## Photon correlation in single-photon frequency upconversion |

Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 3, pp. 2399-2407 (2012)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.002399

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### Abstract

We experimentally investigated the intensity cross-correlation between the upconverted photons and the unconverted photons in the single-photon frequency upconversion process with multi-longitudinal mode pump and signal sources. In theoretical analysis, with this multi-longitudinal mode of both signal and pump sources system, the properties of the signal photons could also be maintained as in the single-mode frequency upconversion system. Experimentally, based on the conversion efficiency of 80.5%, the joint probability of simultaneously detecting at upconverted and unconverted photons showed an anti-correlation as a function of conversion efficiency which indicated the upconverted photons were one-to-one from the signal photons. While due to the coherent state of the signal photons, the intensity cross-correlation function *g ^{(2)}(0)* was shown to be equal to unity at any conversion efficiency, agreeing with the theoretical prediction. This study will benefit the high-speed wavelength-tunable quantum state translation or photonic quantum interface together with the mature frequency tuning or longitudinal mode selection techniques.

© 2012 OSA

## 1. Introduction

23. X. Gu, Y. Li, H. Pan, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, “High-speed single-photon frequency upconversion with synchronous pump pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. **15**(6), 1748–1752 (2009). [CrossRef]

24. X. Gu, K. Huang, Y. Li, H. Pan, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Temporal and spectral control of single-photon frequency upconversion for pulsed radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. **96**(13), 131111 (2010). [CrossRef]

*g*was equal to 1 for all conversion efficiency, indicating that the frequency upconversion process was a random event for the individual incident signal photons. The observation would help to better understand the quantum feature of the single-photon frequency upconversion. And with the help of the mature frequency tuning or longitudinal mode selection techniques, the multi-longitudinal mode upconversion system may support tunable multi-mode photonic quantum-information interface and precise wavelength control on single-photon manipulation.

^{(2)}(0)## 2. Theoretic model

25. P. Kumar, “Quantum frequency conversion,” Opt. Lett. **15**(24), 1476–1478 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26. H. Pan, E. Wu, H. Dong, and H. Zeng, “Single-photon frequency up-conversion with multimode pumping,” Phys. Rev. A **77**(3), 033815 (2008). [CrossRef]

*χ*is the coupling constant which is determined by the second-order susceptibility of the nonlinear medium, and

*H.c.*denotes a Hermitian conjugate. In the case of a strong pump, there is negligible depletion of the pump field and its amplitude can be treated classically as

*E*.

_{p}*g*denotes the nonlinear coupling coefficient,

*L*is the interaction length in the nonlinear crystal. The corresponding creation operators can be found by taking the Hermitian conjugates of these equations.

*η*as

*g*in the multi-mode give the same results as that in the single-mode. The coherence properties of the incident signal photons have been maintained in this multi-mode system.

^{2}(0)## 3. Experiment realization of multi-mode single-photon frequency upconversion

## 4 Experimental results and discussion

^{−1}. In this experiment, the SFG photons passed through a group of spectral and spatial filters with total transmittance about 50.8% while the total transmittance for filtering the unconverted infrared signal photons was about 5%. In order to compensate the large different counts of the two channels, an attenuator with 13 dB was inserted before the detection part of the SFG photons. The outputs of the single-photon detectors for the SFG photons and the infrared photons were connected to a coincidence counter. The time window of the coincidence counter was set at 2 ns to include all the photon counts within the pump pulse envelop.

27. A. Beveratos, S. Kühn, R. Brouri, T. Gacoin, J. P. Poizat, and P. Grangier, “Room temperature stable single-photon source,” Eur. Phys. J. D **18**(2), 191–196 (2002). [CrossRef]

26. H. Pan, E. Wu, H. Dong, and H. Zeng, “Single-photon frequency up-conversion with multimode pumping,” Phys. Rev. A **77**(3), 033815 (2008). [CrossRef]

## 5. Conclusion

## Acknowledgments

## References and links

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2. | D. Bouwmeester, J. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental quantum teleportation,” Nature |

3. | S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, M. Halder, O. Alibart, P. Baldi, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “A photonic quantum information interface,” Nature |

4. | P. Aboussouan, O. Alibart, D. B. Ostrowsky, P. Baldi, and S. Tanzilli, “High-visibility two-photon interference at a telecom wavelength using picosecond-regime separated sources,” Phys. Rev. A |

5. | S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, H. De Riedmatten, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, “PPLN waveguide for quantum communication,” Eur. Phys. J. D |

6. | A. Martin, A. Issautier, H. Herrmann, W. Sohler, D. B. Ostrowsky, O. Alibart, and S. Tanzilli, “A polarization entangled photon-pair source based on a type-IIPPLN waveguide emitting at a telecom wavelength,” New J. Phys. |

7. | K. P. Petrov, S. Waltman, E. J. Dlugokencky, M. Arbore, M. M. Fejer, F. K. Tittel, and L. W. Hollberg, “Precise measurement of methane in air using diode-pumped 3.4-μm difference-frequency generation in PPLN,” Appl. Phys. B |

8. | H. Takesue and K. Inoue, “Generation of polarization-entangled photon pairs and violation of Bell’s inequality using spontaneous four-wave mixing in a fiber loop,” Phys. Rev. A |

9. | Q. Lin, F. Yaman, and G. P. Agrawal, “Photon-pair generation in optical fibers through four-wave mixing: Role of Raman scattering and pump polarization,” Phys. Rev. A |

10. | H. Takesue, “Erasing distinguishability using quantum frequency up-conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

11. | J. Chen, F. K. Lee, X. Li, L. P. Voss, and P. Kumar, “Schemes for fiber-based entanglement generation in the telecom band,” New J. Phys. |

12. | J. Chen, J. B. Altepeter, and P. Kumar, “Quantum-state engineering using nonlinear optical Sangac loops,” New J. Phys. |

13. | M. T. Rakher, L. Ma, O. Slattery, X. Tang, and K. Srinivasan, “Quantum transduction of telecommunications-band single photons from a quantum dot by frequency upconversion,” Nat. Photonics |

14. | M. A. Albota and F. N. C. Wong, “Efficient single-photon counting at 1.55 microm by means of frequency upconversion,” Opt. Lett. |

15. | R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, J. R. Kurz, and M. M. Fejer, “Periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide sum-frequency generator for efficient single-photon detection at communication wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. |

16. | H. Pan and H. Zeng, “Efficient and stable single-photon counting at 1.55 microm by intracavity frequency upconversion,” Opt. Lett. |

17. | J. M. Huang and P. Kumar, “Observation of quantum frequency conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

18. | H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment over 105 km fiber,” New J. Phys. |

19. | R. T. Thew, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Tunable upconversion photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. |

20. | L. Ma, O. Slattery, and X. Tang, “Experimental study of high sensitivity infrared spectrometer with waveguide-based up-conversion detector(1),” Opt. Express |

21. | E. Pomarico, B. Sanguinetti, R. Thew, and H. Zbinden, “Room temperature photon number resolving detector for infared wavelengths,” Opt. Express |

22. | K. Huang, X. Gu, M. Ren, Y. Jian, H. Pan, G. Wu, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Photon-number-resolving detection at 1.04 μm via coincidence frequency upconversion,” Opt. Lett. |

23. | X. Gu, Y. Li, H. Pan, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, “High-speed single-photon frequency upconversion with synchronous pump pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. |

24. | X. Gu, K. Huang, Y. Li, H. Pan, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Temporal and spectral control of single-photon frequency upconversion for pulsed radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. |

25. | P. Kumar, “Quantum frequency conversion,” Opt. Lett. |

26. | H. Pan, E. Wu, H. Dong, and H. Zeng, “Single-photon frequency up-conversion with multimode pumping,” Phys. Rev. A |

27. | A. Beveratos, S. Kühn, R. Brouri, T. Gacoin, J. P. Poizat, and P. Grangier, “Room temperature stable single-photon source,” Eur. Phys. J. D |

**OCIS Codes**

(040.3060) Detectors : Infrared

(190.7220) Nonlinear optics : Upconversion

(230.0040) Optical devices : Detectors

**ToC Category:**

Detectors

**History**

Original Manuscript: October 11, 2011

Revised Manuscript: December 14, 2011

Manuscript Accepted: January 15, 2012

Published: January 19, 2012

**Virtual Issues**

Vol. 7, Iss. 3 *Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics*

**Citation**

Xiaorong Gu, Kun Huang, Haifeng Pan, E Wu, and Heping Zeng, "Photon correlation in single-photon frequency upconversion," Opt. Express **20**, 2399-2407 (2012)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-3-2399

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### References

- P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, “New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett.75(24), 4337–4341 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- D. Bouwmeester, J. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental quantum teleportation,” Nature390(6660), 575–579 (1997). [CrossRef]
- S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, M. Halder, O. Alibart, P. Baldi, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “A photonic quantum information interface,” Nature437(7055), 116–120 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- P. Aboussouan, O. Alibart, D. B. Ostrowsky, P. Baldi, and S. Tanzilli, “High-visibility two-photon interference at a telecom wavelength using picosecond-regime separated sources,” Phys. Rev. A81(2), 021801 (2010). [CrossRef]
- S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, H. De Riedmatten, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, “PPLN waveguide for quantum communication,” Eur. Phys. J. D18(2), 155–160 (2002). [CrossRef]
- A. Martin, A. Issautier, H. Herrmann, W. Sohler, D. B. Ostrowsky, O. Alibart, and S. Tanzilli, “A polarization entangled photon-pair source based on a type-IIPPLN waveguide emitting at a telecom wavelength,” New J. Phys.12(10), 103005 (2010). [CrossRef]
- K. P. Petrov, S. Waltman, E. J. Dlugokencky, M. Arbore, M. M. Fejer, F. K. Tittel, and L. W. Hollberg, “Precise measurement of methane in air using diode-pumped 3.4-μm difference-frequency generation in PPLN,” Appl. Phys. B64, 567–572 (1997). [CrossRef]
- H. Takesue and K. Inoue, “Generation of polarization-entangled photon pairs and violation of Bell’s inequality using spontaneous four-wave mixing in a fiber loop,” Phys. Rev. A70(3), 031802 (2004). [CrossRef]
- Q. Lin, F. Yaman, and G. P. Agrawal, “Photon-pair generation in optical fibers through four-wave mixing: Role of Raman scattering and pump polarization,” Phys. Rev. A75(2), 023803 (2007). [CrossRef]
- H. Takesue, “Erasing distinguishability using quantum frequency up-conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(17), 173901 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- J. Chen, F. K. Lee, X. Li, L. P. Voss, and P. Kumar, “Schemes for fiber-based entanglement generation in the telecom band,” New J. Phys.9(8), 289 (2007). [CrossRef]
- J. Chen, J. B. Altepeter, and P. Kumar, “Quantum-state engineering using nonlinear optical Sangac loops,” New J. Phys.10(12), 123019 (2008). [CrossRef]
- M. T. Rakher, L. Ma, O. Slattery, X. Tang, and K. Srinivasan, “Quantum transduction of telecommunications-band single photons from a quantum dot by frequency upconversion,” Nat. Photonics4(11), 786–791 (2010). [CrossRef]
- M. A. Albota and F. N. C. Wong, “Efficient single-photon counting at 1.55 microm by means of frequency upconversion,” Opt. Lett.29(13), 1449–1451 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, J. R. Kurz, and M. M. Fejer, “Periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide sum-frequency generator for efficient single-photon detection at communication wavelengths,” Opt. Lett.29, 1518–1520 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- H. Pan and H. Zeng, “Efficient and stable single-photon counting at 1.55 microm by intracavity frequency upconversion,” Opt. Lett.31(6), 793–795 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- J. M. Huang and P. Kumar, “Observation of quantum frequency conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett.68(14), 2153–2156 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment over 105 km fiber,” New J. Phys.7, 232 (2005). [CrossRef]
- R. T. Thew, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Tunable upconversion photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 071104 (2008). [CrossRef]
- L. Ma, O. Slattery, and X. Tang, “Experimental study of high sensitivity infrared spectrometer with waveguide-based up-conversion detector(1),” Opt. Express17(16), 14395–14404 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- E. Pomarico, B. Sanguinetti, R. Thew, and H. Zbinden, “Room temperature photon number resolving detector for infared wavelengths,” Opt. Express18(10), 10750–10759 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- K. Huang, X. Gu, M. Ren, Y. Jian, H. Pan, G. Wu, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Photon-number-resolving detection at 1.04 μm via coincidence frequency upconversion,” Opt. Lett.36(9), 1722–1724 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- X. Gu, Y. Li, H. Pan, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, “High-speed single-photon frequency upconversion with synchronous pump pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(6), 1748–1752 (2009). [CrossRef]
- X. Gu, K. Huang, Y. Li, H. Pan, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Temporal and spectral control of single-photon frequency upconversion for pulsed radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(13), 131111 (2010). [CrossRef]
- P. Kumar, “Quantum frequency conversion,” Opt. Lett.15(24), 1476–1478 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- H. Pan, E. Wu, H. Dong, and H. Zeng, “Single-photon frequency up-conversion with multimode pumping,” Phys. Rev. A77(3), 033815 (2008). [CrossRef]
- A. Beveratos, S. Kühn, R. Brouri, T. Gacoin, J. P. Poizat, and P. Grangier, “Room temperature stable single-photon source,” Eur. Phys. J. D18(2), 191–196 (2002). [CrossRef]

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