OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 28 — Dec. 31, 2012
  • pp: 29751–29760
« Show journal navigation

Sol-gel derived ionic copper-doped microstructured optical fiber: a potential selective ultraviolet radiation dosimeter

Hicham El Hamzaoui, Youcef Ouerdane, Laurent Bigot, Géraud Bouwmans, Bruno Capoen, Aziz Boukenter, Sylvain Girard, and Mohamed Bouazaoui  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 28, pp. 29751-29760 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.029751


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1306 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We report the fabrication and characterization of a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) having a sol-gel core doped with ionic copper. Optical measurements demonstrate that the ionic copper is preserved in the silica glass all along the preparation steps up to fiber drawing. The photoluminescence results clearly show that such an ionic copper-doped fiber constitutes a potential candidate for UV-C (200-280 nm) radiation dosimetry. Indeed, the Cu+-related visible photoluminescence of the fiber shows a linear response to 244 nm light excitation measured for an irradiation power up to 2.7 mW at least on the Cu-doped PCF core. Moreover, this response was found to be fully reversible within the measurement accuracy of this study ( ± 1%), underlying the remarkable stability of copper in the Cu+ oxidation state within the pure silica core prepared by a sol-gel route. This reversibility offers possibilities for the achievement of reusable real-time optical fiber UV-C dosimeters.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

Recently, extensive efforts have been devoted to transition metal ion-doped photonic materials owing to their potential optical applications. Thereby, ionic copper-based nanocomposites present a promising route to improve the efficiency of light collection in solar cells [1

1. S. Gómez, I. Urra, R. Valiente, and F. Rodríguez, “Spectroscopic study of Cu2+/Cu+ doubly doped and highly transmitting glasses for solar spectral transformation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(8), 2018–2022 (2011). [CrossRef]

], and in chemical sensing using evanescent waves in optical fibers [2

2. O. B. Miled, C. Sanchez, and J. Livage, “Spectroscopic studies and evanescent optical fibre wave sensing of Cu2+ based on activated mesostructured silica matrix,” J. Mater. Sci. 40(17), 4523–4530 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. Moreover, if ionic copper-activated materials have been used in ionizing radiation dosimetry [3

3. N. S. Dhoble, S. P. Pupalwar, S. J. Dhoble, A. K. Upadhyay, and R. S. Kher, “Lyoluminescence and mechanoluminescence of Cu+ activated LiKSO4 phosphors for radiation dosimetry,” Radiat. Meas. 46(12), 1890–1893 (2011). [CrossRef]

,4

4. B. L. Justus, P. Falkenstein, A. L. Huston, M. C. Plazas, H. Ning, and R. W. Miller, “Gated fiber-optic-coupled detector for in vivo real-time radiation dosimetry,” Appl. Opt. 43(8), 1663–1668 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], they could be also used for non-ionizing radiation sensing via the Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) effect. In fact, it is known that the presence of Cu+ ions in different matrices induces useful optical properties. They present large absorption cross section in the UV region (~2.5 x 10−17 cm2) [5

5. S. Gomez, I. Urra, R. Valiente, and F. Rodriguez, “Spectroscopic study of Cu2+ and Cu+ ions in high-transmission glass. Electronic structure and Cu2+/Cu+ concentrations,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22(29), 295505 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], which is at least two order of magnitude higher than those of trivalent rare-earth ions (<10−19 cm2) for example [6

6. S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared Cross-Section Measurements for Crystals Doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992). [CrossRef]

]. Moreover, The Cu+ ions absorb selectively the UV-C radiation, which is of great interest due to their associated biological hazards [7

7. A. Michnik, K. Michalik, and Z. Drzazga, “Effect of UVC radiation on conformational restructuring of human serum albumin,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 90(3), 170–178 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,8

8. H. P. Leenhouts and K. H. Chadwick, Human Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation: Risks and Regulations, Eds: W F Passchier and B F Bosnjakovic (Elsevier, 1987).

].

Optical fiber-based dosimeters present a key advantage over their electronic counterparts because they operate without electrical or radio-frequency interference. Moreover the fiber architecture is suitable for environmental monitoring, or applications requiring monitoring over a long distance. Two kinds of conventional optical fiber-based dosimeters have been so far developed. In the first one, the radiation-sensitive element is a length of specially formulated quartz fiber. This one is attached to a length of another optical fiber that is used to guide the optical signal to the detector [4

4. B. L. Justus, P. Falkenstein, A. L. Huston, M. C. Plazas, H. Ning, and R. W. Miller, “Gated fiber-optic-coupled detector for in vivo real-time radiation dosimetry,” Appl. Opt. 43(8), 1663–1668 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The second one consists of small bulk radiation-sensitive material coupled with an optical fiber. In this latter case, the fiber acts only as a waveguide to carry an optical signal from the sensing material to a detector [9

9. C. E. Andersen, J. M. Edmund, and S. M. S. Damkjær, “Precision of RL/OSL medical dosimetry with fiber-coupled Al2O3:C: Influence of readout delay and temperature variations,” Radiat. Meas. 45(3-6), 653–657 (2010). [CrossRef]

,10

10. G. V. M. Williams and S. G. Raymond, “Fiber-optic-coupled RbMgF3:Eu2+ for remote radiation dosimetry,” Radiat. Meas. 46(10), 1099–1102 (2011). [CrossRef]

].

Due to the multiple degrees of freedom in designing and controlling their optical properties, PCFs can be considered as an alternative solution to the conventional optical fiber technology in many applications [11

11. A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and A. S. Bjarklev, Photonic Crystal Fibres (Kluwer Academic, 2003).

]. Besides, sol-gel synthesis has become a mature and pertinent technology in the preparation of optical materials such as silica-based glasses and nanocomposites. This method presents various advantages over the traditional techniques, such as a greater homogeneity, a higher purity, lower processing temperatures and a better control of the glass properties. In this manner, we have recently prepared high purity-grade silica glass rods using the polymeric sol-gel route. These sol-gel silica rods with a large cross section have been used as starting materials to achieve passive or active PCFs for efficient Er-doped fiber amplifiers [12

12. H. El Hamzaoui, L. Courtheoux, V. Nguyen, E. Berrier, A. Favre, L. Bigot, M. Bouazaoui, and B. Capoen, “From porous silica xerogels to bulk optical glasses: The control of densification,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 121(1-2), 83–88 (2010). [CrossRef]

,13

13. H. El Hamzaoui, L. Bigot, G. Bouwmans, I. Razdobreev, M. Bouazaoui, and B. Capoen, “From molecular precursors in solution to microstructured optical fiber: a Sol-gel polymeric route,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(2), 234–242 (2011). [CrossRef]

].

To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first report of a pure silica solid core PCF, doped with ionic copper and prepared using a polymeric sol-gel route. This fiber exhibits interesting reversible optical properties that could be exploited in UV-C radiation dosimetry. The all-fibered sensor concept has a simple configuration in which the same fiber simultaneously acts as the waveguide and as the sensitive material.

2. Experimental

The first step of the fabrication consists in the synthesis of a cylindrical rod by the sol-gel route. This technique was chosen because it enables to achieve transparent glasses at low temperatures, that is to say several hundred of degrees below the reaction temperature required in the conventional industrial Chemical Vapor Deposition process. Then, the obtained rod was integrated in an air/silica PCF structure using the conventional stack-and-draw process [14

14. P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic-Crystal Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4729–4749 (2006). [CrossRef]

].

Porous silica monoliths, shaped as cylinders, were prepared from tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), as already described elsewhere [12

12. H. El Hamzaoui, L. Courtheoux, V. Nguyen, E. Berrier, A. Favre, L. Bigot, M. Bouazaoui, and B. Capoen, “From porous silica xerogels to bulk optical glasses: The control of densification,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 121(1-2), 83–88 (2010). [CrossRef]

,13

13. H. El Hamzaoui, L. Bigot, G. Bouwmans, I. Razdobreev, M. Bouazaoui, and B. Capoen, “From molecular precursors in solution to microstructured optical fiber: a Sol-gel polymeric route,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(2), 234–242 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. One of those porous monoliths, exhibiting interconnected nanometric pores, was doped by soaking it into a copper salt solution. Then, the sample was taken out and dried for several hours to remove solvents. The resulting doped xerogel was then densified under air atmosphere at 1200°C. In this way, a pale green-colored and crack-free silica glass cylinder of roughly 5 mm-diameter and about 70 mm-length was obtained.

In order to use this sol-gel silica rod as a fiber core, an air/silica PCF was obtained using the conventional stack-and-draw process. At first, the sol-gel rod was stacked with pure silica capillaries in a hexagonal arrangement. The stack was then placed inside a silica jacket tube and drawn down to a cane, itself placed inside a silica jacket tube and drawn into a final fiber form. During the fiber manufacturing, the sol-gel rod was heated several times at high temperatures (around 2000°C). This fiber (SEM image presented in the inset of Fig. 3) has an outer diameter of 127 μm and a core diameter of 6.4 µm defined as the distance between two diametrically opposite holes. The pitch of the periodic cladding, Λ, and the diameter of the air holes, d, are 3.7 μm and 1.5 μm, respectively.

To control and validate the different phases involved in the entire process, we studied the optical responses of both preform and fiber samples.

Optical characterization of undoped and Cu-doped sol-gel silica rods: The obtained transparent glass rods were cut and polished into discs, as shown in the inset of Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Absorption spectra of (a) non-doped and (b) Cu-doped pure silica glasses. Insets present their corresponding photographs.
.

Absorption spectra were recorded at room temperature using a Perkin-Elmer Lambda 19 UV-vis-IR double beam spectrometer.

Several set-ups based on UV excitation lines were used for photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved analysis. Photoluminescence lifetime measurements were performed under excitation in the UV range (215 - 350 nm) by using a pulsed laser system (Spectra-Physics) with a pulse width of ~8 ns, a repetition rate of 10 Hz and an energy density per pulse of ~0.3 mJ cm−2. The light emitted from the sample was dispersed by a spectrograph equipped with a 300 grooves/mm grating, blazed at 500 nm, and then acquired by an intensified charge coupled device (Princeton CCD) camera. The acquisition is gated within a time window of 3 µs width, which opens starting from an adapted delay time with respect to the laser pulse.

Optical characterization of the Cu-doped fiber: The spectral attenuation of the Cu-doped PCF was measured by the conventional cut-back technique using a white light source and an OSA. This measurement has been performed on a 2.5 m -long sample.

The copper ions location and distribution, over the PCF transverse cross section, were investigated through micro-photoluminescence measurements by using an Aramis (Jobin-Yvon) spectrometer equipped with a CCD camera, a He-Cd ion laser (energy 3.8 eV and power ~0.15 mW), a 2D micro-translation stage and a 40 × objective. All the spectra were acquired under experimental conditions ensuring a spatial resolution of the order of 10 μm.

To highlight the UV power effect on the visible emission intensity of copper ions, we transversally irradiated the fiber using a cw-UV laser operating at 244 nm with a beam diameter of about 0.8 mm. In this case, a 15 cm-length uncoated PCF sample was connected to the entrance slit of a sensitive and miniaturized spectrometer (QE 65000 from Ocean optics). This last and compact configuration is well adapted for rapid spectral analysis with an objective of dosimeter application.

3. Results and discussion

3.1. Bulk sol-gel glasses

Figure 1 shows the absorption spectrum of the Cu-doped silica glass. The high optical quality of the elaborated samples is revealed over a broad spectral domain [200-2000] nm. The blank (non-doped) sample is almost transparent in the whole studied range whereas the Cu-doped one shows an intense UV absorption, revealing its potential use in UV-based detection systems. In comparison with the blank silica glass, the doped sample exhibits a narrow absorption band centered around 308 nm (2811 dB m−1) and a broad one centered at about 800 nm (113 dB m−1). These bands can be assigned to the ionic copper in a silicate glass. The first absorption band is attributed to monovalent Cu+ ion [15

15. Y. Fujimoto and M. Nakatsuka, “Spectroscopic properties and quantum yield of Cu-doped SiO2 glass,” J. Lumin. 75(3), 213–219 (1997). [CrossRef]

] and the second one to the divalent Cu2+ ion [16

16. Q. Zhang, G. Chen, G. Dong, G. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Qiu, Q. Zhou, Q. Chen, and D. Chen, “The reduction of Cu2+ to Cu+ and optical properties of Cu+ ions in Cu-doped and Cu/Al-codoped high silica glasses sintered in an air atmosphere,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 482(4-6), 228–233 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. By using the absorption cross-sections reported in the literature [5

5. S. Gomez, I. Urra, R. Valiente, and F. Rodriguez, “Spectroscopic study of Cu2+ and Cu+ ions in high-transmission glass. Electronic structure and Cu2+/Cu+ concentrations,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22(29), 295505 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] for both valences of copper ions in silicate glasses, absorption data made it possible to estimate the Cu2+ and Cu+ molar concentrations at 208 ppm and 12 ppm, respectively (molar ratio Cun+/Si). The mean copper molar concentration was estimated using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) to be around 250 ppm. This value is close to that determined using optical characterizations.

3.2. Copper-doped optical fiber

For the luminescence-based UV-dosimetry measurements, the PCF was transversally irradiated by the UV incoming light. The spot position on the PCF was easily optimized via the diffraction picture just behind the irradiated fiber.

The Cu+ PL band structure may find its origin either in different surrounding configurations created by the fiber drawing or in the emission from different levels of the same center. It is known that the excited 3d94s state of Cu+ ions are sensitive to the nature of the surrounding environment. The ligands field interactions split the excited state of Cu+ into 1T2g, 3T2g, 1Eg, and 3Eg levels. Moreover, the triplets can be further split by spin-orbit interaction, as illustrated in Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Level configuration scheme for the Cu+ ion, with the effect of a tetragonal distortion of the octahedral field (Modified from ref [17].).
[17

17. E. Borsella, A. Dal Vecchio, M. A. Garcìa, C. Sada, F. Gonella, R. Polloni, A. Quaranta, and L. J. G. W. van Wilderen, “Copper doping of silicate glasses by the ion-exchange technique: A photoluminescence spectroscopy study,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(1), 90–98 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. As compared with crystals, silica glass has a random structure and bears inherent site-to-site inhomogeneity, which leads to the broadening of the obtained bands. However, the structure of the obtained PL band could be explained by tetragonal distortion of the Cu+ environment inside the silica glass PCF. The de-excitation from tetragonal distortion 3Eg levels is at the origin of the green emissions centered around 510 and 570 nm as illustrated in Fig. 8.

The obtained Cu-doped fiber has been tested for UV radiation dosimetry. To that purpose, the PL spectra were recorded under different laser powers.

The emission bands centered on 510 and 570 nm, respectively, have been monitored as a function of the 244 nm excitation incident powers. Fitted PL band intensity maxima and integrals are reported and both of them exhibit a linear response to a laser incident power up to 100 mW (Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Maximum (a) and integral (b) intensities of UV-induced luminescence fitted bands at 510 and 570 nm as a function of the excitation power (λexc = 244 nm).
) that corresponds to an irradiation power up to 2.7 mW on the Cu-doped PCF core. Moreover, after several increase-and-decrease cycles of the laser power, these PL band intensity maxima and integrals were found to be totally reversible within the measurement accuracy of this study ( ± 1%). Such a highly sensitive and stable Cu-doped silica PCF could appear as a first device, paving the way for a remote and real-time measurement system of absorbed UV radiation doses.

4. Conclusion

In summary, a Cu+/Cu2+-doped silica PCF was achieved using an ionic copper-doped silica preform prepared by the polymeric sol-gel route. The fiber drawing conditions favor the conversion of Cu2+ into Cu+ ions inside the sol-gel silica glass, led to the apparition of ODC defect centers and gave a distortion of the silica tetragonal environment, resulting in a structuring of the green emission spectrum. The PL intensity of such an ionic Cu-doped PCF presented a good linear response to the UV incident power at 244 nm up to 100 mW at least, which makes it a potential candidate for radiation dosimetry applications in an all-fibered sensor configuration.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR) in the frame of the POMESCO project (Organized Photo-growth of Metallic and Semi-Conductor nano-objects intended to Optic devices), the “Conseil Régional Nord Pas de Calais Picardie” and the “Fonds Européen de Développement Economique des Régions”.

References and links

1.

S. Gómez, I. Urra, R. Valiente, and F. Rodríguez, “Spectroscopic study of Cu2+/Cu+ doubly doped and highly transmitting glasses for solar spectral transformation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(8), 2018–2022 (2011). [CrossRef]

2.

O. B. Miled, C. Sanchez, and J. Livage, “Spectroscopic studies and evanescent optical fibre wave sensing of Cu2+ based on activated mesostructured silica matrix,” J. Mater. Sci. 40(17), 4523–4530 (2005). [CrossRef]

3.

N. S. Dhoble, S. P. Pupalwar, S. J. Dhoble, A. K. Upadhyay, and R. S. Kher, “Lyoluminescence and mechanoluminescence of Cu+ activated LiKSO4 phosphors for radiation dosimetry,” Radiat. Meas. 46(12), 1890–1893 (2011). [CrossRef]

4.

B. L. Justus, P. Falkenstein, A. L. Huston, M. C. Plazas, H. Ning, and R. W. Miller, “Gated fiber-optic-coupled detector for in vivo real-time radiation dosimetry,” Appl. Opt. 43(8), 1663–1668 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

S. Gomez, I. Urra, R. Valiente, and F. Rodriguez, “Spectroscopic study of Cu2+ and Cu+ ions in high-transmission glass. Electronic structure and Cu2+/Cu+ concentrations,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22(29), 295505 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared Cross-Section Measurements for Crystals Doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992). [CrossRef]

7.

A. Michnik, K. Michalik, and Z. Drzazga, “Effect of UVC radiation on conformational restructuring of human serum albumin,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 90(3), 170–178 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

H. P. Leenhouts and K. H. Chadwick, Human Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation: Risks and Regulations, Eds: W F Passchier and B F Bosnjakovic (Elsevier, 1987).

9.

C. E. Andersen, J. M. Edmund, and S. M. S. Damkjær, “Precision of RL/OSL medical dosimetry with fiber-coupled Al2O3:C: Influence of readout delay and temperature variations,” Radiat. Meas. 45(3-6), 653–657 (2010). [CrossRef]

10.

G. V. M. Williams and S. G. Raymond, “Fiber-optic-coupled RbMgF3:Eu2+ for remote radiation dosimetry,” Radiat. Meas. 46(10), 1099–1102 (2011). [CrossRef]

11.

A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and A. S. Bjarklev, Photonic Crystal Fibres (Kluwer Academic, 2003).

12.

H. El Hamzaoui, L. Courtheoux, V. Nguyen, E. Berrier, A. Favre, L. Bigot, M. Bouazaoui, and B. Capoen, “From porous silica xerogels to bulk optical glasses: The control of densification,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 121(1-2), 83–88 (2010). [CrossRef]

13.

H. El Hamzaoui, L. Bigot, G. Bouwmans, I. Razdobreev, M. Bouazaoui, and B. Capoen, “From molecular precursors in solution to microstructured optical fiber: a Sol-gel polymeric route,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(2), 234–242 (2011). [CrossRef]

14.

P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic-Crystal Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4729–4749 (2006). [CrossRef]

15.

Y. Fujimoto and M. Nakatsuka, “Spectroscopic properties and quantum yield of Cu-doped SiO2 glass,” J. Lumin. 75(3), 213–219 (1997). [CrossRef]

16.

Q. Zhang, G. Chen, G. Dong, G. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Qiu, Q. Zhou, Q. Chen, and D. Chen, “The reduction of Cu2+ to Cu+ and optical properties of Cu+ ions in Cu-doped and Cu/Al-codoped high silica glasses sintered in an air atmosphere,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 482(4-6), 228–233 (2009). [CrossRef]

17.

E. Borsella, A. Dal Vecchio, M. A. Garcìa, C. Sada, F. Gonella, R. Polloni, A. Quaranta, and L. J. G. W. van Wilderen, “Copper doping of silicate glasses by the ion-exchange technique: A photoluminescence spectroscopy study,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(1), 90–98 (2002). [CrossRef]

18.

A. Lin, B. H. Kim, D. S. Moon, Y. Chung, and W.-T. Han, “Cu2+-doped germano-silicate glass fiber with high resonant nonlinearity,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3665–3672 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

J. Kaufmann and C. Rüssel, “Thermodynamics of the Cu+/Cu2+-redox equilibrium in alumosilicate melts,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(33-34), 1615–1619 (2010). [CrossRef]

20.

Y. Sakurai, “The 3.1 eV photoluminescence band in oxygen-deficient silica glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 271(3), 218–223 (2000). [CrossRef]

21.

S. Munekuni, T. Yamanaka, Y. Shimogaichi, R. Tohmon, Y. Ohki, K. Nagasawa, and Y. Hama, “Various types of non bridging oxygen hole center in high-purity silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 1212–1217 (1990).

22.

Y. Sakurai, K. Nagasawa, H. Nishikawa, and Y. Ohki, “Characteristic red photoluminescence band in oxygen-deficient silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 370–373 (1999). [CrossRef]

23.

Y. Hibino and H. Hanafusa, “Defect structure and formation mechanism of drawing-induced absorption at 630 nm in silica optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 60(5), 1797–1801 (1986). [CrossRef]

24.

E. J. Friebele, G. H. Sigel Jr, and D. L. Griscom, “Drawinginduced defect centers in a fused silica core fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28(9), 516–518 (1976). [CrossRef]

25.

G. H. Sigel Jr and M. G. Marrone, “Photoluminescence in as-drawn and irradiated silica optical fibers: an assessment of the role of non-bridging oxygen defect centers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 45(2), 235–247 (1981). [CrossRef]

26.

P. Kaiser, “Drawing-induced coloration in vitreous silica fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64(4), 475–481 (1974). [CrossRef]

27.

J.-W. Lee, G. H. Sigel Jr, and J. Li, “Processing-induced defects in optical waveguide materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 57–65 (1998). [CrossRef]

28.

M. A. García, E. Borsella, S. E. Paje, J. Llopis, M. A. Villegas, and R. Polloni, “Luminescence time decay from Cu+ ions in Sol-gel silica coatings,” J. Lumin. 93(3), 253–259 (2001). [CrossRef]

29.

M. Neff, V. Romano, and W. Lüthy, “Metal-doped fibres for broadband emission: Fabrication with granulated oxides,” Opt. Mater. 31(2), 247–251 (2008). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.2280) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber design and fabrication
(060.2370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics sensors
(160.6060) Materials : Solgel
(160.6990) Materials : Transition-metal-doped materials
(260.7190) Physical optics : Ultraviolet
(060.5295) Fiber optics and optical communications : Photonic crystal fibers

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: September 21, 2012
Revised Manuscript: November 21, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: November 21, 2012
Published: December 20, 2012

Citation
Hicham El Hamzaoui, Youcef Ouerdane, Laurent Bigot, Géraud Bouwmans, Bruno Capoen, Aziz Boukenter, Sylvain Girard, and Mohamed Bouazaoui, "Sol-gel derived ionic copper-doped microstructured optical fiber: a potential selective ultraviolet radiation dosimeter," Opt. Express 20, 29751-29760 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-28-29751


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. S. Gómez, I. Urra, R. Valiente, and F. Rodríguez, “Spectroscopic study of Cu2+/Cu+ doubly doped and highly transmitting glasses for solar spectral transformation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells95(8), 2018–2022 (2011). [CrossRef]
  2. O. B. Miled, C. Sanchez, and J. Livage, “Spectroscopic studies and evanescent optical fibre wave sensing of Cu2+ based on activated mesostructured silica matrix,” J. Mater. Sci.40(17), 4523–4530 (2005). [CrossRef]
  3. N. S. Dhoble, S. P. Pupalwar, S. J. Dhoble, A. K. Upadhyay, and R. S. Kher, “Lyoluminescence and mechanoluminescence of Cu+ activated LiKSO4 phosphors for radiation dosimetry,” Radiat. Meas.46(12), 1890–1893 (2011). [CrossRef]
  4. B. L. Justus, P. Falkenstein, A. L. Huston, M. C. Plazas, H. Ning, and R. W. Miller, “Gated fiber-optic-coupled detector for in vivo real-time radiation dosimetry,” Appl. Opt.43(8), 1663–1668 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Gomez, I. Urra, R. Valiente, and F. Rodriguez, “Spectroscopic study of Cu2+ and Cu+ ions in high-transmission glass. Electronic structure and Cu2+/Cu+ concentrations,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter22(29), 295505 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared Cross-Section Measurements for Crystals Doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28(11), 2619–2630 (1992). [CrossRef]
  7. A. Michnik, K. Michalik, and Z. Drzazga, “Effect of UVC radiation on conformational restructuring of human serum albumin,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B90(3), 170–178 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. P. Leenhouts and K. H. Chadwick, Human Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation: Risks and Regulations, Eds: W F Passchier and B F Bosnjakovic (Elsevier, 1987).
  9. C. E. Andersen, J. M. Edmund, and S. M. S. Damkjær, “Precision of RL/OSL medical dosimetry with fiber-coupled Al2O3:C: Influence of readout delay and temperature variations,” Radiat. Meas.45(3-6), 653–657 (2010). [CrossRef]
  10. G. V. M. Williams and S. G. Raymond, “Fiber-optic-coupled RbMgF3:Eu2+ for remote radiation dosimetry,” Radiat. Meas.46(10), 1099–1102 (2011). [CrossRef]
  11. A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and A. S. Bjarklev, Photonic Crystal Fibres (Kluwer Academic, 2003).
  12. H. El Hamzaoui, L. Courtheoux, V. Nguyen, E. Berrier, A. Favre, L. Bigot, M. Bouazaoui, and B. Capoen, “From porous silica xerogels to bulk optical glasses: The control of densification,” Mater. Chem. Phys.121(1-2), 83–88 (2010). [CrossRef]
  13. H. El Hamzaoui, L. Bigot, G. Bouwmans, I. Razdobreev, M. Bouazaoui, and B. Capoen, “From molecular precursors in solution to microstructured optical fiber: a Sol-gel polymeric route,” Opt. Mater. Express1(2), 234–242 (2011). [CrossRef]
  14. P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic-Crystal Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(12), 4729–4749 (2006). [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Fujimoto and M. Nakatsuka, “Spectroscopic properties and quantum yield of Cu-doped SiO2 glass,” J. Lumin.75(3), 213–219 (1997). [CrossRef]
  16. Q. Zhang, G. Chen, G. Dong, G. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Qiu, Q. Zhou, Q. Chen, and D. Chen, “The reduction of Cu2+ to Cu+ and optical properties of Cu+ ions in Cu-doped and Cu/Al-codoped high silica glasses sintered in an air atmosphere,” Chem. Phys. Lett.482(4-6), 228–233 (2009). [CrossRef]
  17. E. Borsella, A. Dal Vecchio, M. A. Garcìa, C. Sada, F. Gonella, R. Polloni, A. Quaranta, and L. J. G. W. van Wilderen, “Copper doping of silicate glasses by the ion-exchange technique: A photoluminescence spectroscopy study,” J. Appl. Phys.91(1), 90–98 (2002). [CrossRef]
  18. A. Lin, B. H. Kim, D. S. Moon, Y. Chung, and W.-T. Han, “Cu2+-doped germano-silicate glass fiber with high resonant nonlinearity,” Opt. Express15(7), 3665–3672 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. Kaufmann and C. Rüssel, “Thermodynamics of the Cu+/Cu2+-redox equilibrium in alumosilicate melts,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(33-34), 1615–1619 (2010). [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Sakurai, “The 3.1 eV photoluminescence band in oxygen-deficient silica glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids271(3), 218–223 (2000). [CrossRef]
  21. S. Munekuni, T. Yamanaka, Y. Shimogaichi, R. Tohmon, Y. Ohki, K. Nagasawa, and Y. Hama, “Various types of non bridging oxygen hole center in high-purity silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys.68, 1212–1217 (1990).
  22. Y. Sakurai, K. Nagasawa, H. Nishikawa, and Y. Ohki, “Characteristic red photoluminescence band in oxygen-deficient silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys.86(1), 370–373 (1999). [CrossRef]
  23. Y. Hibino and H. Hanafusa, “Defect structure and formation mechanism of drawing-induced absorption at 630 nm in silica optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys.60(5), 1797–1801 (1986). [CrossRef]
  24. E. J. Friebele, G. H. Sigel, and D. L. Griscom, “Drawinginduced defect centers in a fused silica core fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.28(9), 516–518 (1976). [CrossRef]
  25. G. H. Sigel and M. G. Marrone, “Photoluminescence in as-drawn and irradiated silica optical fibers: an assessment of the role of non-bridging oxygen defect centers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids45(2), 235–247 (1981). [CrossRef]
  26. P. Kaiser, “Drawing-induced coloration in vitreous silica fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.64(4), 475–481 (1974). [CrossRef]
  27. J.-W. Lee, G. H. Sigel, and J. Li, “Processing-induced defects in optical waveguide materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids239(1-3), 57–65 (1998). [CrossRef]
  28. M. A. García, E. Borsella, S. E. Paje, J. Llopis, M. A. Villegas, and R. Polloni, “Luminescence time decay from Cu+ ions in Sol-gel silica coatings,” J. Lumin.93(3), 253–259 (2001). [CrossRef]
  29. M. Neff, V. Romano, and W. Lüthy, “Metal-doped fibres for broadband emission: Fabrication with granulated oxides,” Opt. Mater.31(2), 247–251 (2008). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited