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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 3 — Jan. 30, 2012
  • pp: 2460–2465
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Stable mode-locked fiber laser based on CVD fabricated graphene saturable absorber

Pi Ling Huang, Shau-Ching Lin, Chao-Yung Yeh, Hsin-Hui Kuo, Shr-Hau Huang, Gong-Ru Lin, Lain-Jong Li, Ching-Yuan Su, and Wood-Hi Cheng  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 3, pp. 2460-2465 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.002460


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Abstract

A stable mode-locked fiber laser (MLFL) employing multi-layer graphene as saturable absorber (SA) is presented. The multi-layer graphene were grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on Ni close to A-A stacking. Linear absorbance spectrum of multi-layer graphene was observed without absorption peak from 400 to 2000 nm. Optical nonlinearities of different atomic-layers (7-, 11-, 14-, and 21- layers) graphene based SA are investigated and compared. The results found that the thicker 21-layer graphene based SA exhibited a smaller modulation depth (MD) value of 2.93% due to more available density of states in the band structure of multi-layer graphene and favored SA nonlinearity. A stable MLFL of 21-layer graphene based SA showed a pulsewidth of 432.47 fs, a bandwidth of 6.16 nm, and a time-bandwidth product (TBP) of 0.323 at fundamental soliton-like operation. This study demonstrates that the atomic-layer structure of graphene from CVD process may provide a reliable graphene based SA for stable soliton-like pulse formation of the MLFL.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

In this study, optical nonlinearities of different atomic-layers (7-, 11-, 14-, and 21- layers) graphene based SA are investigated and compared. It was found that the thicker 21-layer graphene based SA exhibited a small MD value of 2.93%. Compared with the thinner 7-, 11-, and 14- layers, the results showed that a better stable MLFL with the thicker 21-layer graphene based SA exhibited a pulsewidth of 432.47 fs, a bandwidth of 6.16 nm, and a time-bandwidth product (TBP) of 0.323 at fundamental soliton-like operation. This study demonstrates that the atomic-layer structure of graphene from CVD process may provide a reliable graphene based SA for stable soliton-like pulse formation of the MLFL.

2. Methods

Different layers of graphene were produced by using a CVD method [20

20. A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,21

21. C. Y. Su, D. Fu, A. Y. Lu, K. K. Liu, Y. Xu, Z. Y. Juang, and L.-J. Li, “Transfer printing of graphene strip from the graphene grown on copper wires,” Nanotechnology 22(18), 185309 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. For the CVD process of graphene on Ni substrate, the substrate structure of Ni(300 nm)/SiO2(300 nm)/Si was put on a quartz plate and then loaded into the center of a tubular furnace. The chamber was evacuated to ~5 mTorr and the temperature was increased to 1000°C during the process. Prior to growth, a pretreatment step was performed under a H2 atmosphere with 400 sccm flow at 2.8 Torr for 10 minutes. In the growth step, a gas mixture of methane and hydrogen (CH4 = 80 sccm and H2 = 40 sccm) was introduced for 10 minutes. The system was then cooled down to room temperature to complete the growth. To transfer the as-grown graphene onto the substrate, the Ni substrate after the CVD growth was coated with a layer of Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by spinning-coating method, followed by baking at 90°C for 1 minute. Then the PMMA-caped Ni substrate was immerged into a diluted HCl solution (HCl/Water = 1:3) for 20 minutes to etch away the Ni thin layer. The PMMA-caped graphene film was floated on the solution surface, and then it was transferred to a deionized (DI) water to dilute and remove the etchant and residues. The PMMA/graphene was transferred to the receiving substrate and dried on a hot-plate. The PMMA was removed by warm acetone (90°C), and then the sample was rinsed with isopropyl alcohol and DI water. To strip off the graphene film from the quartz substrate, the graphene was covered by an aqueous solution of polyurethane (PVA). After water evaporation, graphene with a supporting layer of PVA film was laminated from the quartz substrate. The composite film of graphene/PVA was then obtained.

Figure 1(a)
Fig. 1 (a) Experimental setup of MLFL ring incorporating graphene SA. (b) Different layers of the graphene samples.
shows an all-fiber passive MLFL system. An 85 cm highly doped erbium fiber (LIEKKITM Er80-4/125) was used as the gain medium. It was pumped by a 980 nm diode laser via a wavelength division multiplexer (WDM). The graphene films were inserted between two FC/APC fiber connectors as a SA to generate the mode-lock pulses. An isolator was employed to ensure the unidirectional operation, a polarization controller was utilized to optimize mode-locking. The emission light from EDF gain passed the graphene films then fed back into ring laser with partial transmission by 40/60 output coupler. The 60% port was connected to a 10/90 coupler for separating the laser output to optical spectrum analyzer, power meter, autocorrelator, oscilloscope, and radio-frequency spectrum analyzer. Figure 1(b) shows the photos of 7-, 11-, 14-, and 21 layers of the graphene samples, the dimension of the quartz substrate are around 15 mm by 15 mm.

3. Results and discussions

The linear absorption spectra of various layers of graphene were measured and all traces showed featureless from 400 to 1800 nm as theoretically expected [22

22. R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The linear absorption spectrum of the 21-layer graphene was showed in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Linear absorption spectrum and Raman spectrum (inset) with a 473 nm excitation laser of 21-layer graphene on PVA film.
. The CVD-deposited graphene was well-formatted close to A-A stacked structure. Figure 2 (inset) plots the Raman spectrum of graphene-PVA film with two typical Raman peaks G (~1580 cm−1, line width 24 cm−1) and 2D (~2726 cm−1, line width 63 cm−1). The G-band was a doubly degenerate phonon mode at the Brillouin zone (BZ) center that was Raman active for sp2-hybridized carbon-carbon bonds in graphene. The 2D-band was originated from a double-resonance process of crystalline graphite. The broaden line width of the 2D-band was mainly due to the multi-layer stacks. An increase in the number of defects among graphene would result in an increase of the D-band (~1350 cm−1) intensity. In this case, the D-band was not observed in the Raman spectrum, suggesting a low defect-level of graphene was prepared [23

23. M. A. Pimenta, G. Dresselhaus, M. S. Dresselhaus, L. G. Cançado, A. Jorio, and R. Saito, “Studying disorder in graphite-based systems by Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9(11), 1276–1291 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,24

24. A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

The nonlinear transmission characteristics were measured using a SWCNT based SA MLFL. The laser was operated at a central wavelength of 1558.88 nm with a repetition rate of 25.51 MHz and pulse duration of 483 fs. Through a broadband attenuator, the laser output was able to provide intensity up to 80 MW/cm2. A coupler was connected after the attenuator so that the output power levels with and without passing the SAs could be measured simultaneously. The single-pass optical transmission then was derived [25

25. F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, Z. Sun, V. Scardaci, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Fabrication, characterization and mode locking application of single-walled carbon nanotube/polymer composite saturable absorbers,” Int. J. Mater. Form. 1(2), 107–112 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. The MD of the 7-, 11-, 14- and 21- layers graphene based SA were measured at 3.98%, 3.50%, 3.28% and 2.93%, respectively. The nonsaturable loss of the 7-, 11-, 14- and 21- layers graphene based SA were also measured at 18.40%, 29.50%, 35.14% and 53.05%, respectively. Figure 3
Fig. 3 Nonlinear transmission of 21-layer SA.
shows the nonlinear transmission characteristics of the 21-layer graphene SA.

The performance of MLFL using the 7-, 11-, 14- and 21- layers graphene based SA with different SMF fiber lengths were investigated and compared. The thinner 7-, 11- and 14- layers of graphene based SA were difficult to form a stable soliton-like pulse unless extra SMFs were added. The reason is the thinner layer graphene samples have relatively high MD that makes it difficult for a laser cavity to form a stable soliton pulse and it may need extra SMF to compensate the dispersion. In comparison with the thicker 21-layer graphene as SA, a stable mode locking is easy to form. This may be due to more available density of states in the band structure of stacking-layer graphene than the thinner layer and favored low order nonlinear optics control of graphene inside the cavity. The comparison of passively MLFL performance based on graphene SA is shown in Table 1

Table 1. Performance comparison of MLFLs for different layers of graphene SA

table-icon
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.

For a passive MLFL using a 21-layer graphene as SA; the threshold pump power in continuous wave (cw) lasing was about 33 mW. The mode-locked pulses were self-started as the pumping power increased to 53.30 mW. The optical spectrum of the mode locked pulse is shown in Fig. 4(a)
Fig. 4 (a) Optical spectrum of the mode-locked laser and (b) Autocorrelator trace.
. The spectrum was centered at 1559.12 nm with 3 dB spectral bandwidth of 6.16 nm. In Fig. 4(b), the output pulse train of MLEDF exhibited a repetition rate at about 25.51 MHz and the pulse width was measured of 433 fs from the autocorrelator trace. Further increasing the pumping power to 73.78 mW, the harmonic mode locking was observed which could be confirmed by pulse train with a repetition rate about two times of the fundamental mode locking. The TBP was calculated to be 0.323 which was close to the bandwidth limited case. All optical spectra reveal the Kelly sideband indicating that a soliton-like pulse was generated. The laser cavity included 0.85 m of EDF (GVD:-0.02 ps2/m), 1.35 m of corning flexcor 1060 (GVD:-0.007 ps2/m), and 5.4 m of SMF28 (GVD:-0.023 ps2/m). Based on the Kelly sideband location the total cavity dispersion was estimated to be 0.2124 ps/nm [26

26. M. L. Dennis and I. N. Duling III, “Experimental study of sideband generation in femtosecond fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(6), 1469–1477 (1994). [CrossRef]

].

The soliton pulse laser performance of fundamental mode locking with 21-layer graphene based SA was shown in Table 2

Table 2. Performance of 21-layer graphene based SA in MLFL

table-icon
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. Table 2 indicated that the stable soliton-like operation was achieved at a pumping level from 53.30 to 63.79 mW. Second-order harmonic soliton-like was achieved at a higher pumping level from 73.78 to 83.26 mW.

4. Conclusion

In summary, the 7-, 11-, 14- and 21- layers graphene based SA with different SMF fiber lengths for the generation of ultrafast laser pulse were comprehensively studied and compared. It was found that the thinner 7-, 11- and 14- layers of graphene based SA had difficulty in forming a stable soliton-like pulse unless extra SMFs were added. The reason was the thinner layer graphene samples exhibited relatively high MD with ISA made it difficult for a laser cavity to form a stable soliton pulse and needed additional length of SMF to compensate the dispersion. In comparison with the thicker 21-layer graphene as SA, a stable mode locking pulse train was easier to establish. This might be due to more available density of states in the band structure of stacking-layer graphene than the thinner layer and favored nonlinear optics control of graphene inside the laser cavity.

The results showed that the optical nonlinearity of the thick 21-layer graphene based SA exhibited a smaller MD value of 2.93% and a higher saturation intensity of 53.25 MW/cm2. A stable MLFL of 21-layer graphene based SA showed a pulsewidth of 432.47 fs, a bandwidth of 6.16 nm, and a TBP of 0.323 at fundamental soliton-like operation. This study demonstrated that the atomic-layer structure of graphene from a CVD process provided a reliable graphene based SA for stable soliton-like pulse formation of the MLFL.

References and links

1.

F. Dausinger, F. Lichtner, and H. Lubatschowski, Femtosecond Technology for Technical and Medical Applications, Top. Appl. Phys., (Springer, 2004), vol. 96.

2.

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

H. A. Haus, “Mode-locking of lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1173–1185 (2000). [CrossRef]

4.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

I. Hernandez-Romano, D. Mandridis, D. A. May-Arrioja, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, and P. J. Delfyett, “Mode-locked fiber laser using an SU8/SWCNT saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 36(11), 2122–2124 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

J. C. Chiu, Y. F. Lan, C. M. Chang, X. Z. Chen, C. Y. Yeh, C. K. Lee, G. R. Lin, J. J. Lin, and W. H. Cheng, “Concentration effect of carbon nanotube based saturable absorber on stabilizing and shortening mode-locked pulse,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3592–3600 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 563–568 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, “Mode-locked fiber lasers based on a saturable absorber incorporating carbon nanotubes,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. ’03, Atlanta, GA, 2003, paper PD44.

9.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009). [CrossRef]

10.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Vector dissipative solitons in graphene mode locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Commun. 283(17), 3334–3338 (2010). [CrossRef]

12.

W. D. Tan, C. Y. Su, R. J. Knize, G. Q. Xie, L.-J. Li, and D. Y. Tang, “Mode locking of ceramic Nd:yttriu, aluminum garnet with graphene as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031106 (2010). [CrossRef]

13.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010). [CrossRef]

14.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009). [CrossRef]

15.

A. H. C. Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 109–162 (2009). [CrossRef]

16.

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, and S. Yamashita, “Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23054–23061 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep. 429(2), 67–120 (2006). [CrossRef]

18.

E. Garmine, ed., Nonlinear Optics in Semiconductor (Academic, 1999), vol. 59.

19.

A. H. Castro Neto, “Graphene. Phonons behaving badly,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 176–177 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 30–35 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

C. Y. Su, D. Fu, A. Y. Lu, K. K. Liu, Y. Xu, Z. Y. Juang, and L.-J. Li, “Transfer printing of graphene strip from the graphene grown on copper wires,” Nanotechnology 22(18), 185309 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

M. A. Pimenta, G. Dresselhaus, M. S. Dresselhaus, L. G. Cançado, A. Jorio, and R. Saito, “Studying disorder in graphite-based systems by Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9(11), 1276–1291 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, Z. Sun, V. Scardaci, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Fabrication, characterization and mode locking application of single-walled carbon nanotube/polymer composite saturable absorbers,” Int. J. Mater. Form. 1(2), 107–112 (2008). [CrossRef]

26.

M. L. Dennis and I. N. Duling III, “Experimental study of sideband generation in femtosecond fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(6), 1469–1477 (1994). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.4370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Nonlinear optics, fibers
(140.4050) Lasers and laser optics : Mode-locked lasers

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: November 11, 2011
Revised Manuscript: January 10, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: January 11, 2012
Published: January 19, 2012

Citation
Pi Ling Huang, Shau-Ching Lin, Chao-Yung Yeh, Hsin-Hui Kuo, Shr-Hau Huang, Gong-Ru Lin, Lain-Jong Li, Ching-Yuan Su, and Wood-Hi Cheng, "Stable mode-locked fiber laser based on CVD fabricated graphene saturable absorber," Opt. Express 20, 2460-2465 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-3-2460


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References

  1. F. Dausinger, F. Lichtner, and H. Lubatschowski, Femtosecond Technology for Technical and Medical Applications, Top. Appl. Phys., (Springer, 2004), vol. 96.
  2. U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature424(6950), 831–838 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. A. Haus, “Mode-locking of lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(6), 1173–1185 (2000). [CrossRef]
  4. Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. I. Hernandez-Romano, D. Mandridis, D. A. May-Arrioja, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, and P. J. Delfyett, “Mode-locked fiber laser using an SU8/SWCNT saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett.36(11), 2122–2124 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. C. Chiu, Y. F. Lan, C. M. Chang, X. Z. Chen, C. Y. Yeh, C. K. Lee, G. R. Lin, J. J. Lin, and W. H. Cheng, “Concentration effect of carbon nanotube based saturable absorber on stabilizing and shortening mode-locked pulse,” Opt. Express18(4), 3592–3600 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3(9), 563–568 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, “Mode-locked fiber lasers based on a saturable absorber incorporating carbon nanotubes,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. ’03, Atlanta, GA, 2003, paper PD44.
  9. Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009). [CrossRef]
  10. H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express17(20), 17630–17635 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Vector dissipative solitons in graphene mode locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Commun.283(17), 3334–3338 (2010). [CrossRef]
  12. W. D. Tan, C. Y. Su, R. J. Knize, G. Q. Xie, L.-J. Li, and D. Y. Tang, “Mode locking of ceramic Nd:yttriu, aluminum garnet with graphene as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 031106 (2010). [CrossRef]
  13. F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 611–622 (2010). [CrossRef]
  14. T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009). [CrossRef]
  15. A. H. C. Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys.81(1), 109–162 (2009). [CrossRef]
  16. A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, and S. Yamashita, “Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing,” Opt. Express18(22), 23054–23061 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep.429(2), 67–120 (2006). [CrossRef]
  18. E. Garmine, ed., Nonlinear Optics in Semiconductor (Academic, 1999), vol. 59.
  19. A. H. Castro Neto, “Graphene. Phonons behaving badly,” Nat. Mater.6(3), 176–177 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. Reina, X. Jia, J. Ho, D. Nezich, H. Son, V. Bulovic, M. S. Dresselhaus, and J. Kong, “Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett.9(1), 30–35 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. C. Y. Su, D. Fu, A. Y. Lu, K. K. Liu, Y. Xu, Z. Y. Juang, and L.-J. Li, “Transfer printing of graphene strip from the graphene grown on copper wires,” Nanotechnology22(18), 185309 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science320(5881), 1308 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. M. A. Pimenta, G. Dresselhaus, M. S. Dresselhaus, L. G. Cançado, A. Jorio, and R. Saito, “Studying disorder in graphite-based systems by Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.9(11), 1276–1291 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(18), 187401 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, Z. Sun, V. Scardaci, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Fabrication, characterization and mode locking application of single-walled carbon nanotube/polymer composite saturable absorbers,” Int. J. Mater. Form.1(2), 107–112 (2008). [CrossRef]
  26. M. L. Dennis and I. N. Duling, “Experimental study of sideband generation in femtosecond fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.30(6), 1469–1477 (1994). [CrossRef]

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