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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 28 — Dec. 31, 2012
  • pp: 29673–29678
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Inhibited local thermal effect in upconversion luminescence of YVO4:Yb3+, Er3+ inverse opals

Yongsheng Zhu, Wen Xu, Hanzhuang Zhang, Sai Xu, Yunfeng Wang, Qinlin Dai, Biao Dong, Lin Xu, and Hongwei Song  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 28, pp. 29673-29678 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.029673


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Abstract

Upconversion Luminescence (UCL) of YVO4:Yb3+, Er3+ inverse opal photonic crystals (IOPCs) was investigated in contrast to the references under the excitation of a 980-nm laser diode. Besides the traditional modification on UCL and dynamics, it is significant to observe that in the IOPCs the temperature quenching and local thermal effect was greatly suppressed.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

As an oxide compound, yttrium vanadate has much larger phonon energy (~890 cm−1) than the well-known and efficient UC host NaYF4 (~400 cm−1). However, the recent work indicated that the UC efficiency of YVO4:Yb3+, Er3+ nanocrystals in the solution is comparable to that of NaYF4:Yb3+, Er3+ [17

17. G. Mialon, S. Türkcan, G. Dantelle, D. P. Collins, M. Hadjipanayi, R. A. Taylor, T. Gacoin, A. Alexandrou, and J. P. Boilot, “High Up-Conversion Efficiency of YVO4:Yb,Er Nanoparticles in Water down to the Single-Particle Level,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(51), 22449–22454 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. In this letter, we present the fabrication, characterization, unique and modified UCL properties of the three-dimensional IOPCs, YVO4:Yb3+, Er3+.

2. Experimental

3. Results and discussion

Figure 1
Fig. 1 Transmittance spectra of the YVO4:Yb3+, Er3+ IOPCs and the UCL spectra of Er3+ ions in PC3 sample and REF samples (the 4I9/2-4I15/2 transition at 660 nm was normalized). Insert: SEM image of the PC3 sample.
records the transmittance spectra of the IOPCs measured at the normal (θ=0°) and the UCL of Er3+ ions in the PC3 and the REF under the excitation of a continuous 980-nm laser diode. It is clear that the PCs have deep photonic stop bands (PSB) sweeping from the blue side of the green emission 2H11/2, 4S3/2-4I15/2 of Er3+ ions to red side. In PC3 and REF sample, the red emission 4I9/2-4I15/2 around 660 nm situated relatively far away from the PSB of PC3, thus was normalized for comparison. It can be obviously observed that the green emission 2H11/2,4S3/2-4I15/2 lines in PC3, are significantly suppressed in contrast to the REF sample. The inhibition of light emission near the centre of PSB is a traditional phenomenon for luminescent species embedded in PCs [18

18. A. Ródenas, G. Zhou, D. Jaque, and M. Gu, “Rare-Earth Spontaneous Emission Control in Three-Dimensional Lithium Niobate Photonic Crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(34), 3526–3530 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Note that the UCL of the other IOPCs samples were also measured, which showed that the intensity ratio of 4S3/2-4I15/2 to 4I9/2-4I15/2 varied considerably with the shift of PSB. Overall to say, the relative emission near the PSB was suppressed if one emission was near the PSB and the other was far away. As both the lines were far away from the PSB, the intensity ratio of 4S3/2-4I15/2 to 4I9/2-4I15/2 was close to that of the REF sample.

Figure 3
Fig. 3 The overall UCL intensity of 2H11/2/4S3/2-4I15/2 for Er3+ ions as a function of temperature in different samples. Insert: Dependence of decay time constants of the Er3+ ions on temperature (dots) and the fitting function (line).
displays the total emission intensity of Er3+ ions as a function of the temperature in IOPCs, REF and the thin film samples under 980-nm excitation. Following the increase of temperature, a rapid decrease of UCL intensity in the REF and the thin film was observed, while the UCL rarely changed with elevated temperature in IOPCs. This implies that the temperature-quenching of Er3+ UCL can be suppressed considerably in the IOPCs. It is suggested that in the traditional phosphors, the long-term energy transfer (ET) is very effective. Inevitably, the quenching of UCL will happen due to the ET from luminescent centers to defect states, which randomly distribute in the lattices of the phosphors. This process is strongly dependent of temperature. In the IOPCs, the long-term ET should be restrained largely because of thin thickness of each YVO4:Yb, Er layer (~20 nm) [21

21. X. S. Qu, H. W. Song, X. Bai, G. H. Pan, B. Dong, H. F. Zhao, F. Wang, and R. F. Qin, “Preparation and Upconversion Luminescence of Three-Dimensionally Ordered Macroporous ZrO2: Er3+, Yb3+.,” Inorg. Chem. 47(20), 9654–9659 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and the existence of long periodic and connected air cavity between two layers. In this case, the ET among Er3+ and defect states can happen only within one YVO4:Yb, Er layer and then the emitted photons are scattered into air cavity rather than largely captured by the defect states through further long-range ET. To further reveal this piont, the UCL dynamics of the 4S3/2-4I15/2 transition in IOPCs, REF and the thin film samples as a function of temperature were shown in the inset of Fig. 3. Based on the multi-phonon-relaxation theory the total decay rate for 4S3/2, WTotal can be roughly written as,
WTotal=WR+WET+WNR(0)(1eω/kT)ΔE/ω
(1)
where, WR is the radiative transition rate of 4S3/2-4I15/2, WET the ET rate including cross relaxation from 4S3/2 of Er3+ and ET from 4S3/2 of Er3+ to Yb3+, WNR(0) the nonradiative relaxation rate from 4S3/2 at 0 K. By fitting, we deduced that in the IOPCs, WR + WET = 39.9ms−1, WNR(0) = 135.6 ms−1, while in the thin film WR + WET = 55.7ms−1, WNR(0) = 159.6 ms−1, and REF samples, WR + WET = 58.9ms−1, WNR(0) = 232.1ms−1, respectively. It is obvious that in the IOPCs, the WNR(0) is considerably inhabited in contrast to the thin film and REF samples, accordingly, the theoretical nonradiative transition rates for Er3+ as a function of temperature were drawn in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The theoretical nonradiative transitions rates for Er3+ ions as a function of temperature in different samples.
, which further implies that in the IOPCs, the temperature quenching was considerably restrained.

As excitation power density is too strong, local thermal effect induced by laser exposure and the corresponding UCL quenching usually happens for UC phosphors [22

22. F. Wang, R. R. Deng, J. Wang, Q. X. Wang, Y. Han, H. M. Zhu, X. Y. Chen, and X. G. Liu, “Tuning upconversion through energy migration in core-shell nanoparticles,” Nat. Mater. 10(12), 968–973 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Here, we highlight that in the UCL of YVO4:Yb,Er IOPCs the local thermal effect can be suppressed considerably. Figure 5
Fig. 5 Ln-ln plot of the green UCL intensity (2H11/2, 4S3/2-4I15/2) of the PC3, thin film sample and REF samples. Insert: The temperature versus the excitation power in the samples.
shows UCL intensity of the green emissions as a function of excitation power in different samples. In the IOPCs, a strongest power-dependence of UCL was obtained (IUCL∝In, slope n = 1.73) in contrast to the other two samples (n = 1.40 for the thin film, n = 0.56 for the REF). And more, in the IOPCs the UCL intensity increased continuously in the studied power range, while in the other samples, the quenching of UCL was observed at a certain power density. The fact above indicates that the IOPCs is a very helpful device for the improvement of UCL and its nature is due to thin layer structure and connected air cavity, which is useful of thermal diffusion. The irradiation of strong excitation light will induce the temperature increase of the samples and the intensity ratio (RHS) of 2H11/2-4I15/2 to 4S3/2-4I15/2 is a decisive factor for the sample temperature [23

23. X. Bai, H. W. Song, G. H. Pan, Y. Q. Lei, T. Wang, X. G. Ren, S. Z. Lu, B. Dong, Q. L. Dai, and L. B. Fan, “Size-Dependent Upconversion Luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+-Codoped Nanocrystalline Yttria: Saturation and Thermal Effects,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(36), 13611–13617 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. Based on the well-known thermal activation equation, RHS = RHS(0)exp-ΔE/kT, we deduced the practical sample temperatures under the 980-nm laser exposure of different power densities, as shown in the inset of Fig. 5. It can be seen that in the thin film and REF samples, the temperature increases rapidly with the increase of excitation power, while changes fractionally in the IOPCs due to better thermal diffusion of the sample. Similar result was also observed in the other IOPCs samples, which indicated that the inhibited local thermal effect is induced by three-dimensional ordered porous structure of IOPCs, rather than overlapped effect between PSB and UC emission.

In conclusion, we not only observed highly modified UCL and dynamics in YVO4:Yb3+, Er3+ IOPCs, but also observed effective suppression of temperature quenching and local thermal effect in the IOPCs. This observation may be significant for realizing effective UCL in oxide with relatively large phonon energy.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by National Talent Youth Science Foundation of China (Grant no. 60925018), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant no. 10974071, 61204015, 51002062, 11174111, and 61177042). The China Postdoctoral Science Foundation Funded Project (2012M511337).

References and links

1.

M. M. Baksh, M. Jaros, and J. T. Groves, “Detection of molecular interactions at membrane surfaces through colloid phase transitions,” Nature 427(6970), 139–141 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Electrically Driven Single-Cell Photonic Crystal Laser,” Science 305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

L. Zhou, Z. R. Gong, Y. X. Liu, C. P. Sun, and F. Nori, “Controllable Scattering of a Single Photon inside a One-Dimensional Resonator Waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(10), 100501 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

O. B. Ayyub, J. W. Sekowski, T. I. Yang, X. Zhang, R. M. Briber, and P. Kofinas, “Color changing block copolymer films for chemical sensing of simple sugars,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 28(1), 349–354 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

I. S. Nikolaev, P. Lodahl, and W. L. Vos, “Fluorescence Lifetime of Emitters with Broad Homogeneous Linewidths Modified in Opal Photonic Crystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(18), 7250–7254 (2008). [CrossRef]

6.

J. Y. Zhang, X. Y. Wang, M. Xiao, and Y. H. Ye, “Modified spontaneous emission of CdTe quantum dots inside a photonic crystal,” Opt. Lett. 28(16), 1430–1432 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

A. Oertel, C. Lengler, T. Walther, and M. Haase, “Photonic Properties of Inverse Opals Fabricated from Lanthanide-Doped LaPO4 Nanocrystals,” Chem. Mater. 21(16), 3883–3888 (2009). [CrossRef]

8.

Y. S. Zhu, W. Xu, H. Z. Zhang, W. Wang, S. Xu, and H. W. Song, “Inhibited Long-Scale Energy Transfer in Dysprosium Doped Yttrium Vanadate Inverse Opal,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(3), 2297–2302 (2012). [CrossRef]

9.

Y. S. Zhu, W. Xu, H. Z. Zhang, W. Wang, L. Tong, S. Xu, Z. P. Sun, and H. W. Song, “Highly modified spontaneous emissions in YVO4:Eu3+ inverse opal and refractive index sensing application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(8), 081104 (2012). [CrossRef]

10.

Q. Liu, H. W. Song, W. Wang, X. Bai, Y. Wang, B. Dong, L. Xu, and W. Han, “Observation of Lamb shift and modified spontaneous emission dynamics in the YBO3:Eu3+ inverse opal,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2898–2900 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

S. J. Zeng, G. Z. Ren, and Q. B. Yang, “Fabrication, formation mechanism and optical properties of novel single-crystal Er3+ doped NaYbF4 micro-tubes,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(11), 2152–2156 (2010). [CrossRef]

12.

H. Naruke, T. Mori, and T. Yamase, “Luminescence properties and excitation process of a near-infrared to visible up-conversion color-tunable phosphor,” Opt. Mater. 31(10), 1483–1487 (2009). [CrossRef]

13.

F. Zhang, Y. H. Deng, Y. F. Shi, R. Y. Zhang, and D. Y. Zhao, “Photoluminescence modification in upconversion rare-earth fluorid nanocrystal array constructed photonic crystals,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(19), 3895–3900 (2010). [CrossRef]

14.

Z. X. Li, L. L. Li, H. P. Zhou, Q. Yuan, C. Chen, L. D. Sun, and C. H. Yan, “Colour modification action of an upconversion photonic crystalw,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (43): 6616–6618 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

D. Yan, J. L. Zhu, H. J. Wu, Z. W. Yang, J. B. Qiu, Z. G. Song, X. Yu, Y. Yang, D. C. Zhou, Z. Y. Yin, and R. F. Wang, “Energy transfer and photoluminescence modification in Yb–Er–Tm triply doped Y2Ti2O7 upconversion inverse opal,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(35), 18558–18563 (2012). [CrossRef]

16.

Z. W. Yang, D. Yan, K. Zhu, Z. G. Song, X. Yu, D. C. Zhou, Z. Y. Yin, and J. B. Qiu, “Modification of the upconversion spontaneous emission in photonic crystals,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 133(2-3), 584–587 (2012). [CrossRef]

17.

G. Mialon, S. Türkcan, G. Dantelle, D. P. Collins, M. Hadjipanayi, R. A. Taylor, T. Gacoin, A. Alexandrou, and J. P. Boilot, “High Up-Conversion Efficiency of YVO4:Yb,Er Nanoparticles in Water down to the Single-Particle Level,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(51), 22449–22454 (2010). [CrossRef]

18.

A. Ródenas, G. Zhou, D. Jaque, and M. Gu, “Rare-Earth Spontaneous Emission Control in Three-Dimensional Lithium Niobate Photonic Crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(34), 3526–3530 (2009). [CrossRef]

19.

W. Wang, H. W. Song, X. Bai, Q. Liu, and Y. S. Zhu, “Modified spontaneous emissions of europium complex in weak PMMA opals,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13(40), 18023–18030 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

K. Riwotzki and M. Haase, “Colloidal YVO4:Eu and YP0.95V0.05O4:Eu Nanoparticles: Luminescence and Energy Transfer Processes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(51), 12709–12713 (2001). [CrossRef]

21.

X. S. Qu, H. W. Song, X. Bai, G. H. Pan, B. Dong, H. F. Zhao, F. Wang, and R. F. Qin, “Preparation and Upconversion Luminescence of Three-Dimensionally Ordered Macroporous ZrO2: Er3+, Yb3+.,” Inorg. Chem. 47(20), 9654–9659 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

F. Wang, R. R. Deng, J. Wang, Q. X. Wang, Y. Han, H. M. Zhu, X. Y. Chen, and X. G. Liu, “Tuning upconversion through energy migration in core-shell nanoparticles,” Nat. Mater. 10(12), 968–973 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

X. Bai, H. W. Song, G. H. Pan, Y. Q. Lei, T. Wang, X. G. Ren, S. Z. Lu, B. Dong, Q. L. Dai, and L. B. Fan, “Size-Dependent Upconversion Luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+-Codoped Nanocrystalline Yttria: Saturation and Thermal Effects,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(36), 13611–13617 (2007). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(250.0250) Optoelectronics : Optoelectronics
(300.0300) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy

ToC Category:
Photonic Crystals

History
Original Manuscript: November 8, 2012
Revised Manuscript: December 2, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: December 3, 2012
Published: December 20, 2012

Citation
Yongsheng Zhu, Wen Xu, Hanzhuang Zhang, Sai Xu, Yunfeng Wang, Qinlin Dai, Biao Dong, Lin Xu, and Hongwei Song, "Inhibited local thermal effect in upconversion luminescence of YVO4:Yb3+, Er3+ inverse opals," Opt. Express 20, 29673-29678 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-28-29673


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References

  1. M. M. Baksh, M. Jaros, and J. T. Groves, “Detection of molecular interactions at membrane surfaces through colloid phase transitions,” Nature427(6970), 139–141 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Electrically Driven Single-Cell Photonic Crystal Laser,” Science305(5689), 1444–1447 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. L. Zhou, Z. R. Gong, Y. X. Liu, C. P. Sun, and F. Nori, “Controllable Scattering of a Single Photon inside a One-Dimensional Resonator Waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(10), 100501 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. O. B. Ayyub, J. W. Sekowski, T. I. Yang, X. Zhang, R. M. Briber, and P. Kofinas, “Color changing block copolymer films for chemical sensing of simple sugars,” Biosens. Bioelectron.28(1), 349–354 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. I. S. Nikolaev, P. Lodahl, and W. L. Vos, “Fluorescence Lifetime of Emitters with Broad Homogeneous Linewidths Modified in Opal Photonic Crystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(18), 7250–7254 (2008). [CrossRef]
  6. J. Y. Zhang, X. Y. Wang, M. Xiao, and Y. H. Ye, “Modified spontaneous emission of CdTe quantum dots inside a photonic crystal,” Opt. Lett.28(16), 1430–1432 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Oertel, C. Lengler, T. Walther, and M. Haase, “Photonic Properties of Inverse Opals Fabricated from Lanthanide-Doped LaPO4 Nanocrystals,” Chem. Mater.21(16), 3883–3888 (2009). [CrossRef]
  8. Y. S. Zhu, W. Xu, H. Z. Zhang, W. Wang, S. Xu, and H. W. Song, “Inhibited Long-Scale Energy Transfer in Dysprosium Doped Yttrium Vanadate Inverse Opal,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(3), 2297–2302 (2012). [CrossRef]
  9. Y. S. Zhu, W. Xu, H. Z. Zhang, W. Wang, L. Tong, S. Xu, Z. P. Sun, and H. W. Song, “Highly modified spontaneous emissions in YVO4:Eu3+ inverse opal and refractive index sensing application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(8), 081104 (2012). [CrossRef]
  10. Q. Liu, H. W. Song, W. Wang, X. Bai, Y. Wang, B. Dong, L. Xu, and W. Han, “Observation of Lamb shift and modified spontaneous emission dynamics in the YBO3:Eu3+ inverse opal,” Opt. Lett.35(17), 2898–2900 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. J. Zeng, G. Z. Ren, and Q. B. Yang, “Fabrication, formation mechanism and optical properties of novel single-crystal Er3+ doped NaYbF4 micro-tubes,” J. Mater. Chem.20(11), 2152–2156 (2010). [CrossRef]
  12. H. Naruke, T. Mori, and T. Yamase, “Luminescence properties and excitation process of a near-infrared to visible up-conversion color-tunable phosphor,” Opt. Mater.31(10), 1483–1487 (2009). [CrossRef]
  13. F. Zhang, Y. H. Deng, Y. F. Shi, R. Y. Zhang, and D. Y. Zhao, “Photoluminescence modification in upconversion rare-earth fluorid nanocrystal array constructed photonic crystals,” J. Mater. Chem.20(19), 3895–3900 (2010). [CrossRef]
  14. Z. X. Li, L. L. Li, H. P. Zhou, Q. Yuan, C. Chen, L. D. Sun, and C. H. Yan, “Colour modification action of an upconversion photonic crystalw,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (43): 6616–6618 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D. Yan, J. L. Zhu, H. J. Wu, Z. W. Yang, J. B. Qiu, Z. G. Song, X. Yu, Y. Yang, D. C. Zhou, Z. Y. Yin, and R. F. Wang, “Energy transfer and photoluminescence modification in Yb–Er–Tm triply doped Y2Ti2O7 upconversion inverse opal,” J. Mater. Chem.22(35), 18558–18563 (2012). [CrossRef]
  16. Z. W. Yang, D. Yan, K. Zhu, Z. G. Song, X. Yu, D. C. Zhou, Z. Y. Yin, and J. B. Qiu, “Modification of the upconversion spontaneous emission in photonic crystals,” Mater. Chem. Phys.133(2-3), 584–587 (2012). [CrossRef]
  17. G. Mialon, S. Türkcan, G. Dantelle, D. P. Collins, M. Hadjipanayi, R. A. Taylor, T. Gacoin, A. Alexandrou, and J. P. Boilot, “High Up-Conversion Efficiency of YVO4:Yb,Er Nanoparticles in Water down to the Single-Particle Level,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(51), 22449–22454 (2010). [CrossRef]
  18. A. Ródenas, G. Zhou, D. Jaque, and M. Gu, “Rare-Earth Spontaneous Emission Control in Three-Dimensional Lithium Niobate Photonic Crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(34), 3526–3530 (2009). [CrossRef]
  19. W. Wang, H. W. Song, X. Bai, Q. Liu, and Y. S. Zhu, “Modified spontaneous emissions of europium complex in weak PMMA opals,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.13(40), 18023–18030 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. K. Riwotzki and M. Haase, “Colloidal YVO4:Eu and YP0.95V0.05O4:Eu Nanoparticles: Luminescence and Energy Transfer Processes,” J. Phys. Chem. B105(51), 12709–12713 (2001). [CrossRef]
  21. X. S. Qu, H. W. Song, X. Bai, G. H. Pan, B. Dong, H. F. Zhao, F. Wang, and R. F. Qin, “Preparation and Upconversion Luminescence of Three-Dimensionally Ordered Macroporous ZrO2: Er3+, Yb3+.,” Inorg. Chem.47(20), 9654–9659 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. F. Wang, R. R. Deng, J. Wang, Q. X. Wang, Y. Han, H. M. Zhu, X. Y. Chen, and X. G. Liu, “Tuning upconversion through energy migration in core-shell nanoparticles,” Nat. Mater.10(12), 968–973 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. X. Bai, H. W. Song, G. H. Pan, Y. Q. Lei, T. Wang, X. G. Ren, S. Z. Lu, B. Dong, Q. L. Dai, and L. B. Fan, “Size-Dependent Upconversion Luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+-Codoped Nanocrystalline Yttria: Saturation and Thermal Effects,” J. Phys. Chem. C111(36), 13611–13617 (2007). [CrossRef]

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