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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 27 — Dec. 17, 2012
  • pp: 28981–28988
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Selectively coupling core pairs in multicore photonic crystal fibers: optical couplers, filters and polarization splitters for space-division-multiplexed transmission systems

Rodrigo M. Gerosa, Claudecir R. Biazoli, Cristiano M. B. Cordeiro, and Christiano J. S. de Matos  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 27, pp. 28981-28988 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.028981


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Abstract

Selective coupling a single pair of cores in a photonic crystal fiber with multiple, initially decoupled, cores is demonstrated through the use of a technique to locally post-process the fiber cross section. Coupling occurs when the hole between the selected core pair is collapsed over a short fiber section, which is accomplished by heating the section while the hole is submitted to an air pressure that is lower than that applied to all other holes in the microstructure. The demonstrated couplers present an estimated insertion loss of ~1 dB and exhibit spectral modulations with a depth of up to 18 dB and a high polarization sensitivity that can be exploited for polarization splitting or filtering in space-division-multiplexed optical interconnection and telecommunication links.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

Multicore fibers have received increased interest in recent years for their numerous application as, e.g., variable optical attenuators [1

1. D. Gauden, D. Mechin, C. Vaudry, P. Yvernault, and D. Pureur, “Variable optical attenuator based on thermally tuned Mach-Zehnder interferometer within a twin core fiber,” Opt. Commun. 231(1-6), 213–216 (2004). [CrossRef]

], sensors [2

2. B. Kim, T.-H. Kim, L. Cui, and Y. Chung, “Twin core photonic crystal fiber for in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometric sensing applications,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15502–15507 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4

4. A. Zhou, G. Li, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Guan, J. Yang, and L. Yuan, “Asymmetrical Twin-Core Fiber Based Michelson Interferometer for Refractive Index Sensing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(19), 2985–2991 (2011). [CrossRef]

], gain media in high-power or high-energy pulsed lasers and amplifiers [5

5. L. Michaille, D. M. Taylor, C. R. Bennett, T. J. Shepherd, and B. G. Ward, “Characteristics of a Q-switched multicore photonic crystal fiber laser with a very large mode field area,” Opt. Lett. 33(1), 71–73 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 6

6. X.-H. Fang, M.-L. Hu, B.-W. Liu, L. Chai, C.-Y. Wang, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Generation of 150 MW, 110 fs pulses by phase-locked amplification in multicore photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35(14), 2326–2328 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], nonlinear media in supercontinuum sources [7

7. X.-H. Fang, M.-L. Hu, L.-L. Huang, L. Chai, N.-L. Dai, J.-Y. Li, A. Y. Tashchilina, A. M. Zheltikov, and C.-Y. Wang, “Multiwatt octave-spanning supercontinuum generation in multicore photonic-crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 37(12), 2292–2294 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 8

8. D. Modotto, G. Manili, U. Minoni, S. Wabnitz, C. De Angelis, G. Town, A. Tonello, and V. Couderc, “Ge-Doped Microstructured Multicore Fiber for Customizable Supercontinuum Generation,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(6), 1149–1156 (2011). [CrossRef]

] and multi-pixel image fibers for endoscopic imaging [9

9. K. L. Reichenbach and C. Xu, “Numerical analysis of light propagation in image fibers or coherent fiber bundles,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2151–2165 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. More recently, however, space-division multiplexed optical telecommunications has emerged as one of the most important and exciting fields of application for multicore fibers, with significant increases in system capacity expected [10

10. M. Hirano, “Future of Transmission Fiber,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(2), 316–319 (2011). [CrossRef]

15

15. B. Rosinski, J. W. D. Chi, P. Grosso, and J. Le Bihan, “Multichannel transmission of a multicore fiber coupled with vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(5), 807–810 (1999). [CrossRef]

]. So far, up to 112 Tb/s transmission rates over 76.8 km have been demonstrated, using 160 polarization-division multiplexed quadrature phase-shift keying (PDM-QPSK) 107 Gb/s channels, in each of the 7 cores of a fiber [12

12. B. Zhu, J. M. Fini, M. F. Yan, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, T. F. Taunay, M. Fishteyn, E. M. Monberg, and F. V. Dimarcello, “High-Capacity Space-Division-Multiplexed DWDM Transmissions Using Multicore Fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 486–492 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. Multicore fibers have also been suggested and demonstrated for optical interconnection [16

16. D. M. Taylor, C. R. Bennett, T. J. Shepherd, L. F. Michaille, M. D. Nielsen, and H. R. Simonsen, “Demonstration of multi-core photonic crystal fibre in an optical interconnect,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 331–331 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. A number of fiber components, such as tapered fiber connectors [11

11. B. Zhu, T. F. Taunay, M. F. Yan, M. Fishteyn, G. Oulundsen, and D. Vaidya, “70-Gb/s multicore multimode fiber transmissions for optical data links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1647–1649 (2010).

, 12

12. B. Zhu, J. M. Fini, M. F. Yan, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, T. F. Taunay, M. Fishteyn, E. M. Monberg, and F. V. Dimarcello, “High-Capacity Space-Division-Multiplexed DWDM Transmissions Using Multicore Fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 486–492 (2012). [CrossRef]

, 14

14. B. Zhu, T. F. Taunay, M. F. Yan, J. M. Fini, M. Fishteyn, E. M. Monberg, and F. V. Dimarcello, “Seven-core multicore fiber transmissions for passive optical network,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11117–11122 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and arrays of detectors and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) [11

11. B. Zhu, T. F. Taunay, M. F. Yan, M. Fishteyn, G. Oulundsen, and D. Vaidya, “70-Gb/s multicore multimode fiber transmissions for optical data links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1647–1649 (2010).

, 13

13. B. G. Lee, D. M. Kuchta, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, P. Pepeljugoski, C. Baks, T. F. Taunay, B. Zhu, M. F. Yan, G. Oulundsen, D. S. Vaidya, W. Luo, and N. Li, “End-to-End Multicore Multimode Fiber Optic Link Operating up to 120 Gb/s,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(6), 886–892 (2012). [CrossRef]

, 15

15. B. Rosinski, J. W. D. Chi, P. Grosso, and J. Le Bihan, “Multichannel transmission of a multicore fiber coupled with vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(5), 807–810 (1999). [CrossRef]

, 16

16. D. M. Taylor, C. R. Bennett, T. J. Shepherd, L. F. Michaille, M. D. Nielsen, and H. R. Simonsen, “Demonstration of multi-core photonic crystal fibre in an optical interconnect,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 331–331 (2006). [CrossRef]

], have been developed and used as enabling technology. Due to their extreme design flexibility, photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) are very attractive candidates for the development of multicore fibers and components, with several of multicore PCFs already demonstrated [2

2. B. Kim, T.-H. Kim, L. Cui, and Y. Chung, “Twin core photonic crystal fiber for in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometric sensing applications,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15502–15507 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 5

5. L. Michaille, D. M. Taylor, C. R. Bennett, T. J. Shepherd, and B. G. Ward, “Characteristics of a Q-switched multicore photonic crystal fiber laser with a very large mode field area,” Opt. Lett. 33(1), 71–73 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8

8. D. Modotto, G. Manili, U. Minoni, S. Wabnitz, C. De Angelis, G. Town, A. Tonello, and V. Couderc, “Ge-Doped Microstructured Multicore Fiber for Customizable Supercontinuum Generation,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(6), 1149–1156 (2011). [CrossRef]

, 16

16. D. M. Taylor, C. R. Bennett, T. J. Shepherd, L. F. Michaille, M. D. Nielsen, and H. R. Simonsen, “Demonstration of multi-core photonic crystal fibre in an optical interconnect,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 331–331 (2006). [CrossRef]

20

20. Y. Yan and J. Toulouse, “Nonlinear inter-core coupling in triple-core photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20272–20281 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], including demonstrations aimed at space-division multiplexing in telecommunication [18

18. K. Mukasa, K. Imamura, M. Takahashi, and T. Yagi, “Development of novel fibers for telecoms application,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 367–377 (2010). [CrossRef]

] and interconnection [16

16. D. M. Taylor, C. R. Bennett, T. J. Shepherd, L. F. Michaille, M. D. Nielsen, and H. R. Simonsen, “Demonstration of multi-core photonic crystal fibre in an optical interconnect,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 331–331 (2006). [CrossRef]

] systems.

2. Experimental setups

To obtain the proposed coupling structure, the fiber post-fabrication processing technique described in [23

23. A. Witkowska, K. Lai, S. G. Leon-Saval, W. J. Wadsworth, and T. A. Birks, “All-fiber anamorphic core-shape transitions,” Opt. Lett. 31(18), 2672–2674 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] was used. In it, holes can be selectively collapsed upon fiber tapering if the air pressure is raised in all holes that are to remain open. This is accomplished by sealing the entrance to the holes to be collapsed, so that they remain at room pressure while a fiber section is heated. In our case, to seal the entrance of the hole to be collapsed, i.e., the hole between the two cores to be coupled, a UV curable polymer was used, which was deployed via a micropipette [25

25. R. M. Gerosa, D. H. Spadoti, L. S. Menezes, and C. J. de Matos, “In-fiber modal Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on the locally post-processed core of a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3124–3129 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The fiber tip with the sealed hole entrance was then connected to a nitrogen pressure cell, while all the holes were sealed in the opposite tip. The fiber was then placed in a tapering rig, where it was brushed with a temperature-controlled isobutane and oxygen flame that moved along the fiber axis using a DC motor, Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Setup used to post-process the PCF, to induce local coupling between a single core pair.
. In our case, the aimed change in the fiber cross section was sufficiently small so that tapering was not required [25

25. R. M. Gerosa, D. H. Spadoti, L. S. Menezes, and C. J. de Matos, “In-fiber modal Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on the locally post-processed core of a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3124–3129 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The fiber was, therefore, not pulled during the whole process.

The cross section of the silica multicore PCF that was employed in the proof-of-principle experiments reported here is shown in Fig. 2(a)
Fig. 2 Cross sections of the three-core PCF before (a) and after (b) post-processing (images at the same scale; white bar: 10 μm). (c) Schematic drawing of a longitudinal section of the modified PCF.
. It consists of three solid cores (numbered sequentially in the Fig.), each with a diameter of 2.4 µm, that are immersed in a 2.2-µm-pitch matrix of 1.8-µm diameter holes. The holes are separated from each other by a single hole, which leads to a core pitch of 4.4 μm. This pitch is expected to be appropriate to avoid inter-core crosstalk in interconnects [16

16. D. M. Taylor, C. R. Bennett, T. J. Shepherd, L. F. Michaille, M. D. Nielsen, and H. R. Simonsen, “Demonstration of multi-core photonic crystal fibre in an optical interconnect,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 331–331 (2006). [CrossRef]

], but in telecommunication systems larger pitches and more holes between cores are necessary [18

18. K. Mukasa, K. Imamura, M. Takahashi, and T. Yagi, “Development of novel fibers for telecoms application,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 367–377 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. In this case, no major technical challenge would prevent the proposed method to be employed to collapse multiple holes, either in the same or in subsequent sections along the fiber.

It was found that the following processing parameters were adequate for collapsing the selected hole while leaving the rest of the microstructure nearly unchanged. Nitrogen pressure: 5 Bar; brushed fiber length: 5 mm; brushing time: 100 s. Figure 2(b) shows an image of the cross section of one post-processed PCF at the point in which the hole collapsed. Although some undesired microstructure distortion is visible, the average pitch and hole diameter near the cores are 2.0 µm and 1.8 µm respectively, which is close to the original values. Figure 2(c) schematically shows a longitudinal cut to the post-processed fiber, from which the local collapse of the hole between cores 1 and 2 can be seen. Note that for all optical experiments the collapse region was far from both fiber tips.

Figure 3
Fig. 3 Setup used to optically characterize the post-processed PCFs
shows the experimental setup used to optically characterize the post-processed PCFs. Light from a supercontinuum source spectrally extending from 550 nm to at least 1700 nm traversed a polarizer (operating range: 650-1700 nm), used to linearize and to control the source state of polarization, and was then coupled into the fiber under characterization with the use of a 60 × objective lens. Unless otherwise stated in the text, all measurements were undertaken with an input polarization that is parallel to the line that connects the three cores. A 40 × objective lens subsequently imaged the fiber output tip on a beam profiler. The latter could be replaced with a multimode fiber (core diameter of 300 µm) connected to an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA) so that the transmission spectrum of each individual core was recorded. Bandpass filters and a neutral density attenuator were added to the setup after the second objective lens for some of the measurements with the beam profiler.

4. Results, analysis, and discussion

Processed sections of multicore PCFs (with ~7-cm lengths) were then characterized. Figure 4
Fig. 4 2D (top) and 3D (bottom) color-coded contour traces of the spatial intensity distribution of light leaving the post-processed PCF, for three input coupling conditions. (a) Light coupled in all three cores; (b) light coupled into core 3; (c) light coupled into core 2.
shows images of one fiber output under three different excitations (no filter was used in the fiber output). Figure 4(a) shows an image obtained with the input objective lens defocused, so that all cores are illuminated and from which the position of the three cores can be identified. Figure 4(b) shows the output image when light was focused and coupled solely into core 3. As with the unprocessed fiber, it can be seen that light remains in core 3, indicating that it remains decoupled from the other cores. Figure 4(c) shows the output image when light was focused and coupled into core 2. In this case, light always exited the fiber via cores 1 and 2; it was not possible to obtain light from these cores separately regardless of the input coupling conditions. The same trend was observed throughout the characterized spectral range. It is, therefore, concluded that processing couples cores 1 and 2, while leaving core 3 decoupled. This selective core pair coupling condition would not be possible to achieve using previously demonstrated methods, which couple all neighboring cores indiscriminately.

It can be shown [25

25. R. M. Gerosa, D. H. Spadoti, L. S. Menezes, and C. J. de Matos, “In-fiber modal Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on the locally post-processed core of a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3124–3129 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] that, as phase accumulation depends upon the wavelength, λ, the described coupling dynamics generates a spectral modulation whose period, Δλ, is given by
Δλ=λ2ΔneffL
(1)
where L is the collapsed hole length and Δneff is the difference in refractive index between the two excited modes of the altered structure.

Figure 5
Fig. 5 Transmission spectra of core 1 (red) and core 2 (black) for two post-processed PCF samples. Curves normalized with respect to the spectra of core 3 (green).
shows the transmission spectra of cores 1 (red) and 2 (black) for two different post-processed fiber samples. These spectra were normalized with respect to that of core 3 (green in Fig. 5(a)) so as to remove the spectral distortion (alignment-dependent intensity decrease towards the extremes of the measured range) that was observed as a consequence of chromatic aberration in the characterization setup. It is noted that, as expected, in both Figs. cores 1 and 2 present spectral modulations with the same pitch and with a π relative phase. In Figs. 5(a) and 5(b), respectively, the modulation depths are of up to 18 dB and 16 dB, while the modulation periods are 56 nm and 127 nm at 900 nm. The differences in these modulation characteristics are attributed to slight variations on the hole collapse conditions and, especially, on the collapsed length. The faster, low amplitude, modulation observed in both spectra (7.0 nm and 8.4-nm modulation period at 900 nm in Figs. 5(a) and 5(b), respectively) may be tentatively explained as the result of Fabry-Perot resonances in bubbles formed at the beginning and end of the collapsed hole section (as a consequence of possible non-uniform heating at these positions).

It is noted that the supercontinuum light source presented a relatively low spectral power density in the 1550-nm region. For this reason an external cavity laser that was tunable in the 1510-1640 nm range was used for the periodicity measurement in this longer wavelength region. Note that despite the different characterization method, the modulation period, and therefore the Δneff value, both shown in Fig. 6, fall on the fitting curves, as expected.

The 1550-nm tunable laser was also used for estimating the insertion loss of the device. To this end, the laser was tuned to one of the transmission peaks of one core and the optical power was measured before the input lens and after the output lens (cut-back measurements were not possible due to the short device length), yielding a total loss of 4.1 ± 0.6 dB. The same loss in an unprocessed fiber section of same length was measured to be 4.4 ± 0.6 dB. An insertion loss no greater than 0.9 dB can, therefore, be inferred, which is adequate for practical use. The low insertion loss also indicates that coupling to radiation modes in the beginning and end of the collapsed hole section is minimal.

As can be seen from Fig. 2(b) the modified core structure has an extremely elongated shape along the line that connects the three cores. A high birefringence is, therefore, anticipated, which is expected to affect the inter-core coupling and, consequently, the obtained transmission spectra. Figure 7
Fig. 7 Transmission of the coupled cores for varying input polarization angles. (a) Transmission spectra of one of the cores; (b) normalized transmission at 800 nm for the two coupled cores; (c) spatial intensity distribution at the PCF output at 800 nm (Media 1).
shows data obtained as the input fiber polarization is varied. Figure 7(a) shows the transmission spectra of one of the cores as a function of the polarizer angle. It can be noted that the spectral modulation period depends on the polarization. With an angle of 0° (i.e., along the line that connects the three cores) the modulation period, around a wavelength of 800 nm, is ~60 nm, changing to ~95 nm at 90° (i.e., polarization orthogonal to the line that connects the cores).

It is also interesting to note that certain spectral points (e.g., around 800 nm) present a transmission minimum at one polarization axis and a maximum at the other, which can be exploited as a polarizer or polarization beam splitter. Figure 7(b) presents the normalized transmission at 800 nm for both coupled cores as a function of input polarization angle. Over 14 dB polarization extinction ratio is achieved in each core, with each orthogonal polarization coupling to a different core. Figure 7(c), as well as the online movie (Media 1), shows images of the fiber output for various input polarization angles also at 800 nm. It can be seen that, as the polarization is scanned, light oscillates from one core to the other, corroborating the data of Figs. 7(a) and 7(b). Polarization splitting is, therefore, demonstrated.

5. Conclusions

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by CNPq (including funding from INCT FOTONICOM), FAPESP (INCT FOTONICOM) and Fundo Mackenzie de Pesquisa. R. M. Gerosa acknowledges CAPES for his scholarship.

References and links

1.

D. Gauden, D. Mechin, C. Vaudry, P. Yvernault, and D. Pureur, “Variable optical attenuator based on thermally tuned Mach-Zehnder interferometer within a twin core fiber,” Opt. Commun. 231(1-6), 213–216 (2004). [CrossRef]

2.

B. Kim, T.-H. Kim, L. Cui, and Y. Chung, “Twin core photonic crystal fiber for in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometric sensing applications,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15502–15507 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

A. Harhira, J. Lapointe, and R. Kashyap, “A Simple Bend Sensor Using a Twin Core Fiber Mach-Zehnder Interferometer,” in Latin America Optics and Photonics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper TuF3.

4.

A. Zhou, G. Li, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Guan, J. Yang, and L. Yuan, “Asymmetrical Twin-Core Fiber Based Michelson Interferometer for Refractive Index Sensing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(19), 2985–2991 (2011). [CrossRef]

5.

L. Michaille, D. M. Taylor, C. R. Bennett, T. J. Shepherd, and B. G. Ward, “Characteristics of a Q-switched multicore photonic crystal fiber laser with a very large mode field area,” Opt. Lett. 33(1), 71–73 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

X.-H. Fang, M.-L. Hu, B.-W. Liu, L. Chai, C.-Y. Wang, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Generation of 150 MW, 110 fs pulses by phase-locked amplification in multicore photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35(14), 2326–2328 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

X.-H. Fang, M.-L. Hu, L.-L. Huang, L. Chai, N.-L. Dai, J.-Y. Li, A. Y. Tashchilina, A. M. Zheltikov, and C.-Y. Wang, “Multiwatt octave-spanning supercontinuum generation in multicore photonic-crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 37(12), 2292–2294 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

D. Modotto, G. Manili, U. Minoni, S. Wabnitz, C. De Angelis, G. Town, A. Tonello, and V. Couderc, “Ge-Doped Microstructured Multicore Fiber for Customizable Supercontinuum Generation,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(6), 1149–1156 (2011). [CrossRef]

9.

K. L. Reichenbach and C. Xu, “Numerical analysis of light propagation in image fibers or coherent fiber bundles,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2151–2165 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

M. Hirano, “Future of Transmission Fiber,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(2), 316–319 (2011). [CrossRef]

11.

B. Zhu, T. F. Taunay, M. F. Yan, M. Fishteyn, G. Oulundsen, and D. Vaidya, “70-Gb/s multicore multimode fiber transmissions for optical data links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1647–1649 (2010).

12.

B. Zhu, J. M. Fini, M. F. Yan, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, T. F. Taunay, M. Fishteyn, E. M. Monberg, and F. V. Dimarcello, “High-Capacity Space-Division-Multiplexed DWDM Transmissions Using Multicore Fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 486–492 (2012). [CrossRef]

13.

B. G. Lee, D. M. Kuchta, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, P. Pepeljugoski, C. Baks, T. F. Taunay, B. Zhu, M. F. Yan, G. Oulundsen, D. S. Vaidya, W. Luo, and N. Li, “End-to-End Multicore Multimode Fiber Optic Link Operating up to 120 Gb/s,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(6), 886–892 (2012). [CrossRef]

14.

B. Zhu, T. F. Taunay, M. F. Yan, J. M. Fini, M. Fishteyn, E. M. Monberg, and F. V. Dimarcello, “Seven-core multicore fiber transmissions for passive optical network,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11117–11122 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

B. Rosinski, J. W. D. Chi, P. Grosso, and J. Le Bihan, “Multichannel transmission of a multicore fiber coupled with vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(5), 807–810 (1999). [CrossRef]

16.

D. M. Taylor, C. R. Bennett, T. J. Shepherd, L. F. Michaille, M. D. Nielsen, and H. R. Simonsen, “Demonstration of multi-core photonic crystal fibre in an optical interconnect,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 331–331 (2006). [CrossRef]

17.

B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and A. H. Greenaway, “Experimental study of dual-core photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 36(16), 1358–1359 (2000). [CrossRef]

18.

K. Mukasa, K. Imamura, M. Takahashi, and T. Yagi, “Development of novel fibers for telecoms application,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 367–377 (2010). [CrossRef]

19.

K. Saitoh, Y. Sato, and M. Koshiba, “Coupling characteristics of dual-core photonic crystal fiber couplers,” Opt. Express 11(24), 3188–3195 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

Y. Yan and J. Toulouse, “Nonlinear inter-core coupling in triple-core photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20272–20281 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

F. Saitoh, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “A design method of a fiber-based mode multi/demultiplexer for mode-division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4709–4716 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

L. Yuan, Z. Liu, J. Yang, and C. Guan, “Bitapered fiber coupling characteristics between single-mode single-core fiber and single-mode multicore fiber,” Appl. Opt. 47(18), 3307–3312 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

A. Witkowska, K. Lai, S. G. Leon-Saval, W. J. Wadsworth, and T. A. Birks, “All-fiber anamorphic core-shape transitions,” Opt. Lett. 31(18), 2672–2674 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

K. Lai, S. G. Leon-Saval, A. Witkowska, W. J. Wadsworth, and T. A. Birks, “Wavelength-independent all-fiber mode converters,” Opt. Lett. 32(4), 328–330 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

R. M. Gerosa, D. H. Spadoti, L. S. Menezes, and C. J. de Matos, “In-fiber modal Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on the locally post-processed core of a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3124–3129 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

R. M. Gerosa, C. R. Biazoli, C. M. B. Cordeiro, and C. J. S. de Matos, “Post-Processing Multicore Photonic Crystal Fibers for Locally Coupling Selected Core Pairs,” in CLEO:2011- Laser Applications to Photonic Applications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper JWA39.

27.

R. M. Gerosa, D. H. Spadoti, C. J. S. de Matos, L. S. Menezes, and M. A. Franco, “Efficient and short-range light coupling to index-matched liquid-filled hole in a solid-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24687–24698 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(060.1810) Fiber optics and optical communications : Buffers, couplers, routers, switches, and multiplexers
(060.2340) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics components
(060.5295) Fiber optics and optical communications : Photonic crystal fibers

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: September 24, 2012
Revised Manuscript: December 3, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: December 3, 2012
Published: December 13, 2012

Citation
Rodrigo M. Gerosa, Claudecir R. Biazoli, Cristiano M. B. Cordeiro, and Christiano J. S. de Matos, "Selectively coupling core pairs in multicore photonic crystal fibers: optical couplers, filters and polarization splitters for space-division-multiplexed transmission systems," Opt. Express 20, 28981-28988 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-27-28981


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References

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