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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 28 — Dec. 31, 2012
  • pp: 29882–29889
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Self-organized periodic structures on Ge-S based chalcogenide glass induced by femtosecond laser irradiation

S. H. Messaddeq, R. Vallée, P. Soucy, M. Bernier, M. El-Amraoui, and Y. Messaddeq  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 28, pp. 29882-29889 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.029882


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Abstract

Self-organized periodic structures have been observed on the surface of the ablation craters of Ge-S based chalcogenide glass produced after irradiation by a focused beam of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser (1 kHz, 34 fs, 806 nm). Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images of irradiated spots show a periodic structure of ripples with a spatial period of 720 nm (close to the wavelength of fs laser pulses) and an alignment parallel to the electric field of light. With an increasing number of pulses, from 5 to 50 pulses, a characteristic evolution of ripples was observed from a random structure to a series of generally aligned peaks-and-valleys self-organized periodic structures. Additionally, at the center of the ablated spot, micro-domains appear where the ripples are still regular but are assembled in a more complex fashion. The experimental observations are interpreted in terms of strong temperature gradients combined with interference of the incident laser irradiation and a scattered surface electromagnetic wave.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

Exposure of material surfaces to laser pulses was reported to induce self-organised structures which are known as laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) also termed as ripples. Their existence has been reported in semiconductors for several decades now, the first time dating back to 1965 [1

1. M. Birnbaum, “Semiconductor surface damage produced by ruby lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 36(11), 3688–3689 (1965). [CrossRef]

].

In the femtosecond regime most of these periodic structures (fs-LIPSS) were shown to have periods substantially smaller than the wavelength of the writing beam and were thus called nanogratings. Of great interest is the fact that these structures are formed without any use of beam shaping or holography, making them suitable for micro and nanomachining thus opening potential applications in optical data storage and photonic devices.

Despite the fact that the fs-LIPSS phenomenon has been studied on various materials, from metals such as nickel [2

2. F. Garrelie, J. P. Colombier, F. Pigeon, S. Tonchev, N. Faure, M. Bounhalli, S. Reynaud, and O. Parriaux, “Evidence of surface plasmon resonance in ultrafast laser-induced ripples,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9035–9043 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], ceramics [3

3. P. Rudolph and W. Kautek, “Composition influence of non-oxidic ceramics on self-assembled nanostructures due to fs-laser irradiation,” Thin Solid Films 453, 537–541 (2004). [CrossRef]

], insulators [4

4. F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, “Surface patterning on insulators upon femtosecond laser ablation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 208, 486–491 (2003). [CrossRef]

] and semiconductors [5

5. T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005). [CrossRef]

], most of the effort in the glassy materials has been concentrated on creating nanostructures on silica [6

6. Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,7

7. Q. Sun, F. Liang, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, “Nanograting formation on the surface of silica glass by scanning focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 33(22), 2713–2715 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The resulting nanograting formation at the surface or in the bulk of silica was reported to generally have spatial periods significantly smaller than the irradiation wavelength (Λ< λ/2) (called high-spatial-frequency LIPSS (HSFL)) as well as plane alignment perpendicular to the electric field [8

8. F. Liang, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, “Mechanism of nanograting formation on the surface of fused silica,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4389–4396 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,9

9. M. Rohloff, S. K. Das, S. Höhm, R. Grunwald, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, “Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica upon multiple cross-polarized double-femtosecond-laser-pulse irradiation sequences,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(1), 014910 (2011). [CrossRef]

].

Höhm et al. [13

13. S. Höhm, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(1), 014901 (2012). [CrossRef]

] reported recently the formation of two different types of fs-LIPSS on a silica surface. In quartz, LSFL with periods between 460 and 900 nm and an orientation parallel to the laser beam polarization were observed for fluences above 6 J/cm2 (for ten successive pulses). Below that fluence, HSFL with spatial periods between 170 and 450 nm were rather found to be perpendicular to the laser beam polarization.

In chalcogenide glasses, it has been demonstrated recently that nanogratings and nanoholes can be fabricated using direct femtosecond laser writing at the surface of As2S3 bulk glass [14

14. Q. Zhang, H. Lin, B. Jia, L. Xu, and M. Gu, “Nanogratings and nanoholes fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing in chalcogenide glasses,” Opt. Express 18(7), 6885–6890 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Nanogratings with a period of 180 nm have been achieved using multi-pulse laser irradiation at a power close to the breakdown threshold of the material. Most reports on the fs-laser interaction with chalcogenide glass involved As-based chalcogenides with emphasis on the fabrication of waveguides [15

15. M. Hughes, W. Yang, and D. Hewak, “Fabrication and characterization of femtosecond laser written waveguides in chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131113 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. In fact, only a few investigations have systematically examined the photoresponse of Ge-based glass to fs-laser irradiation [16

16. S. H. Messaddeq, J. P. Bérubé, M. Bernier, I. Skripachev, R. Vallée, and Y. Messaddeq, “Study of the photosensitivity of GeS binary glasses to 800 nm femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2824–2831 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

In this letter, we investigate the formation of self-organized periodic structures on the ablated surface of bulk Ge-S based glass. The laser-induced periodic surface structures obtained have a period of about 720 nm, close to the wavelength of the laser which is 806 nm. We present what we believe is the first study describing the dependence of both the laser fluence and irradiation time on the formation of such photo-induced structures on the surface of Ge-S glass.

2. Experiment

The production of the glass sample started with high-purity Ge, Ga, As and S precursors (5N) which were weighed and introduced into fused quartz ampoules to form a Ge25Ga1As9S65 (noted as Ge-S based glass in the text) composition. After vacuum sealing, a heating process up to 900 °C was started and maintained at this temperature for 8 h in a rocking furnace in order to permit reaction of the precursors. Then, the melt was cooled in water and the sample obtained was annealed below the glass transition temperature (~330 °C) during 6 hours. Afterwards the glass rod was removed from the ampoule, cut into slices and polished so as to obtain 2 mm thickness samples.

A Ti-sapphire regenerative amplifier system (Coherent, model Legend-HE) that produced pulses with a maximum energy of 3.5 mJ at 1 kHz repetition rate with a central wavelength of 806 nm was used to expose the Ge-S glass sample. Temporal width of the Fourier-transform limited pulses was measured to be ~34 fs and the laser beam diameter was measured to be ~8.5 mm (at 1/e2) at the laser output. The beam was then focused using a 50 cm focal length plano-convex spherical lens. The sample was placed at a distance of 45 cm from the lens so as to obtain a converging exposure beam with a beam waist w of about 400 µm at the surface of the Ge-S based sample. The laser beam was impinging the sample at normal incidence. Exposed surfaces were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (FEI, model Quanta 3D FEG) and to further confirm the periodic structure peak-valley shapes, an atomic force microscope (AFM) (NanoScope V-Veeco) was used to analyze their surface topography.

3. Results and discussion

We first determined the ablation threshold of our material by measuring the diameter of the ablated spot D as a function of the incident pulse energy, Ein. Assuming a Gaussian beam profile, the square of D can in fact be expressed as a function of Ein and Eth, the pulse energy threshold for ablation [17

17. J. M. Liu, “Simple technique for measurements of pulsed Gaussian-beam spot sizes,” Opt. Lett. 7(5), 196–198 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]:
D2=2w2ln(EinEth)
(1)
where w is the incident beam waist. The variation of D2 as a function of Ein is plotted on Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Squared diameter of the ablated craters as a function of the incident pulse energy on the Ge-S glass sample for (a) N = 10 and (b) N = 50 successive pulses.
for two different numbers of successive pulses, N. From that plot, the values of both w and Eth can be inferred by an appropriate logarithmic fit of the experimental data. The two values of w (460 μm for N = 10 and 470 μm for N = 50) correspond quite well to the one expected from geometrical considerations (cf. section 2). From the values of Eth one can infer the fluence ablation threshold as Fth = 2 Eth/πw2. One obtains values of 0.14 J/cm2 and 0.12 J/cm2 for N = 10 and 50 respectively. Those values correspond rather well to ablation thresholds previously reported for chalcogenide glass [14

14. Q. Zhang, H. Lin, B. Jia, L. Xu, and M. Gu, “Nanogratings and nanoholes fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing in chalcogenide glasses,” Opt. Express 18(7), 6885–6890 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The ablation threshold fluence decreases with the increasing number of successive pulses. Such an accumulative behavior under ultrashort laser pulse illumination has been observed in other materials such as metals [18

18. P. T. Mannion, J. Magee, E. Coyne, G. M. O’Connor, and T. J. Glynn, “The effect of damage accumulation behaviour on ablation thresholds and damage morphology in ultrafast laser micro-machining of common metals in air,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 233(1-4), 275–287 (2004). [CrossRef]

], ceramics [19

19. J. Bonse, P. Rudolph, J. Krüger, S. Baudach, and W. Kautek, “Femtosecond pulse laser processing of TiN on silicon,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 154, 659–663 (2000). [CrossRef]

] and polymers [20

20. S. Baudach, J. Bonse, J. Krüger, and W. Kautek, “Ultrashort pulse laser ablation of polycarbonate and polymethylmethacrylate,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 154, 555–560 (2000). [CrossRef]

], and has been explained in terms of an incubation model [21

21. D. Ashkenasi, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and A. Rosenfeld, “Surface damage threshold and structuring of dielectrics using femtosecond laser pulses: the role of incubation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 150(1-4), 101–106 (1999). [CrossRef]

].

Also note that the sample was further exposed for longer pulse numbers and then presented lower ablation threshold values (e.g. 0.07 J/cm2 for N = 1000). The surface temperature of the Ge-S sample was monitored during the exposure using a thermal camera (Jenoptik, Variocam) with a close-up lens which provides a spatial resolution of 50µm. We observed that the temperature of the sample would significantly increase for such longer exposures up to the point where the glass would even soften. For example, at a peak pulse fluence of 0.14 J/cm2, the glass transition temperature (~380 °C) is reached after N ~6000 successive pulses, proving that heat accumulation in the sample occurs. In the remainder of the paper, we present results where the number of successive pulses was short enough (N ≤ 50) so that the maximum sample temperature does not exceed 50 °C for any peak pulse fluence tested.

The formation of self-organized structures was actually observed within a processing window defined by a pulse fluence ranging between 0.2 and 0.8 J/cm2, and corresponding to N ≤ 50 pulses. Above 100 successive pulses, the periodic structures begin to disappear. Figure 2
Fig. 2 SEM images of the Ge-S glass surface after exposure to an increasing number of successive pulses. (a) Unexposed surface, (b) N = 5 at a peak pulse fluence of 0.28 J/cm2, (c) N = 50 at 0.42 J/cm2, and (d) N = 100 at 0.42 J/cm2.
shows the evolution of the surface morphology as a function of the pulse number. With only 5 pulses (Fig. 2(b)), a random structure can be observed but after 50 pulses (Fig. 2(c)) a series of ripples with periods near the laser wavelength appear on the ablated surface. Also, we have observed the formation of periodically spaced dots or nanochannel structures on the top of the ripples (Fig. 2(c)) which was also reported in silica glass in Ref [13

13. S. Höhm, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(1), 014901 (2012). [CrossRef]

].

Clearly, the degree of order increases with increasing numbers of pulses, indicating the need for some energy accumulation to produce the self-organized periodic structures. This accumulation behaviour has been reported on fused silica [22

22. M. Lenzner, J. Krüger, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, “Incubation of laser ablation in fused silica with 5-fs pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(4), 465–466 (1999). [CrossRef]

] and supports the importance of incubation in the fs-LSFL formation. This incubation effect promotes and increases the degree of absorption resulting, for subsequent laser pulses, in a larger number of carriers in the conduction band.

However, in the case of chalcogenide glasses the effect of temperature accumulation is strong because they have a low thermal diffusion coefficient, D, which is typically ~10−3cm2s−1 [23

23. E. Gamaly, Femtosecond Laser-Matter interaction: theory, experiment and applications (Taylor & Francis Inc., 2011).

]. Consequently, as the number of pulses increases (N > 100 pulses), heat accumulation occurs which result in glass softening [24

24. S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, M. L. Ng, J. Li, W. J. Chen, S. Ho, and P. R. Herman, “Transition from thermal diffusion to heat accumulation in high repetition rate femtosecond laser writing of buried optical waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9443–9458 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] so that the periodic structure is no longer observed (Fig. 2(d)).

Within the appropriate laser conditions described above, self-organized periodic surface structures are observed on the ablated surface of the Ge-S glass sample. Figure 3(a)
Fig. 3 SEM images of an ablated region exposed to N = 50 successive pulses at a peak pulse fluence of 0.42 J/cm2. (a) Profile of ablated region. (b) Full image of the exposed region. The diameter of the affected area is ≈620 µm. The ring represents the region in which straight self-organized structures are formed. (c) Zoom on the self-organized structures observed inside the ring. The arrows indicate the polarization of the electric field.
shows the profile of the crater after exposure to N = 50 at a peak pulse fluence of 0.42 J/cm2, producing a maximum crater depth of around 22 µm. The SEM picture in Fig. 3(b) shows the resulting full image of the ablated region. Due to the Gaussian shape of the laser beam profile, the central crater area is surrounded by an annular region (noted in Fig. 3(b)) where LSFLs are formed (at smaller local fluence values). Looking at the annular region with increased magnification of the SEM (Fig. 3(c)), one observes regular ripple-like structures.

Figure 4
Fig. 4 AFM image of typical nanogratings formed on the surface of Ge-S based glass. The surface was exposed to N = 50 successive pulses at a peak pulse fluence of 0.42 J/cm2.
shows an AFM image of a square (8 × 8 μm2) area within the inner shell, and a typical height profile, as measured across the main direction of the ripples. The latter clearly demonstrates that the ripples have a topological origin with height differences between neighbouring maxima and minima of 100 to 300 nm, with a spacing of around Λ ≈720 nm, a value near the wavelength of the laser (i.e. λ = 806 nm).

4. Conclusion

Self-organized structures oriented parallel to the electric-field vector of the linearly polarized femtosecond laser radiation were observed on the surface of the Ge-S based glass.

The resulting ablative formation of craters and laser-induced periodic surface structures was investigated in detail by means of AFM and SEM. Depending on the number of laser pulses applied to the same spot, a characteristic evolution from random to a series of generally aligned peaks-and-valleys periodic structures was observed.

The ripple period was found to be constant over most of the exposed region (long-range order), even when the structures were forming micro-domains (short-range order). The period of the resulting ripples was found to be close to the wavelength of the femtosecond laser (Λ ≈720 nm, λ = 806 nm). It was shown that by varying the laser conditions, the ripples appear when the number of pulses is rather small (N ≤ 50 in Ge-S based composition) and that increasing the number of pulses improves the uniformity of the ripples, up to a certain limit (~50 successive pulses) after which signs of organization disappear.

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Dr. Jean-François Viens (COPL- Université Laval- Québec) for fruitful discussions. This research was supported by the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), Canada Fondation for Innovation (CFI), Canada Excellence Research Chairs (CERC on Enabling Photonic Innovations for Information and Communication), Ministère du Développement économique, de l'Innovation et de l'Exportation (MDEIE), Fonds de recherche du Québec - Nature et technologies (FQRNT).

References and links

1.

M. Birnbaum, “Semiconductor surface damage produced by ruby lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 36(11), 3688–3689 (1965). [CrossRef]

2.

F. Garrelie, J. P. Colombier, F. Pigeon, S. Tonchev, N. Faure, M. Bounhalli, S. Reynaud, and O. Parriaux, “Evidence of surface plasmon resonance in ultrafast laser-induced ripples,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9035–9043 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

P. Rudolph and W. Kautek, “Composition influence of non-oxidic ceramics on self-assembled nanostructures due to fs-laser irradiation,” Thin Solid Films 453, 537–541 (2004). [CrossRef]

4.

F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, “Surface patterning on insulators upon femtosecond laser ablation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 208, 486–491 (2003). [CrossRef]

5.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005). [CrossRef]

6.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

Q. Sun, F. Liang, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, “Nanograting formation on the surface of silica glass by scanning focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 33(22), 2713–2715 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

F. Liang, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, “Mechanism of nanograting formation on the surface of fused silica,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4389–4396 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

M. Rohloff, S. K. Das, S. Höhm, R. Grunwald, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, “Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica upon multiple cross-polarized double-femtosecond-laser-pulse irradiation sequences,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(1), 014910 (2011). [CrossRef]

10.

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: A comparative study on ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(3), 034908 (2009). [CrossRef]

11.

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 1141–1154 (1983). [CrossRef]

12.

D. C. Emmony, R. P. Howson, and L. J. Willis, “Laser mirror damage in germanium at 10.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23(11), 598–600 (1973). [CrossRef]

13.

S. Höhm, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(1), 014901 (2012). [CrossRef]

14.

Q. Zhang, H. Lin, B. Jia, L. Xu, and M. Gu, “Nanogratings and nanoholes fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing in chalcogenide glasses,” Opt. Express 18(7), 6885–6890 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

M. Hughes, W. Yang, and D. Hewak, “Fabrication and characterization of femtosecond laser written waveguides in chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131113 (2007). [CrossRef]

16.

S. H. Messaddeq, J. P. Bérubé, M. Bernier, I. Skripachev, R. Vallée, and Y. Messaddeq, “Study of the photosensitivity of GeS binary glasses to 800 nm femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2824–2831 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

J. M. Liu, “Simple technique for measurements of pulsed Gaussian-beam spot sizes,” Opt. Lett. 7(5), 196–198 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

P. T. Mannion, J. Magee, E. Coyne, G. M. O’Connor, and T. J. Glynn, “The effect of damage accumulation behaviour on ablation thresholds and damage morphology in ultrafast laser micro-machining of common metals in air,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 233(1-4), 275–287 (2004). [CrossRef]

19.

J. Bonse, P. Rudolph, J. Krüger, S. Baudach, and W. Kautek, “Femtosecond pulse laser processing of TiN on silicon,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 154, 659–663 (2000). [CrossRef]

20.

S. Baudach, J. Bonse, J. Krüger, and W. Kautek, “Ultrashort pulse laser ablation of polycarbonate and polymethylmethacrylate,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 154, 555–560 (2000). [CrossRef]

21.

D. Ashkenasi, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and A. Rosenfeld, “Surface damage threshold and structuring of dielectrics using femtosecond laser pulses: the role of incubation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 150(1-4), 101–106 (1999). [CrossRef]

22.

M. Lenzner, J. Krüger, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, “Incubation of laser ablation in fused silica with 5-fs pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(4), 465–466 (1999). [CrossRef]

23.

E. Gamaly, Femtosecond Laser-Matter interaction: theory, experiment and applications (Taylor & Francis Inc., 2011).

24.

S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, M. L. Ng, J. Li, W. J. Chen, S. Ho, and P. R. Herman, “Transition from thermal diffusion to heat accumulation in high repetition rate femtosecond laser writing of buried optical waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9443–9458 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(140.3390) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials processing
(160.2750) Materials : Glass and other amorphous materials
(320.2250) Ultrafast optics : Femtosecond phenomena

ToC Category:
Laser Microfabrication

History
Original Manuscript: October 10, 2012
Revised Manuscript: December 6, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: December 8, 2012
Published: December 21, 2012

Citation
S. H. Messaddeq, R. Vallée, P. Soucy, M. Bernier, M. El-Amraoui, and Y. Messaddeq, "Self-organized periodic structures on Ge-S based chalcogenide glass induced by femtosecond laser irradiation," Opt. Express 20, 29882-29889 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-28-29882


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References

  1. M. Birnbaum, “Semiconductor surface damage produced by ruby lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.36(11), 3688–3689 (1965). [CrossRef]
  2. F. Garrelie, J. P. Colombier, F. Pigeon, S. Tonchev, N. Faure, M. Bounhalli, S. Reynaud, and O. Parriaux, “Evidence of surface plasmon resonance in ultrafast laser-induced ripples,” Opt. Express19(10), 9035–9043 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. Rudolph and W. Kautek, “Composition influence of non-oxidic ceramics on self-assembled nanostructures due to fs-laser irradiation,” Thin Solid Films453, 537–541 (2004). [CrossRef]
  4. F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, “Surface patterning on insulators upon femtosecond laser ablation,” Appl. Surf. Sci.208, 486–491 (2003). [CrossRef]
  5. T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B72(12), 125429 (2005). [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Q. Sun, F. Liang, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, “Nanograting formation on the surface of silica glass by scanning focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett.33(22), 2713–2715 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. F. Liang, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, “Mechanism of nanograting formation on the surface of fused silica,” Opt. Express20(4), 4389–4396 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Rohloff, S. K. Das, S. Höhm, R. Grunwald, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, “Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica upon multiple cross-polarized double-femtosecond-laser-pulse irradiation sequences,” J. Appl. Phys.110(1), 014910 (2011). [CrossRef]
  10. D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: A comparative study on ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys.105(3), 034908 (2009). [CrossRef]
  11. J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure,” Phys. Rev. B27(2), 1141–1154 (1983). [CrossRef]
  12. D. C. Emmony, R. P. Howson, and L. J. Willis, “Laser mirror damage in germanium at 10.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.23(11), 598–600 (1973). [CrossRef]
  13. S. Höhm, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on silica,” J. Appl. Phys.112(1), 014901 (2012). [CrossRef]
  14. Q. Zhang, H. Lin, B. Jia, L. Xu, and M. Gu, “Nanogratings and nanoholes fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing in chalcogenide glasses,” Opt. Express18(7), 6885–6890 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Hughes, W. Yang, and D. Hewak, “Fabrication and characterization of femtosecond laser written waveguides in chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(13), 131113 (2007). [CrossRef]
  16. S. H. Messaddeq, J. P. Bérubé, M. Bernier, I. Skripachev, R. Vallée, and Y. Messaddeq, “Study of the photosensitivity of GeS binary glasses to 800 nm femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express20(3), 2824–2831 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. M. Liu, “Simple technique for measurements of pulsed Gaussian-beam spot sizes,” Opt. Lett.7(5), 196–198 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. P. T. Mannion, J. Magee, E. Coyne, G. M. O’Connor, and T. J. Glynn, “The effect of damage accumulation behaviour on ablation thresholds and damage morphology in ultrafast laser micro-machining of common metals in air,” Appl. Surf. Sci.233(1-4), 275–287 (2004). [CrossRef]
  19. J. Bonse, P. Rudolph, J. Krüger, S. Baudach, and W. Kautek, “Femtosecond pulse laser processing of TiN on silicon,” Appl. Surf. Sci.154, 659–663 (2000). [CrossRef]
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