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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 3 — Jan. 30, 2012
  • pp: 3268–3274
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High frequency optoelectronic oscillators based on the optical feedback of semiconductor mode-locked laser diodes

Mohsin Haji, Lianping Hou, Anthony E. Kelly, Jehan Akbar, John H. Marsh, John M. Arnold, and Charles N. Ironside  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 3, pp. 3268-3274 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.003268


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Abstract

Optical self seeding feedback techniques can be used to improve the noise characteristics of passively mode-locked laser diodes. External cavities such as fiber optic cables can increase the memory of the phase and subsequently improve the timing jitter. In this work, an improved optical feedback architecture is proposed using an optical fiber loop delay as a cavity extension of the mode-locked laser. We investigate the effect of the noise reduction as a function of the loop length and feedback power. The well known composite cavity technique is also implemented for suppressing supermode noise artifacts presented due to harmonic mode locking effects. Using this method, we achieve a record low radio frequency linewidth of 192 Hz for any high frequency (>1 GHz) passively mode-locked laser to date (to the best of the authors’ knowledge), making it promising for the development of high frequency optoelectronic oscillators.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

Optoelectronic oscillators (OEOs) generating microwave signals at high frequencies are important for a number of applications, such as communications, radar, and signal processing [1

1. X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Optoelectronic oscillator for photonic systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(7), 1141–1149 (1996). [CrossRef]

]. Typically, OEOs can generate low phase noise electrical and optical signals by storing the microwave energy in an optical delay line. However, conventional OEOs generally operate at frequencies below 10 GHz and are limited by bandwidth restrictions of the electrical components used [2

2. N. Yu, E. Salik, and L. Maleki, “Ultralow-noise mode-locked laser with coupled optoelectronic oscillator configuration,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1231–1233 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. This can be resolved by using frequency doubling techniques as shown in [3

3. M. Shin, V. S. Grigoryan, and P. Kumar, “Frequency-doubling optoelectronic oscillator for generating high frequency microwave signals with low phase noise,” Electron. Lett. 43(4), 242 (2007). [CrossRef]

], although this requires additional elements such as electrical frequency dividers and optical amplifiers. Alternatively, semiconductor mode-locked laser diodes (MLLD) are relatively cheap and compact sources of ultra short (~1 ps), high intensity (> 10 mW), and high frequency optical pulses at repetition rates exceeding 100s of GHz [4

4. K. A. Williams, M. G. Thompson, and I. H. White, “Long wavelength monolithic mode locked diode lasers,” New J. Phys. 6, 179 (2004). [CrossRef]

,5

5. L. Hou, M. Haji, R. Dylewicz, P. Stolarz, B. Qiu, E. A. Avrutin, and A. C. Bryce, “160 GHz harmonic mode-locked AlGaInAs 1.55 μm strained quantum-well compound-cavity laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(23), 3991–3993 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Quantum well (QW) materials in particular are excellent platforms for fabricating MLLDs; however, their susceptibility to spontaneous emission noise and inter-cavity losses makes them prone to broad linewidths and therefore substantial phase noise [6

6. F. Kefelian, S. O’Donoghue, M. T. Todaro, J. G. McInerney, and G. Huyet, “RF linewidth in monolithic passively mode locked semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(16), 1405–1407 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. At present, various methods are used to reduce the phase noise by synchronizing the pulses to an external radio frequency (RF) electrical clock via hybrid [7

7. M. J. R. Heck, E. J. Salumbides, A. Renault, E. A. J. M. Bente, Y. S. Oei, M. K. Smit, R. van Veldhoven, R. Nötzel, K. S. E. Eikema, and W. Ubachs, “Analysis of hybrid mode-locking of two-section quantum dot lasers operating at 1.5 μm,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18063–18075 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] or synchronous mode locking [8

8. S. Arahira and Y. Ogawa, “Synchronous mode locking in passively mode locked semiconductor laser diodes using optical short pulses repeated at subharmonics of the cavity round trip frequency,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(2), 191–193 (1996). [CrossRef]

], although these require a high frequency electronic drive applied to the active optoelectronic device being used which can limit the maximum oscillation frequency.

2. Experiments and results

The experimental setup is shown in Fig. 1(a)
Fig. 1 (a) Experimental configuration of the dual optical feedback loop. (circ.: optical circulator, atten.: optical attenuator), and (b) schematic diagram representing the alignment of modes in outer loop, inner loop, MLLD, and resulting output.
. A 20 GHz two-section MLLD, fabricated on a three-QW AlGaInAs/InP epitaxial structure was used for this experiment [28

28. L. Hou, M. Haji, J. Akbar, B. Qiu, and A. C. Bryce, “Low divergence angle and low jitter 40 GHz AlGaInAs/InP 1.55 μm mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 966–968 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The output pulses of the laser were coupled into a lensed fiber which was fed through a circulator to minimize back reflections from component interfaces, as well as ensuring a unidirectional operation. A 3 dB fiber coupler was then used to split the output into two paths, one towards an optical delay line, and the other towards a dispersion shifted erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) followed by a length of dispersion shifted fiber (DSF) (for maximizing the fiber loop length, without severely compromising the dispersion) before being recombined via a second 3 dB fiber coupler. Due to the large fiber losses resulting from the different core size between the single mode fiber (SMF) and DSF, the EDFA pump was required to operate with high gain (>15 dB) to compensate for the fiber losses. The signal was then fed into an optical attenuator before being coupled back into the SA end of the MLLD cavity for direct pulse modulation. A polarization controller was positioned to ensure the injected signal was TE polarized in order to promote better carrier coupling effects in the compressively strained QWs. The additional output of the 3 dB coupler was used for subsequent signal and spectral analysis. The total length of the inner fiber loop was ~22 m, and the outer fiber loop was ~66 m, of which ~48 m was dispersion shifted (via the EDFA, attenuator, and an additional length of DSF), resulting in a total dispersion of approximately 200 fs/nm.

The laser was passively mode-locked when the gain section was forward biased with 83 mA and the SA section was reverse biased with 2.9 V (at which the threshold current was 50 mA). The resulting output as viewed on a RF spectrum analyzer (R&S® FSV40) via a high speed photodetector (u2t Photonics XPDV2020R) matched up to 50 GHz is shown in Fig. 2(a)
Fig. 2 (a) RF spectrum of MLLD signal with aligned feedback (blue trace) and free running (red trace). (inset: 40 GHz RF span, free from Q-switching instabilities), (b) corresponding SSB phase noise, (c) the misaligned composite cavity length resulting in large supermode noise resonances, and (d) optimized (aligned) composite cavity length resulting in supermode noise suppression. (RF spectra were measured using 20 Hz resolution bandwidth and 10 Hz video bandwidth).
(red trace). The 3 dB linewidth was 155 kHz with a single-side-band (SSB) phase noise of −77 dBc/Hz at a 1 MHz offset. The corresponding root mean square (RMS) timing jitter can be calculated by integrating the SSB phase noise, which is shown in Fig. 2(b), and was calculated as 4.7 ps (integrated from 10 kHz – 100 MHz). Figure 2(c) shows the output of the optical feedback loop with an uncorrelated composite cavity length, (i.e. the modes associated with the inner loop were not aligned to the modes of the outer loop). When the composite cavity length was optimized using the variable optical delay line, such that every third mode of outer fiber loop was overlapped with a mode of the inner fiber loop i.e. ~22 m (see Fig. 1(b)), the peak power of the supermodes were reduced to less than −100 dBm (Fig. 2(d)). The subsequent linewidth of the signal at the output of the fiber loop is also shown in Fig. 2(a) (blue trace) for a comparison, with the MLLD operating under the same conditions as when passively mode-locked. The linewidth was reduced to as little as 192 Hz, with a SSB phase noise of −113 dBc/Hz at an offset of 1 MHz, and the integrated RMS jitter was calculated as 340 fs (integrated from 10 kHz – 100 MHz). When the outer and inner loop modes were misaligned, the linewidth was increased to 490 Hz. A comparison of the optical spectra and pulse width for the free-running laser (red) and with aligned feedback (blue) is shown in Figs. 3(a)
Fig. 3 (a) Optical spectrum of MLLD with aligned feedback (blue trace) and free running (red trace), and (b) corresponding autocorrelation traces measured using second harmonic generation autocorrelator.
and 3(b), respectively. The 3 dB bandwidth of the free running MLLD was 6.2 nm, and the pulse width was 0.9 ps. Due to the chromatic dispersion of the fiber loop, other than the DSF, the 3 dB bandwidth at the output of the optical feedback loop was 5.9 nm, and the pulse width was 2.1 ps. The pulses in both instances were free from Q-switching instabilities and pedestal modulation. The average output power coupled out of the free running MLLD was 1 dBm, and the feedback intensity was −26 dBm, assuming a lensed fiber coupling efficiency of 50% [28

28. L. Hou, M. Haji, J. Akbar, B. Qiu, and A. C. Bryce, “Low divergence angle and low jitter 40 GHz AlGaInAs/InP 1.55 μm mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 966–968 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The output power of the oscillator was −8.5 dBm, measured at the output port of the 3 dB coupler.

From general oscillator theory it is known that as the length of the delay is increased, so too is the Q-factor of the oscillator, which reduces the RF linewidth accordingly. This effect was studied by interchanging the DSF lengths in this experiment to provide a comparison of the RF linewidth using 28.5 m, 39.9 m, 51.1 m, and 66 m long fiber loop cavities. To ensure the intensity was uniform across all measurements, the inner composite cavity loop was disconnected and the signal intensities were matched at −26 dBm at the interface between the attenuator and lensed fiber. The results are plotted in Fig. 4(a)
Fig. 4 (a) Main: RF spectra of MLLD signal with feedback using different fiber lengths. Inset: RF linewidth vs. inverse feedback loop length (1/L) measured with a feedback signal intensity of −26 dBm (black squares); corresponding linear fit (red), (b) RF linewidth values of MLLD with feedback as a function of the feedback signal intensity plotted in a logarithmic scale for different fiber lengths (listed in figure). Inset: RF linewidth vs. feedback intensity plotted in a linear scale for 66 m long fiber loop.
. The narrowest linewidth (432 Hz) was acquired using a 66 m long fiber, whereas the widest linewidth (3.628 kHz) was measured using a 28.5 m long fiber. These results are consistent with the model in [29

29. S. Römisch, J. Kitching, E. Ferrè-Pikal, L. Hollberg, and F. L. Walls, “Performance evaluation of an optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47(5), 1159–1165 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], which supports that the linewidth is proportional to 1/L (where L is the fiber length).

Furthermore, it is evident that as the feedback power was reduced the RF linewidth was widened. Figure 4(b) shows the relationship between feedback power and linewidth. The lowest RF linewidths were obtained at the maximum feedback value, which was limited to −26 dBm in these experiments. As the feedback intensity was reduced, the linewidth was gradually increased to ~6 kHz until the feedback intensity fell below ~-40 dBm, at which point the linewidth increase was more sudden and tended towards that of the MLLD without feedback, indicating the lowest intensity required to sufficiently reduce the linewidth. This is consistent with the results obtained in [10

10. K. Merghem, R. Rosales, S. Azouigui, A. Akrout, A. Martinez, F. Lelarge, G.-H. Duan, G. Aubin, and A. Ramdane, “Low noise performance of passively mode locked quantum-dash-based lasers under external optical feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 131111 (2009). [CrossRef]

] and [16

16. O. Solgaard and K. Y. Lau, “Optical feedback stabilization of the intensity oscillations in ultrahigh frequency passively modelocked monolithic quantum well lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(11), 1264–1267 (1993). [CrossRef]

]. At feedback levels below −34 dBm, some discrepancies were observed in the 1/L trend, which are due to the feedback intensities approaching their lower limit.

Recent reports have shown however that using higher feedback intensities can also have a detrimental effect on the linewidth and stability of the feedback system [19

19. M. Passerini, G. Giuliani, and M. Sorel, “Effect of optical feedback on 60-GHz colliding pulse semiconductor mode locked lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 965–967 (2005). [CrossRef]

,30

30. F. Grillot, C. Lin, N. A. Naderi, M. Pochet, and L. F. Lester, “Optical feedback instabilities in a monolithic InAs/GaAs quantum dot passively mode locked laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 153503 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. This may be due to the coherence collapse regime [31

31. D. Lenstra, B. Verbeek, and A. Den Boef, “Coherence collapse in single mode semiconductor lasers due to optical feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 674–679 (1985). [CrossRef]

], which is the dominating influence of spontaneous emission in the system by fluctuations stimulated by the loss of coherence. This severely degrades the mode locking performance by disturbing the phase locking relation between the longitudinal modes. Therefore, to address this issue and find the upper limit of feedback intensity a similar experiment was carried out using only a 20 m long outer loop fiber consisting of SMF and a dispersion shifted EDFA to attain more feedback power. Using this configuration it was found that by applying feedback intensities up to 3 dBm would maintain an adequate linewidth reduction (<10 kHz) via optical feedback. However, applying intensities >3 dBm would cause severe instabilities. The linewidth was dramatically increased and the supermode noise spurs were spread further in frequency, separated by a distance corresponding to the fiber length (i.e. ~10 MHz), by a span of ~2 GHz around the pulse repetition frequency with each spur at the same intensity resembling a RF frequency comb. This may have been due to the greater overlap of modes in the FSR caused by an increase in both the laser and EDFA gain, giving rise to additional beat tones across the RF band as a result of operating in the coherence collapse regime, although a further investigation is required in order to fully understand this behavior. On observation of the signal on a SHG intensity autocorrelator, it was shown that the pulse quality had deteriorated and a large pedestal modulation (>50%) was observed.

During these experiments it was observed that the long term stability of the proposed system was compromised by mechanical and thermal instabilities in the fiber causing small changes in the optical path length, and thus frequency, over time. Since no cavity length stabilization mechanism was in place, the supermode noise suppression via the composite cavity was established only for a few minutes until retuning of the inner loop cavity length was required. This will become increasingly problematic when using longer lengths of fiber; although, the use of a dynamic differential feedback mechanism as shown in [21

21. O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, R. Kiyan, M. Haelterman, P. Emplit, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “Supermode noise of harmonically mode locked erbium fiber lasers with composite cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(3), 252–259 (2002). [CrossRef]

] and [32

32. R. Kiyan, O. Deparis, O. Pottiez, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “Stabilisation of actively modelocked Er-doped fibre laser by minimizing interpulse noise power,” Electron. Lett. 34(25), 2410–2411 (1998). [CrossRef]

], may be used to counteract the path length changes and greatly improve the stability of the system. Moreover, the high EDFA pump gain would have increased the level of noise in the system due to amplified spontaneous emission, and it is therefore assumed that the RF linewidth and phase noise may be reduced further by reducing the losses associated with the fiber mismatch so that a reduction of the EDFA gain can be accommodated.

3. Conclusions

To summarize, an alternative method for reducing the phase noise and RF linewidth of a passively operating MLLD using an optical dual loop feedback delay line has been proposed and demonstrated. A composite cavity loop, based on those proposed and studied in [21

21. O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, R. Kiyan, M. Haelterman, P. Emplit, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “Supermode noise of harmonically mode locked erbium fiber lasers with composite cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(3), 252–259 (2002). [CrossRef]

,22

22. O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, M. Haelterman, R. Kiyan, P. Emplit, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “Experimental study of supermode noise of harmonically mode-locked erbium-doped fibre lasers with composite cavity,” Opt. Commun. 202(1-3), 161–167 (2002). [CrossRef]

,25

25. J. Yang, Y. Jin-Long, W. Yao-Tian, Z. Li-Tai, and Y. En-Ze, “An optical domain combined dual-loop optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(11), 807–809 (2007). [CrossRef]

27

27. Y. Senlin, “Study on the method of controlling chaos in an Er-doped fiber dual-ring laser via external optical injection and shifting optical feedback light,” Chaos 17(1), 013106 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] was incorporated into the experimental setup to reduce the effects of supermode noise and further reduce the timing jitter. Using the proposed technique, we have acquired an extremely low RF linewidth of 192 Hz and a low RMS jitter at 340 fs (integrated from 10 kHz – 100 MHz) using a 20 GHz QW-based MLLD. The acquired RF linewidth is the narrowest reported to date for any high frequency passive MLLD operating above 1 GHz (to the best of the authors’ knowledge), making this system promising for the development of compact, high frequency, low cost and low noise OEOs.

References and links

1.

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Optoelectronic oscillator for photonic systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(7), 1141–1149 (1996). [CrossRef]

2.

N. Yu, E. Salik, and L. Maleki, “Ultralow-noise mode-locked laser with coupled optoelectronic oscillator configuration,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1231–1233 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

M. Shin, V. S. Grigoryan, and P. Kumar, “Frequency-doubling optoelectronic oscillator for generating high frequency microwave signals with low phase noise,” Electron. Lett. 43(4), 242 (2007). [CrossRef]

4.

K. A. Williams, M. G. Thompson, and I. H. White, “Long wavelength monolithic mode locked diode lasers,” New J. Phys. 6, 179 (2004). [CrossRef]

5.

L. Hou, M. Haji, R. Dylewicz, P. Stolarz, B. Qiu, E. A. Avrutin, and A. C. Bryce, “160 GHz harmonic mode-locked AlGaInAs 1.55 μm strained quantum-well compound-cavity laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(23), 3991–3993 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

F. Kefelian, S. O’Donoghue, M. T. Todaro, J. G. McInerney, and G. Huyet, “RF linewidth in monolithic passively mode locked semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(16), 1405–1407 (2008). [CrossRef]

7.

M. J. R. Heck, E. J. Salumbides, A. Renault, E. A. J. M. Bente, Y. S. Oei, M. K. Smit, R. van Veldhoven, R. Nötzel, K. S. E. Eikema, and W. Ubachs, “Analysis of hybrid mode-locking of two-section quantum dot lasers operating at 1.5 μm,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18063–18075 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

S. Arahira and Y. Ogawa, “Synchronous mode locking in passively mode locked semiconductor laser diodes using optical short pulses repeated at subharmonics of the cavity round trip frequency,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(2), 191–193 (1996). [CrossRef]

9.

S. Arahira, “Variable in, variable out optical clock recovery with an optically injection locked and regeneratively actively mode locked laser diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(5), 614–621 (2011). [CrossRef]

10.

K. Merghem, R. Rosales, S. Azouigui, A. Akrout, A. Martinez, F. Lelarge, G.-H. Duan, G. Aubin, and A. Ramdane, “Low noise performance of passively mode locked quantum-dash-based lasers under external optical feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 131111 (2009). [CrossRef]

11.

F. Quinlan, S. Ozharar, S. Gee, and P. J. Delfyett, “Harmonically mode locked semiconductor based lasers as high repetition rate ultralow noise pulse train and optical frequency comb sources,” J. Opt. A 11(10), 103001 (2009). [CrossRef]

12.

C. Lin, F. Grillot, N. A. Naderi, Y. Li, and L. F. Lester, “RF linewidth reduction in a quantum dot passively mode locked laser subject to external optical feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051118 (2010). [CrossRef]

13.

G. Carpintero, M. G. Thompson, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Low noise performance of passively mode-locked 10-GHz quantum dot laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(6), 389–391 (2009). [CrossRef]

14.

E. V. Andreeva, V. K. Batovrin, M. E. Lipin, S. A. Magnitskiy, E. Salik, D. S. Starodubov, J. Feinberg, M. V. Shramenko, and S. D. Yakubovich, “Picosecond semiconductor lasers with an external fibre resonator,” Quantum Electron. 30(2), 158–160 (2000). [CrossRef]

15.

L. A. Jiang, K. S. Abedin, M. E. Grein, and E. P. Ippen, “Timing jitter reduction in modelocked semiconductor lasers with photon seeding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(10), 1707–1709 (2002). [CrossRef]

16.

O. Solgaard and K. Y. Lau, “Optical feedback stabilization of the intensity oscillations in ultrahigh frequency passively modelocked monolithic quantum well lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(11), 1264–1267 (1993). [CrossRef]

17.

S. Breuer, W. Elsäßer, J. G. McInerney, K. Yvind, J. Pozo, E. J. M. Bente, M. Yousefi, A. Villafranca, N. Vogiatzis, and J. Rorison, “Investigations of repetition rate stability of a mode-locked quantum dot semiconductor laser in an auxiliary optical fiber cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 150–157 (2010). [CrossRef]

18.

G. Fiol, M. Kleinert, D. Arsenijević, and D. Bimberg, “1.3 μm range 40 GHz quantum-dot mode locked laser under external continuous wave light injection or optical feedback,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014006 (2011). [CrossRef]

19.

M. Passerini, G. Giuliani, and M. Sorel, “Effect of optical feedback on 60-GHz colliding pulse semiconductor mode locked lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 965–967 (2005). [CrossRef]

20.

Y. Ding, M. A. Cataluna, D. Nikitichev, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, and E. Rafailov, “Broad repetition rate tunable quantum-dot external cavity passively modelocked laser with extremely narrow radio frequency linewidth,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(6), 062703 (2011). [CrossRef]

21.

O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, R. Kiyan, M. Haelterman, P. Emplit, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “Supermode noise of harmonically mode locked erbium fiber lasers with composite cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(3), 252–259 (2002). [CrossRef]

22.

O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, M. Haelterman, R. Kiyan, P. Emplit, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “Experimental study of supermode noise of harmonically mode-locked erbium-doped fibre lasers with composite cavity,” Opt. Commun. 202(1-3), 161–167 (2002). [CrossRef]

23.

G. T. Harvey and L. F. Mollenauer, “Harmonically mode-locked fiber ring laser with an internal Fabry-Perot stabilizer for soliton transmission,” Opt. Lett. 18(2), 107–109 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

C. R. Doerr, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, M. Shirasaki, and K. Tamura, “Additive-pulse limiting,” Opt. Lett. 19(1), 31–33 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

J. Yang, Y. Jin-Long, W. Yao-Tian, Z. Li-Tai, and Y. En-Ze, “An optical domain combined dual-loop optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(11), 807–809 (2007). [CrossRef]

26.

K. K. Gupta, D. Novak, and H.-F. Liu, “Noise characterization of a regeneratively mode-locked fiber ring laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(1), 70–78 (2000). [CrossRef]

27.

Y. Senlin, “Study on the method of controlling chaos in an Er-doped fiber dual-ring laser via external optical injection and shifting optical feedback light,” Chaos 17(1), 013106 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28.

L. Hou, M. Haji, J. Akbar, B. Qiu, and A. C. Bryce, “Low divergence angle and low jitter 40 GHz AlGaInAs/InP 1.55 μm mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 966–968 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

29.

S. Römisch, J. Kitching, E. Ferrè-Pikal, L. Hollberg, and F. L. Walls, “Performance evaluation of an optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47(5), 1159–1165 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

30.

F. Grillot, C. Lin, N. A. Naderi, M. Pochet, and L. F. Lester, “Optical feedback instabilities in a monolithic InAs/GaAs quantum dot passively mode locked laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 153503 (2009). [CrossRef]

31.

D. Lenstra, B. Verbeek, and A. Den Boef, “Coherence collapse in single mode semiconductor lasers due to optical feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 674–679 (1985). [CrossRef]

32.

R. Kiyan, O. Deparis, O. Pottiez, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “Stabilisation of actively modelocked Er-doped fibre laser by minimizing interpulse noise power,” Electron. Lett. 34(25), 2410–2411 (1998). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.2340) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics components
(060.5060) Fiber optics and optical communications : Phase modulation
(140.5960) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers
(230.5590) Optical devices : Quantum-well, -wire and -dot devices
(320.7090) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast lasers

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: November 16, 2011
Revised Manuscript: January 13, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: January 19, 2012
Published: January 27, 2012

Citation
Mohsin Haji, Lianping Hou, Anthony E. Kelly, Jehan Akbar, John H. Marsh, John M. Arnold, and Charles N. Ironside, "High frequency optoelectronic oscillators based on the optical feedback of semiconductor mode-locked laser diodes," Opt. Express 20, 3268-3274 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-3-3268


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References

  1. X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Optoelectronic oscillator for photonic systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.32(7), 1141–1149 (1996). [CrossRef]
  2. N. Yu, E. Salik, and L. Maleki, “Ultralow-noise mode-locked laser with coupled optoelectronic oscillator configuration,” Opt. Lett.30(10), 1231–1233 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Shin, V. S. Grigoryan, and P. Kumar, “Frequency-doubling optoelectronic oscillator for generating high frequency microwave signals with low phase noise,” Electron. Lett.43(4), 242 (2007). [CrossRef]
  4. K. A. Williams, M. G. Thompson, and I. H. White, “Long wavelength monolithic mode locked diode lasers,” New J. Phys.6, 179 (2004). [CrossRef]
  5. L. Hou, M. Haji, R. Dylewicz, P. Stolarz, B. Qiu, E. A. Avrutin, and A. C. Bryce, “160 GHz harmonic mode-locked AlGaInAs 1.55 μm strained quantum-well compound-cavity laser,” Opt. Lett.35(23), 3991–3993 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. F. Kefelian, S. O’Donoghue, M. T. Todaro, J. G. McInerney, and G. Huyet, “RF linewidth in monolithic passively mode locked semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(16), 1405–1407 (2008). [CrossRef]
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