ogilvie, “Vibration-rotational Einstein coefficients for HF /DF and HCI/DCI,” J. Chem. Phys. 97(3), 1734–1741 (1992). [CrossRef]

]. ne is the number density of electrons per unit volume, which is given by a approximation formula:
ne(t)=N0sin(πt/T)rect(t/T0.5)
(11)
N0 is chosen as 4.864 × 1012, T is the duration of current pulse. qv is the photon number density from stimulated transitions v→v-1, so the total photon number density can be read as:
q=v=1v=4qv
(12)
The laser output power can be expressed as:
Pout=S2hvqclnR
(13)
The single pulse laser energy can be expressed as:
E=hvclnR2LqdVdt
(14)
Where h is the Plank’s constant, v is the center frequency of DF laser, c is the speed of light, R is the reflectivity of output mirror, L is the length of laser cavity, S and V are respectively the gain cross section and gain volume. Supposing the initial pressures of working mixture SF6 and D2 are p1, p2, and then the initial number density can be calculated by the formula:
n(0)=pNA/(RT)
(15)
Where NA is the Avogadro’s number, R is the Gas constant, and T is the temperature of the reacting mixture with the value of 300K.The initial number density of other dependent variables is zero. With the above rate constants and initial values, the model can be solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta method.

3. Numerical calculations and discussion

In order to give insight into the reaction processes and the number density variation of all particles, the dependences of the number density of reactants and products on time are calculated first. The initial pressures of SF6 and D2 respectively are 10000Pa, 1000Pa, whose initial number density calculated by Eq. (15) are 2.4143 × 1018cm−3 and 2.4143 × 1017 cm−3. Figure 1
Fig. 1 Number density versus time for SF6, F, D2 and D.
shows the time histories of the number density of SF6, F, D2 and D when the reflectivity of output mirror is 30%.

As can be seen from Fig. 1, the number densities of reactants SF6 and D2 decrease rapidly over time and reach a particular value finally. While the density of F increases sharply to a peak value and then decreases to zero. Besides, the density of D experiences a rapid growth and a slow growth and finally tends to a constant value, which has no decrease in the whole process. These can be explained as follows: (1) during the entire process the reactants only are consumed and have no generation, so their densities decrease gradually. (2) A large number of energetic electrons rapidly generate in the gain region after onset of electric discharge, which make the SF6 dissociate to F by impacting. The generation rate of F is larger than the reaction consumption rate, so the density of F rises rapidly. While with the continuing of electric discharge, the density of F grows slowly as the number density of high energy electrons decreases. The density of F tends to zero ultimately due to reaction consumption and the termination of electric discharge. (3) D atoms have a sustained generation from the chemical reaction and no consumption, so its number density increases continuously till the end of chemical reactions.

Figure 2
Fig. 2 Populations of the vibrational levels as a function of time after onset of electrical discharge.
shows the resulting computer-generated curves for the dependences of DF vibrational level populations on time. Note that in this figure the population inversion cannot realize in v = 4 level, we don’t discuss here. As for the other vibrational levels, the populations gradually increase when t≤0.3μs, and the population inversion has realized between adjacent levels. While the obvious stimulated vibrational transitions cannot be observed, so the photon number density is almost zero. When t>0.3μs the inverted population densities between adjacent levels continue to accumulate, under the excitation of a few spontaneous emission photons, the laser emissions occur in the v = 3 → v = 2, v = 2 → v = 1 and v = 1 → v = 0 vibrational transitions. When t = 0.42μs the inverted population densities between adjacent levels reach their maximum, and then the transitions between adjacent levels are very sharp. It also can be seen form Fig. 2 that the populations decrement of v = 3 level is larger than v = 2, and the DF molecules of lower levels sharply rise simultaneously with laser emissions from higher levels, which caused by cascading effect between vibrational levels. The photon number densities of different transitions begin to increase sharply.

While the inverted population density decrement of v = 3 → v = 2 transition is smaller than v = 2 → v = 1transition, which results in the photon number density of the former is fewer than the latter, as can be seen in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Photon number density of the vibrational levels as a function of time
. As the chemical reactions and laser emissions continue, there are new DF molecules forming in the cavity, while the number of ground state DF and D continually accumulate, which in turn increase the de-excitation rate of excited DF. Thus the inverted population density between adjacent vibrational levels and the photon number density begin to drop as the relative rate of pumping and de-excitation decreases when t is close to 0.48μs.

When t>0.7μs, the population inversion of v = 1→v = 0, v = 3→v = 2, v = 2→v = 1 in turn disappear, and thus the photon number density of different vibrational transitions sequentially fall to zero. Figure 3 shows the photon number density of the vibrational levels as a function of time.

The ratio of SF6-D2 mixture is one of the important factors that affect the output performance of DF laser, so it is necessary to investigate the dependence of photon number density on the mixture ratio. Keeping the partial pressure of SF6 as 10kPa, the theoretical calculations were carried out with the mixture ratio varying among 4:1, 6:1, 8:1, 10:1, 12:1 and 15:1. Figure 4
Fig. 4 Dependences of the photon number density on time for different density of D2
presents the calculated results.

Calculation present that: at the same density of SF6 and the same reflectivity of output mirror, the photon number density increases rapidly with the increase of the density of D2 first; when the density of D2 is 2.4143 × 1017cm−3, at which the mixture ratio is SF6: D2 = 10:1, the photon number density reaches the maximum; later it decreases with the increase of D2. The density of F produced by dissociating of SF6 is constant at the same discharge conditions when the density of SF6 is invariable. When the density of D2 is small, there is not enough D2 to react with F which results in generation of a few excited DF, besides the excess F atoms have de-excitation effect on excited DF, and thus the inverted population density of DF is small, which causes the lower photon number density. As the density of D2 increases, the density of excited DF increases and the number of residual F decreases owing to chemical reaction with D2, so the de-excitation effect of F gets weaken and the number of F and D2 is gradually matching. When the number density of D2 increases to 2.4143 × 1017cm−3 (SF6: D2 = 10:1), the number density of photons in the cavity reaches maximum value. However with the further increase of D2, the density of F is a restrictive condition gradually, and the de-excitation effects of D2 and D on excited DF also increase, which in turn lead the decline of the inverted population density.

The reflectivity of the output mirror also has great influence on the output performance of non-chain pulsed DF laser. The variation of the photon number density in laser cavity and the output power as a function of time at different reflectivity were calculated under the optimum mixture ratio (SF6: D2 = 10:1).The calculated results are shown in Figs. 5
Fig. 5 Dependence of photon number density on time
and 6
Fig. 6 Dependences of the output laser power on time for different output mirror reflectivity
.The reflectivity of output mirror are 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, and 60%.

Through solving Eq. (13) the output laser power as a function of output mirror reflectivity can be obtained, as shown in Fig. 6. When other conditions keep unchanged, the reflectivity of output mirror has obvious effect on laser power. The maximum power is obtained when the reflectivity is 30%.

4. Experiments

4.1 Experimental setup

The experimental setup mainly consists of the high voltage energy storage and discharge unit, control unit, gas circulation unit, the optical resonator and measurement unit. Figure 7
Fig. 7 Optical experimental setup: (1) main electrodes; (2) preionization pins; (3) rear mirror; (4) output mirror; (5) beam-splitting mirror; (6) laser energy meter; (7) attenuators; (8) HgCdTe detector; (9) oscilloscope.
shows the optical schematic of the experimental setup. The discharge was formed between plane electrodes of size 120 cm × 4cm, which were spaced by a 4cm gap. The initial electrons in the discharge region were produced by UV-preionized discharge. The optical cavity was a stable cavity consisting of a concave gold-plating mirror with the reflectivity R1 = 99% and a CaF2 plane output mirror R2. The length of the cavity was 220cm.

The radiation was divided into two paths by a beam-splitting mirror, one of which was directed to the system measuring the output laser energy, and the other was directed to the system measuring the laser pulse waveform. The laser energy was measured by GENTEC QE50-LP-H-MB calorimeters. The laser pulse shape was detected by VIGO room-temperature HgCdTe detector, and then recorded by a TDS3052B oscilloscope with 500MHz bandwidth.

4.2 Experimental results and discussion

At the first stage of experiments, the variation of laser energy with mixture ratio was investigated. The number density of SF6 was invariable with the value of 2.4143 × 1018cm−3, the discharge voltage was 39kV, and the reflectivity of the output mirror was 30%. Under these conditions, the output laser energy versus the ratio of SF6-D2 mixture was studied. The mixture ratio used in the experiment were 4:1, 6:1, 8:1, 10:1, 12:1 and 15:1 individually. The fitting curves of the calculated and experimental laser energy versus mixture ratio are shown in Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Fitting curves of calculated and experimental laser pulse energy versus the density of D2
. As can be seen, the fitting curves of the experimental results and the theoretical calculations are in good agreement. The output energy first increases and then reduces with the increasing of the density of D2. When the number density of D2 was 2.4143 × 1017cm−3 (SF6: D2 = 10:1) the pulse energy reached the maximum value. The theoretical calculations and the experiment results both show that there exists an optimum mixture ratio at which the output energy of DF laser reaches its maximum. The experimental laser energy is about 3% higher than the laser energy attained from theoretical calculation at each mixture ratio. The main reasons are as follows: (1) the rate coefficients of several reactions may be imprecise; (2) the electrons density in the gain area is presented by an approximate formula, which couldn’t precisely describe the variation of electrons density under the experimental conditions. In order to close to the experimental results, the theoretical calculations of the single pulse energy should be multiplied by a proper correction factor. The revised calculation model can correctly describe the dynamics of non-chain pulsed DF laser.

The dependence of the output laser energy on the reflectivity of the output mirror was studied in the experiments under the optimum mixture ratio (SF6: D2 = 10:1), and the discharge voltage remained 39kV. The reflectivity of the CaF2 output mirrors are 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, respectively. Figure 9
Fig. 9 Fitting curves of calculated and experimental laser pulse energy versus output mirror reflectivity
presents the fitting curves of the calculated and experimental laser energy versus the reflectivity of the output mirror. In contrast to the two fitting curves, a conclusion can be drawn that the experiment results agree well with theoretical calculations by computer model. Just as shown in Fig. 9, when the reflectivity of the output mirror is 30%, the non-chain pulsed DF laser attains the maximum output laser energy. Non-chain pulsed laser has the optimal reflectivity of output mirror to realize the maximum output laser energy.

The laser pulse waveform was measured when the mixture ratio and the reflectivity of output mirror were under the optimal conditions, which were SF6: D2 = 10:1 and R2 = 30%. Figure 10(a)
Fig. 10 Laser pulse shape (a) experimental result (b) calculated result
shows the measured laser pulse shape of DF laser, the pulse duration of which is 148.8 ns. The corresponding output laser energy is 4.95J, so the peak power is 33.27MW. Figure 10(b) is the theoretical calculation of the output power versus time. The calculated pulse width is118ns and the pulse peak power is 40.82MW. Figure 10 shows that the measured results of peak power and pulse shape of DF laser are in agreement with the theoretical calculations by computer model.

5. Conclusions

The computer model basing on the reaction mechanism and rate equations theory of non-chain pulsed DF laser can give reasonably accurate results. The calculated variations of output laser pulse energy with working gas mixture ratio and output mirror reflectivity are in good agreement with experiment. The computer model can provide a theoretical reference to optimum design for non-chain pulsed DF laser.

The model and experimental study both demonstrate that the output laser energy of DF laser has great dependence on the ratio of SF6-D2 mixture and on the reflectivity of output mirror. Both the calculation and experiment present that the optimal value of mixture ratio and output reflectivity is respectively 10:1 and 30% in our works.

The results of this study also indicate that there is a need for additional information of more precise rate coefficients of several reactions and the more precise formula to describe the variation of electrons in the gain area.

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by the International Cooperation Special Fund from Ministry of Science and Technology, PRC (No. 2011DFR10320), and Innovation Foundation from Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. CXJJ-11-Q80).

References and links

1.

G. Wilson, B. R. Graves, S. P. Patterson, and R. H. Wank, “Deuterium fluoride laser technology and demonstrators,” Proc. SPIE 5414, 41–51 (2004). [CrossRef]

2.

B. Bravy, G. Vasiliev, V. Agroskin, and V. Papin, “Recognition of Composition and of Microphysical Characteristics of Aerosol Clouds in Multifrequency Sounding with DF Laser Based Lidar System,” Proc. SPIE 4882, 394–399 (2003). [CrossRef]

3.

A. J. Beaulieu, J. A. Nilson, and K. O. Tan, “A practical DF laser for ranging applications,” in Proceedings of Laser Rader Technology and Applications, (Quebec, Canada, 1986), 8–13.

4.

V. I. Lazarenko, S. D. Velikanov, I. N. Pegoev, S. N. Sinkov, and Yu. N. Frolov, “Analysis of DF laser applicability to SO2 remote sensing in the atmosphere,” Proc. SPIE 4168, 232–235 (2001). [CrossRef]

5.

S. D. Velikanov, A. S. Elutin, E. A. Kudryashov, I. N. Pegoev, S. N. Sin'kov, and Y. N. Frolov, “DF laser application for hydrocarbon control in the atmosphere,” Proc. SPIE 3493, 231–236 (1998). [CrossRef]

6.

G. P. Perram, M. A. Marciniak, and M. Goda, “High energy laser weapons: technology overview,” Proc. SPIE 5414, 1–25 (2004). [CrossRef]

7.

F. Bachmann, “High Power Laser Sources for Industry and their Applications,” Proc. SPIE 6735, 1–13 (2007).

8.

V. F. Tarasenko and A. N. Panchenko, “Efficient discharge-pumped non-chain HF and DF lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6101, 1–9 (2006).

9.

A. A. Belevtsev, S. Yu. Kazantsev, I. G. Kononov, and K. N. Firsov, “Detachment instability of self-sustained volume discharge in active media of non-chain HF (DF) lasers,” Quantum Electron. 40(6), 484–489 (2010). [CrossRef]

10.

V. D. Bulaev, V. S. Gusev, S. Yu. Kazantsev, I. G. Kononov, S. L. Lysenko, Yu. B. Morozov, A. N. Poznyshev, and K. N. Firsov, “High-power repetitively pulsed electric-discharge HF laser,” Quantum Electron. 40(7), 615–618 (2010). [CrossRef]

11.

R. W. Gross and J. F. Bott, Handbook of Chemical Lasers (John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 1976), Chap. 8.

12.

A. N. Panchenko, V. M. Orlovskii, V. F. Tarasenko, and E. H. Baksht, “Efficient operation modes of a non-chain HF laser pumped by self-sustained discharge,” Proc. SPIE 5137, 303–310 (2003). [CrossRef]

13.

D. S. Perry and J. C. Polanyi, “Energy distribution among reaction products, IX. F+H2, HF, and D,” J. Chem. Phys. 57(4), 1574–1586 (1972). [CrossRef]

14.

K. L. Kompa, Chemical Lasers (Springer-Verlag, 1973).

15.

E. Arunan, D. W. Setser, and J. F. Ogilvie, “Vibration-rotational Einstein coefficients for HF /DF and HCI/DCI,” J. Chem. Phys. 97(3), 1734–1741 (1992). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.0140) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers and laser optics
(140.1550) Lasers and laser optics : Chemical lasers
(140.3430) Lasers and laser optics : Laser theory
(140.3538) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, pulsed

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: October 9, 2012
Revised Manuscript: November 19, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: November 21, 2012
Published: December 12, 2012

Citation
Peng Ruan, Jijiang Xie, Laiming Zhang, Jin Guo, Jingjiang Xie, Guilong Yang, Dianjun Li, Qikun Pan, Gaijuan Tan, Fanjiang Meng, and Shiming Li, "Computer modeling and experimental study of non-chain pulsed electric-discharge DF laser," Opt. Express 20, 28912-28922 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-27-28912


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References

  1. G. Wilson, B. R. Graves, S. P. Patterson, and R. H. Wank, “Deuterium fluoride laser technology and demonstrators,” Proc. SPIE5414, 41–51 (2004). [CrossRef]
  2. B. Bravy, G. Vasiliev, V. Agroskin, and V. Papin, “Recognition of Composition and of Microphysical Characteristics of Aerosol Clouds in Multifrequency Sounding with DF Laser Based Lidar System,” Proc. SPIE4882, 394–399 (2003). [CrossRef]
  3. A. J. Beaulieu, J. A. Nilson, and K. O. Tan, “A practical DF laser for ranging applications,” in Proceedings of Laser Rader Technology and Applications, (Quebec, Canada, 1986), 8–13.
  4. V. I. Lazarenko, S. D. Velikanov, I. N. Pegoev, S. N. Sinkov, and Yu. N. Frolov, “Analysis of DF laser applicability to SO2 remote sensing in the atmosphere,” Proc. SPIE4168, 232–235 (2001). [CrossRef]
  5. S. D. Velikanov, A. S. Elutin, E. A. Kudryashov, I. N. Pegoev, S. N. Sin'kov, and Y. N. Frolov, “DF laser application for hydrocarbon control in the atmosphere,” Proc. SPIE3493, 231–236 (1998). [CrossRef]
  6. G. P. Perram, M. A. Marciniak, and M. Goda, “High energy laser weapons: technology overview,” Proc. SPIE5414, 1–25 (2004). [CrossRef]
  7. F. Bachmann, “High Power Laser Sources for Industry and their Applications,” Proc. SPIE6735, 1–13 (2007).
  8. V. F. Tarasenko and A. N. Panchenko, “Efficient discharge-pumped non-chain HF and DF lasers,” Proc. SPIE6101, 1–9 (2006).
  9. A. A. Belevtsev, S. Yu. Kazantsev, I. G. Kononov, and K. N. Firsov, “Detachment instability of self-sustained volume discharge in active media of non-chain HF (DF) lasers,” Quantum Electron.40(6), 484–489 (2010). [CrossRef]
  10. V. D. Bulaev, V. S. Gusev, S. Yu. Kazantsev, I. G. Kononov, S. L. Lysenko, Yu. B. Morozov, A. N. Poznyshev, and K. N. Firsov, “High-power repetitively pulsed electric-discharge HF laser,” Quantum Electron.40(7), 615–618 (2010). [CrossRef]
  11. R. W. Gross and J. F. Bott, Handbook of Chemical Lasers (John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 1976), Chap. 8.
  12. A. N. Panchenko, V. M. Orlovskii, V. F. Tarasenko, and E. H. Baksht, “Efficient operation modes of a non-chain HF laser pumped by self-sustained discharge,” Proc. SPIE5137, 303–310 (2003). [CrossRef]
  13. D. S. Perry and J. C. Polanyi, “Energy distribution among reaction products, IX. F+H2, HF, and D,” J. Chem. Phys.57(4), 1574–1586 (1972). [CrossRef]
  14. K. L. Kompa, Chemical Lasers (Springer-Verlag, 1973).
  15. E. Arunan, D. W. Setser, and J. F. Ogilvie, “Vibration-rotational Einstein coefficients for HF /DF and HCI/DCI,” J. Chem. Phys.97(3), 1734–1741 (1992). [CrossRef]

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