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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 3 — Jan. 30, 2012
  • pp: 3066–3075
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Whispering gallery mode sensing with a dual frequency comb probe

Vincent Michaud-Belleau, Julien Roy, Simon Potvin, Jean-Raphaël Carrier, Louis-Simon Verret, Maxime Charlebois, Jérôme Genest, and Claudine Nì. Allen  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 3, pp. 3066-3075 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.003066


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Abstract

Silica microspheres are probed with a dual comb interferometry setup. The impulse responses of these microresonators are measured with a temporal resolution smaller than 400 fs over more than 200 ps. The amplitudes and phases of the impulse responses are interpreted as providing sensing information. The more familiar transmission spectra corresponding to the measured impulse responses are also calculated and shown. Sensing is demonstrated by varying the concentration of isopropanol in de-ionized water surrounding the microsphere and by binding bovine serum albumin on the silanized microsphere surface.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

2. Experiment

Silica microspheres are fabricated by melting the end of a single mode optical fiber in the arc of a commercial PM-fiber fusion splicer. The arc discharge parameters are taken from [28

28. K.-C. Fan, H.-Y. Hsu, P.-Y. Hung, and W. Wang, “Experimental study of fabricating a microball tip on an optical fiber,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(9), 782–787 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. During the discharge, surface tension pulls the molten silica into a spherical shape. The deformation caused by gravity during the sphere formation is partially corrected by conti-nuously rotating the fiber using the motorized fiber holder. Microspheres with a diameter of ~360 μm are obtained with standard SMF-28 optical fiber. Smaller microspheres with diameters ranging from ~60 μm to ~275 μm are obtained from the tip of tapered fibers. The light is coupled into the microcavity through the evanescent field of a tapered fiber typically 2-3 μm in diameter. The taper is fabricated by stretching a stripped fiber between two translational stages while the fiber is softened in a hydrogen flame. Once the tapering is completed, drops of transparent epoxy are used to secure the tapered fiber into a semi-cylindrical quartz holder. This quartz holder is finally fixed into a hermetic sample cell that allows the injection of liquids. Since the microspheres do not have ultra-high quality factors, it is not necessary to control the temperature inside the sample cell. A microsphere is held on a X-Y-Z stage above the sample cell and is brought into contact with the thinner region of the taper and stays into place due to silica-silica van der Waals interactions. Initial alignment is made using a CCD camera and a visible light source connected to the biconical taper. Finer alignment of the microsphere and preliminary transmission measures are made with a 1510-1600 nm EXFO IQ-2600B tunable laser source and a power meter. Once resonances are recorded, the tapered fiber is connected to the frequency comb laser.

The comb probing the microresonator repetitively generates its impulse response, which is sampled using a second comb at a slightly different repetition rate [29

29. S. Schiller, “Spectrometry with frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 766–768 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The detuned repetition rates generate pulse pairs with a gradually increasing inter-pulse delay. Because the cavity is placed in an interferomeric setup between the two combs, the phase information is preserved [20

20. I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent multiheterodyne spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 013902 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The measured interferogram (IGM) holds information on the impulse response of the sample, convolved with the cross-correlation of the laser fields. Fourier-transforming the IGM yields the complex spectrum [20

20. I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent multiheterodyne spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 013902 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] of the optical field after the microresonator. To achieve this correctly, the delay between the pulses must increase linearly, which corresponds to an equidistant sampling grid. Since the variation of the repetition rates and carrier-envelope offsets (CEO) over time produces a variation of the sampling grid, a referencing technique using two continuous wave (CW) lasers is used to track the timing and the phase between the two pulses of each pair [21

21. J.-D. Deschênes, P. Giaccarri, and J. Genest, “Optical referencing technique with CW lasers as intermediate oscillators for continuous full delay range frequency comb interferometry,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23358–23370 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Once these variations are removed, successive IGMs can be averaged to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This method provides high spectral resolution, an important parameter when sampling microresonators with long impulse responses.

Figure 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup used to probe microspheres. Two polarization controllers (PC) are used to choose the polarization before and after the microsphere. The acquisition chain includes a balanced detector (D), an electrical amplifier (RF Amp.), a low-pass filter (LPF) and an analog-to-digital converter (ADC).
describes the experimental setup used to sample microspheres. The setup is made of two “c-fiber” Menlo System mode-locked erbium fiber lasers. The repetition rate of both lasers is around 100 MHz. This gives a spectral resolution of 1.25 pm at 1550 nm whichcorresponds to the measurement of a 10 ns impulse response. The repetition rate difference between the two lasers is set to 100 Hz, which gives 100 IGMs per second. The pulses bandwidth is 80 nm around 1550 nm. The first comb passes through the fiber taper and is partly coupled in the microresonator. The field emanating from the other side of the taper is then mixed with the second frequency comb using a fiber coupler. The polarization controller (PC) before the taper is used to select the polarization of the evanescent light that will enter the microsphere. The second controller is used to match the polarization between both arms before mixing. The optical signal is converted to an electrical signal using a balanced Thorlabs PDB130C (350 GHz bandwidth) detector (D). A Mini-Circuits BLP-50 + 48 MHz low-pass filter is used to prevent aliasing given the 100 MHz comb repetition rate. The amplifier before the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) serves to use all the dynamic range available at the ADC to reduce thermal and quantization noises. The 14 bits ADC operates at 122 MHz. The data is transferred to a computer for post-processing correction and analysis.

Propagation through optical fiber induces dispersion to the pulses. The difference between the path length of the first comb and the second comb will chirp the IGM. This chirp causes no effect when analyzing the amplitude in the spectral domain but is undesirable in the time domain. In the time domain, the chirp broadens features. This can limit the ability to distinguish nearby events. This is especially true when probing a rich impulse response where regularly spaced peaks are expected. It is however possible to remove this chirp by post-processing. The first pulse measured in the impulse response corresponds to light that went straight through the taper, having minimal interaction with the microresonator. This pulse is used to retrieve the instrumental dispersion contribution. This is done by computing a short Fourier-transform around the center of the IGM and by estimating the phase in this spectrum. A third order polynomial is fitted on the phase previously calculated. Doing an inverse Fourier transform on the reversed phase signal will generate a filter having the opposite chirp. By applying this filter to the IGM, the dispersion coming from the instrument is eliminated. This also yields a higher SNR in the time domain because pulses are compressed and have higher amplitude while the amount of noise is unchanged. Pulses will be more defined, making the time domain analysis easier.

3. Microsphere transmission spectrum

The choice of refractive index contrast, here between silica at 1.46 and PBS at ~1.34, also impacts the FSR since the wavelength is decreased in a medium with higher refractive index, hence it also affects the conditions to fit an integer number of wavelengths in the microsphere. In Fig. 2(a), only the positions of the transmission minima calculated with the Mie solution are indicated for a perfect sphere [8

8. M. Charlebois, A. Paquet, L. S. Verret, K. Boissinot, M. Boissinot, M. G. Bergeron, and C. Nì. Allen, “Toward automatic label-free whispering gallery modes biodetection with a quantum dot-coated microsphere population,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 5(3), 524–532 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In practice, microspheres deviate from the perfect spherical shape, revealing azimuthal m-modes at different wavelengths from the polar l-modes. With an estimated eccentricity of 4.2% [30

30. H. M. Lai, P. T. Leung, K. Young, P. W. Barber, and S. C. Hill, “Time-independent perturbation for leaking electromagnetic modes in open systems with application to resonances in microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. A 41(9), 5187–5198 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], the regular structure is preserved but numerous m-modes have appeared within the FSR, as seen in the two experimental spectra of Fig. 2(b) and 2(c).

4. Sensing with the impulse response

Sending and probing light pulses in a microcavity with dual FCs can provide not only the high resolution spectrum necessary for sensing, but also ultrafast dynamical information about the interaction of light with the material surrounding the microresonator. We first looked into refractive index sensing of a homogeneous solution by mixing isopropyl alcohol (n2 = 1.377) with de-ionized water (n2 = 1.332) at concentrations of 0%, 10%, and 19% v/v (Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Impulse response of a ~73 µm microsphere in solutions of isopropanol in water at different concentrations. (b) Zoom on the initial pulse going through the fibre taper only. (c) Zoom on the pulse having entered the microresonator and leaving after a single revolution. The bright traces are the real part of the IGMs, while the faint ones are the magnitude.
). Care was taken to minimize thermal fluctuations by placing both liquids at room temperature for an extended period of time before mixing and by ensuring thermalization of the ~73-µm microsphere in water. The data was averaged over 300 IGMs when ~45 s elapsed after the isopropanol injection, hence leaving sufficient diffusion time in the sample cell to obtain a homogeneous blend [3

3. N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White, and X. Fan, “Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 201107 (2005). [CrossRef]

].

The impulse responses of the microsphere in the isopropanol solutions are shown in Fig. 4(a). The optical time delay grid is obtained by monitoring the time delay between the combs’ pulse pairs. Since the instrumental dispersion is compensated, these impulse responses can be interpreted as a pulse with a maximal duration of 400 fs entering the microresonator. Its front tail travels roughly 82 μm in the SiO2 microresonator and does not overlap its own back tail by the time the input coupling is completed. The compensated pulse becomes significantly shorter than the cavity length, occupying at most 36% of the circumference, thus theconditions for ballistic trajectories of optical wave packets are satisfied [31

31. J.-P. Wolf, Y.-L. Pan, G. M. Turner, M. C. Beard, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, S. Holler, and R. K. Chang, “Ballistic trajectories of optical wave packets within microcavities,” Phys. Rev. A 64(2), 023808 (2001). [CrossRef]

] and no beating effect is seen after dispersion compensation [19

19. H. Gersen, D. J. W. Klunder, J. P. Korterik, A. Driessen, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Propagation of a femtosecond pulse in a microresonator visualized in time,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1291–1293 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In this framework, the normalized output intensity is a train of pulses coming from the light coupling out of the microresonator after each round-trip [32

32. A. Kastler, “Transmission d’une impulsion lumineuse par un interféromètre Fabry-Pérot,” Nouvelle Revue d’Optique 5, 133–139 (1974). [CrossRef]

]. Figure 4(c) zooms on the first completed round-trip after ~1.13 ps corresponding to a group velocity of 2.03e8 m/s. As can be expected from greater absorption of isopropanol, the intensity envelope of the pulse train decays rapidly, indicating significant losses in the microresonator corresponding to short cavity lifetimes. The FSR ≈7.3 nm seen on Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Transmission spectra obtained from the Fourier transform of the impulse response of a ~73 μm microsphere immersed in (a) 0%, (b) 10%, and (c) 19% v/v isopropanol in water solution.
matches what is calculated from the round-trip time and corresponds to polar l-mode spacing. The transmission spectrum in Fig. 5 also shows azimuthal m-modes regularly spaced by ∆λ ≈0.58 nm. An equivalent structure is found in the impulse response at a delay ∆T = λ2/c∆λ ≈14 ps where output pulses are slowly rising and decaying again.

When the isopropanol concentration increases, the diminishing refractive index contrast and increasing absorption caused the usual broadening of the resonances in Fig. 5 due to weaker confinement of the light with an evanescent field penetrating deeper in the solution. This readily translates to decreasing cavity lifetimes in the IGMs of Fig. 4 with the amplitude of the rightmost pulses disappearing progressively. A more surprising feature seen in the magnitude plot as a function of time is that pulses appear to couple out of the microsphere at the same time, independently of the refractive index n2. In other words, changes in group velocity are too small to be observed, but we can turn to the phase of the light pulses instead. Indeed, the phase velocity of a wave slows down with increasing refractive index resulting in a greater phase change per unit length according to the well-known relation on the wavenumber k = nk0. FCs are well suited to confirm this statement since they allow direct observation of phase changes by plotting the IGM’s real part instead of its magnitude. Comparing these plots for the three isopropanol solutions with distinct refractive indices, the expected phase appearsright after the first microsphere round-trip in Fig. 4(c) relative to the IGMs of Fig. 4(b) kept aligned and in phase when the pulse is only passing through the taper. In the former figure, the decreasing phase velocity is clearly manifested by the delayed wavefronts taking more time to go around the microsphere immersed in the isopropanol-water mixture.

This additional information gathered with the interferometric FC setup can also be very useful for bio sensing to get further insights into more complex systems. Moreover, the acquisition time for a full IGM is much less than a second, which allows monitoring of kinetic processes on the timescale of minutes or possibly less. Hence, we have chosen to probe the diffusion-limited process of bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption on the surface of a ~77 μm silica microsphere. The surface of the latter was plasma cleaned and silanized with aminopropyltriethoxysilane [33

33. F. Vollmer, “Resonant detection of nano to microscopic objects using whispering gallery modes,” Thesis, (2004).

]. The sample cell was first filled with thermally equilibrated phosphate buffer saline, then BSA was injected while the frequency comb laser was active and the solution was gently stirred. The final BSA concentration was 1.5 mM, which is ~8 times the concentration necessary for monolayer adsorption [34

34. M. Noto, M. Khoshsima, D. Keng, I. Teraoka, V. Kolchenko, and S. Arnold, “Molecular weight dependence of a whispering gallery mode biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 223901 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. The IGM observation time was 117 ms yielding a signal-to-noise ratio of 316 and measurable WGM shifts of ~340 fm on the full 1530-1600 nm wavelength range with our FC setup having a frequency resolution of 14 GHz. Much smaller shifts could be detected using longer acquisition times, hence becoming comparable to the performances reported by K. Vahala et al. [4

4. T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J.-H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. Vahala, “High sensitivity nanoparticle detection using optical microcavities,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(15), 5976–5979 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

The impulse response behavior in Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Impulse response of a silanized microsphere with increasing BSA surface coverage at different times after the injection. (b) Zoom on the pulse after a single round-trip showing a progressive phase-shift from red to blue while keeping the same envelope in magnitude. (c) Zoom on the pulses after 16 and 17 round-trips. The bright traces are the real part of the IGMs, while the faint ones are the magnitude.
with increasing BSA concentration is similar to those recorded after isopropanol injections, but here we can follow the IGM evolution much more gradually especially in the videos (Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Microsphere (a) spectrum (Media 2) and (b) IGM after protein injection (Media 3).
) made from the data in both the time and frequencydomains. Though the BSA affects light propagation in the microcavity only very locally through a part of the evanescent field, the phase of the light pulse is still measurably modified during the first round-trip. The progressive de-phasing from red to blue in Fig. 6(b) reaches ~2.1 rad after 510 s of diffusion time. Since this first lap is completed in ~1.14 ps which is much shorter than typical thermal relaxation times on the order of microseconds, it seems thermo-optic effects cannot contribute significantly to the de-phasing observed. Thus, the electromagnetic wave and the BSA would mainly interact through the real part of the polarizability, Re{α}, via the reactive mechanism [35

35. S. Arnold, S. I. Shopova, and S. Holler, “Whispering gallery mode bio-sensor for label-free detection of single molecules: thermo-optic vs. reactive mechanism,” Opt. Express 18(1), 281–287 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. A careful analysis of this de-phasing and its relation to the phase velocity of the light pulse as a function of BSA concentration could thus give indications on the reactive component of single molecule polarizability.

5. Conclusions

Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge financial support from Le Fonds de recherche du Québec – Nature et technologies (FQRNT), Karel Boissinot and Maurice Boissinot for providing BSA as well as precious technical support from Patrick Larochelle and Vincent Tremblay. The authors also wish to thank Jean-Daniel Deschênes and Sylvain Boudreau for stimulating discussions.

References and links

1.

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, D. Braun, I. Teraoka, and A. Libchaber, “Multiplexed DNA quantification by spectroscopic shift of two microsphere cavities,” Biophys. J. 85(3), 1974–1979 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

S. Soria, S. Berneschi, M. Brenci, F. Cosi, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Optical microspherical resonators for biomedical sensing,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 11(1), 785–805 (2011). [CrossRef]

3.

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White, and X. Fan, “Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 201107 (2005). [CrossRef]

4.

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J.-H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. Vahala, “High sensitivity nanoparticle detection using optical microcavities,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(15), 5976–5979 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

Z. Yu and S. Fan, “Extraordinarily high spectral sensitivity in refractive index sensors using multiple optical modes,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10029–10040 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

T. J. Kippenberg, “Microresonators: Particle sizing by mode splitting,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 9–10 (2010). [CrossRef]

7.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010). [CrossRef]

8.

M. Charlebois, A. Paquet, L. S. Verret, K. Boissinot, M. Boissinot, M. G. Bergeron, and C. Nì. Allen, “Toward automatic label-free whispering gallery modes biodetection with a quantum dot-coated microsphere population,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 5(3), 524–532 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, “Ultra high Q crystalline microcavities,” Opt. Commun. 265(1), 33–38 (2006). [CrossRef]

10.

A. Weller, F. C. Liu, R. Dahint, and M. Himmelhaus, “Whispering gallery mode biosensors in the low-Q limit,” Appl. Phys. B 90(3-4), 561–567 (2008). [CrossRef]

11.

H. T. Beier, G. L. Coté, and K. E. Meissner, “Whispering gallery mode biosensors consisting of quantum dot-embedded microspheres,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 37(10), 1974–1983 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

H. T. Beier, G. L. Coté, and K. E. Meissner, “Modeling whispering gallery modes in quantum dot embedded polystyrene microspheres,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(3), 536–543 (2010). [CrossRef]

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A. Francois and M. Himmelhaus, “Whispering gallery mode biosensor operated in the stimulated emission regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(3), 031101 (2009). [CrossRef]

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J. Barnes, B. Carver, J. M. Fraser, G. Gagliardi, H.-P. Loock, Z. Tian, M. W. B. Wilson, S. Yam, and O. Yastrubshak, “Loss determination in microsphere resonators by phase-shift cavity ring-down measurements,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13158–13167 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

R. W. Shaw, W. B. Whitten, M. D. Barnes, and J. M. Ramsey, “Time-domain observation of optical pulse propagation in whispering-gallery modes of glass spheres,” Opt. Lett. 23(16), 1301–1303 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

T. Siebert, O. Sbanski, M. Schmitt, V. Engel, W. Kiefer, and J. Popp, “The mechanism of light storage in spherical microcavities explored on a femtosecond time scale,” Opt. Commun. 216(4-6), 321–327 (2003). [CrossRef]

17.

A. Schliesser, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, and D. van der Weide, “Frequency-comb infrared spectrometer for rapid, remote chemical sensing,” Opt. Express 13(22), 9029–9038 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

M. L. M. Balistreri, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Tracking femtosecond laser pulses in space and time,” Science 294(5544), 1080–1082 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

H. Gersen, D. J. W. Klunder, J. P. Korterik, A. Driessen, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Propagation of a femtosecond pulse in a microresonator visualized in time,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1291–1293 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent multiheterodyne spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 013902 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

J.-D. Deschênes, P. Giaccarri, and J. Genest, “Optical referencing technique with CW lasers as intermediate oscillators for continuous full delay range frequency comb interferometry,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23358–23370 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

P. Giaccari, J.-D. Deschênes, P. Saucier, J. Genest, and P. Tremblay, “Active Fourier-transform spectroscopy combining the direct RF beating of two fiber-based mode-locked lasers with a novel referencing method,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4347–4365 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. W. Brault, “Transform Spectroscopy,” Proc. of the 15th Advanced Course of the SSAA, 1–61 (1985).

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B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 55–57 (2010). [CrossRef]

25.

Y. K. Chembo and N. Yu, “Modal expansion approach to optical-frequency-comb generation with monolithic whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Phys. Rev. A 82(3), 033801 (2010). [CrossRef]

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T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332(6029), 555–559 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

C. Y. Wang, T. Herr, P. del'Haye, A. Schliesser, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, and J. Kippenberg, “Mid-infrared frequency combs based on microresonators”, in CLEO: 2011 OSA Technical Digest (CD), paper PDPA4 (2011).

28.

K.-C. Fan, H.-Y. Hsu, P.-Y. Hung, and W. Wang, “Experimental study of fabricating a microball tip on an optical fiber,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(9), 782–787 (2006). [CrossRef]

29.

S. Schiller, “Spectrometry with frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 766–768 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

30.

H. M. Lai, P. T. Leung, K. Young, P. W. Barber, and S. C. Hill, “Time-independent perturbation for leaking electromagnetic modes in open systems with application to resonances in microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. A 41(9), 5187–5198 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

31.

J.-P. Wolf, Y.-L. Pan, G. M. Turner, M. C. Beard, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, S. Holler, and R. K. Chang, “Ballistic trajectories of optical wave packets within microcavities,” Phys. Rev. A 64(2), 023808 (2001). [CrossRef]

32.

A. Kastler, “Transmission d’une impulsion lumineuse par un interféromètre Fabry-Pérot,” Nouvelle Revue d’Optique 5, 133–139 (1974). [CrossRef]

33.

F. Vollmer, “Resonant detection of nano to microscopic objects using whispering gallery modes,” Thesis, (2004).

34.

M. Noto, M. Khoshsima, D. Keng, I. Teraoka, V. Kolchenko, and S. Arnold, “Molecular weight dependence of a whispering gallery mode biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 223901 (2005). [CrossRef]

35.

S. Arnold, S. I. Shopova, and S. Holler, “Whispering gallery mode bio-sensor for label-free detection of single molecules: thermo-optic vs. reactive mechanism,” Opt. Express 18(1), 281–287 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(120.5050) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Phase measurement
(140.4050) Lasers and laser optics : Mode-locked lasers
(170.1420) Medical optics and biotechnology : Biology
(230.5750) Optical devices : Resonators
(300.6300) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, Fourier transforms
(280.4788) Remote sensing and sensors : Optical sensing and sensors

ToC Category:
Instrumentation, Measurement, and Metrology

History
Original Manuscript: November 1, 2011
Revised Manuscript: January 13, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: January 13, 2012
Published: January 25, 2012

Virtual Issues
Vol. 7, Iss. 3 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Vincent Michaud-Belleau, Julien Roy, Simon Potvin, Jean-Raphaël Carrier, Louis-Simon Verret, Maxime Charlebois, Jérôme Genest, and Claudine Nì. Allen, "Whispering gallery mode sensing with a dual frequency comb probe," Opt. Express 20, 3066-3075 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-3-3066


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References

  1. F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, D. Braun, I. Teraoka, and A. Libchaber, “Multiplexed DNA quantification by spectroscopic shift of two microsphere cavities,” Biophys. J.85(3), 1974–1979 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Soria, S. Berneschi, M. Brenci, F. Cosi, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Optical microspherical resonators for biomedical sensing,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland)11(1), 785–805 (2011). [CrossRef]
  3. N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White, and X. Fan, “Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 201107 (2005). [CrossRef]
  4. T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J.-H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. Vahala, “High sensitivity nanoparticle detection using optical microcavities,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(15), 5976–5979 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Z. Yu and S. Fan, “Extraordinarily high spectral sensitivity in refractive index sensors using multiple optical modes,” Opt. Express19(11), 10029–10040 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. J. Kippenberg, “Microresonators: Particle sizing by mode splitting,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 9–10 (2010). [CrossRef]
  7. J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 46–49 (2010). [CrossRef]
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