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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 4 — Feb. 13, 2012
  • pp: 3941–3947
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Low threshold current and widely tunable external cavity lasers with chirped multilayer InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum-dot structure

Gray Lin, Pei-Yin Su, and Hsu-Chieh Cheng  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 4, pp. 3941-3947 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.003941


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Abstract

Low threshold and widely tunable InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers are implemented with grating-coupled external-cavity arrangement. Throughout the tuning range of 130 nm, from 1160 to 1290 nm, the threshold current density is not more than 0.9 kA/cm2 and no noticeable threshold jump is observed. For a shorter-cavity device, the injection current is kept at a record low value of 90 mA but the tuning range is further extended to 150 nm, from 1143 to 1293 nm. The effect of cavity length on the tuning characteristics is discussed and the strategy for design and optimization of multilayer quantum-dot structure is also proposed.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

In contrast, ECLs with quantum-dot (QD) gain media are well-suited for low-threshold and broad spectral tuning due to their unique features of larger inhomogeneous broadening as well as lower ground-state saturation gain [7

7. H. Li, G. T. Liu, P. M. Varangis, T. C. Newell, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “150-nm tuning range in a grating-coupled external cavity quantum-dot laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(7), 759–761 (2000). [CrossRef]

10

10. K. A. Fedorova, M. A. Cataluna, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, and E. U. Rafailov, “Broadly tunable high-power InAs/GaAs quantum-dot external cavity diode lasers,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19438–19443 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. For GaAs-based InAs QD ECLs, the earliest records were 150-nm tuning at a maximum bias of 200 mA (1.1 kA/cm2) [7

7. H. Li, G. T. Liu, P. M. Varangis, T. C. Newell, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “150-nm tuning range in a grating-coupled external cavity quantum-dot laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(7), 759–761 (2000). [CrossRef]

] and 201-nm tuning at a maximum bias of 400 mA (2.87 kA/cm2) [8

8. P. M. Varangis, H. Li, G. T. Liu, T. C. Newell, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “Lowthreshold quantum dot lasers with 201 nm tuning range,” Electron. Lett. 36(18), 1544–1545 (2000). [CrossRef]

]; nevertheless, the long-wavelength side is not more than 1.25 µm. Besides, an unnegligible threshold jump is observed around the transition between ground-state (GS) and excited-state (ES) emissions in the single-layer In(Ga)As QD laser [7

7. H. Li, G. T. Liu, P. M. Varangis, T. C. Newell, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “150-nm tuning range in a grating-coupled external cavity quantum-dot laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(7), 759–761 (2000). [CrossRef]

,8

8. P. M. Varangis, H. Li, G. T. Liu, T. C. Newell, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “Lowthreshold quantum dot lasers with 201 nm tuning range,” Electron. Lett. 36(18), 1544–1545 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. The recent demonstration of 110-nm tuning (1141.6-1251.7 nm) under low injection current density of 458 A/cm2 (1.1 A) was realized in as-cleaved broad-area device of 120-µm width [9

9. X. Q. Lv, P. Jin, W. Y. Wang, and Z. G. Wang, “Broadband external cavity tunable quantum dot lasers with low injection current density,” Opt. Express 18(9), 8916–8922 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Another latest record of 130-nm tuning (1174-1304 nm) at elevated temperature of 30 °C under injection current of 300 mA (1.5 kA/cm2) was achieved by QD gain chip with bent-waveguide design incorporated with output coupler configuration [10

10. K. A. Fedorova, M. A. Cataluna, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, and E. U. Rafailov, “Broadly tunable high-power InAs/GaAs quantum-dot external cavity diode lasers,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19438–19443 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

In this paper, we present grating-coupled ECLs with chirped multilayer QDs of 1.3 µm wavelength range. High performance ridge waveguide lasers of 5-µm width are fabricated for the investigation. A continuous tuning of 130 nm (1160-1290 nm) is achieved for a 2-mm length device at low injection current density of 0.9 kA/cm2 and extended tuning of 150 nm (1143-1293 nm) is demonstrated for a 1.5-mm length device at record low current injection of 90 mA. This is advantageous to low-power applications which produce less heat. Moreover, the effect of cavity length on tuning characteristics is discussed. We also propose the strategy to further extend the tuning range without much sacrifice of the tuning threshold.

2. Experimental details

The laser structure is grown by molecular beam epitaxy on (100) oriented Si-doped GaAs substrate. The QDs are self-assembled using Stranski-Krastanov growth method. The nominal thickness of InAs QD is 2.6 ML and the single-layer dot density is about 5 × 1010 cm−2. To change the peak wavelength of QD emissions, InGaAs strain-reducing layer (SRL) of different thickness is deposited immediately after the dot formation. The In composition is fixed at 0.15 in this work. Figure 1
Fig. 1 RT PL for the GS and ES emission peaks of a single QD layer as function of the thickness of InGaAs SRL.
shows the dependence of room temperature (RT) photoluminescence (PL) for the ground-state (GS) and excited-state (ES) emission peaks of a single InAs QD layer as function of the thickness of capped In0.15Ga0.85As SRL (d). The data points are based on our separate growth and measurement as well as published results in Ref [11

11. L. H. Li, M. Rossetti, and A. Fiore, “Chirped multiple InAs quantum dot structure for wide spectrum device applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 278(1-4), 680–684 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. Between 0 and 5 nm, the PL peak wavelengths are fitted by the following expressions,

λGS(d)=(1150+38×d2.0×d2)±10(nm)
(1)
λES(d)=(1088+31×d1.3×d2)±10(nm)
(2)

The active region consists of 10 layers of self-assembled InAs QDs which are capped by In0.15Ga0.85As SRL of varying thickness and spaced by GaAs of 33 nm. Three chirped wavelengths of longer, medium, and shorter wavelength range, with stacking numbers of 4, 3 and 3 layers and designated as 4*QDL, 3*QDM and 3*QDS, are designed with InGaAs SRL thickness of 4, 3 and 1.5 nm, respectively. From Eq. (1) and (2), the GS/ES emission peaks are calculated to be 1270/1191, 1246/1169 and 1202/1132 nm for longer, medium and shorter wavelength QD-stacks, respectively. Also bear in mind that the experimental data may have uncertainty of +/− 10 nm due to wafer non-uniformity as well as calibration factor of thickness and composition. The detail crystal growth can be found in [12

12. G. Lin, C. Y. Chang, W. C. Tseng, C. P. Lee, K. F. Lin, R. Xuan, and J. Y. Chi, “Novel chirped multilayer quantum-dot lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6997, 69970R, 69970R-8 (2008). [CrossRef]

].

The wafer is patterned by wet etching into ridge waveguides of 5-µm width. As-cleaved laser bars with different cavity lengths are first evaluated by standard light-current-voltage (L-I-V) and spectrum measurement. They are left unpacked for probe characterization under continuous-wave operation at RT of 20 °C. Since the cleaved mirror may create double-cavity effect in the following external cavity experiment, the front facets of laser bars are deposited with broadband multilayer anti-reflection (AR) coating (R < 1% from 1050 nm to 1350 nm). The rear facets are deposited with high-reflection (HR) distributed Bragg reflector coating (R > 99%) to reduce cavity loss as well as form the end mirrors of ECLs.

Three coated QD lasers of 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0 mm in length are then investigated by grating-coupled external-cavity arrangement in the Littrow configuration [13

13. C. J. Hawthorn, K. P. Weber, and R. E. Scholten, “Littrow configuration tunable external cavity diode laser with fixed direction output beam,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(12), 4477–4479 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. Figure 2
Fig. 2 The arrangement of external cavity laser in Littrow configuration.
shows the experimental setup. The optical feedback is provided by first-order diffraction from one external grating with a groove density of 1200 lines/mm and blazed wavelength of 1.0 µm. To collect the wide angle emission from edge emitter with thick active region, collimation lens with high numerical aperture of 0.68 is utilized. The zeroth-order light diffracted from the grating is coupled via a multimode optical fiber into an optical spectrum analyzer (Ando AQ6315E) at a resolution of 0.05 nm. Maximum optical feedback is achieved by tilting the grating with proper vertical angle until the lowest threshold current is reached.

3. Results and discussion

Figure 4(a)
Fig. 4 (a) L-I-V characteristics of solitary AR/HR coated QD lasers for three cavity lengths of 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0 mm. (b) The threshold lasing spectrum for 2-mm QD emitter before and after facet coatings.
shows the L-I-V characteristics of solitary AR/HR coated QD lasers for three cavity lengths of 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0 mm. For 2-mm emitter, the threshold current density increases from 15 to 75 mA (0.15 to 0.75 kA/cm2) and the free-running lasing peak switches from 1260 to 1180 nm as shown in Fig. 4(b). Also seen in Fig. 4(b), a rather flat and broad spontaneous emission spectrum is observed between the two stimulated emission peaks, which implies a smooth change in tuning threshold across this region. The 1.5-mm emitter, with coated threshold of 100 mA (1.33 kA/cm2), also switches lasing from 1260 to 1180 nm. Yet the 3-mm emitter does not switch its lasing wavelength around 1260 nm as its cavity is longer enough so that the total loss is still less than the saturated gain of GS-QDL. Its coated threshold increases slightly to 50 mA (0.33 kA/cm2).

We then present the tuning characteristics of QD ECLs. Because the AR coating is not low enough to inhibit the lasing emissions, the suggested operation current is either slightly below or at least not well above the threshold current density of solitary coated devices in order to avoid the competition from free-running lasing modes of original FP emitter. Figure 5
Fig. 5 Lasing spectra of 2-mm QD ECL, tuned across 1160-1290 nm wavelength at constant current of 100 mA.
shows the wavelength tuning for 2-mm-long QD emitter under 100 mA by manually rotating the diffraction grating. The lasing peaks are corresponding to the resonance of the external cavity and its spectral linewidth is less than 0.5 nm. Almost across the tuning range of 130 nm, from 1160 to 1290 nm, the peak intensities are about 35 dB higher than their side mode emissions. The lasing linewidth can be further reduced by packaging the laser devices and enclosing the entire external cavity with acoustic and thermal isolation [15

15. M. W. Fleming and A. Mooradian, “Spectral Characteristics of External-Cavity Controlled Semiconductor Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17(1), 44–59 (1981). [CrossRef]

].

Figure 6
Fig. 6 (a) Threshold current and (b) threshold current density of QD ECLs as function of tuning wavelength for three cavity lengths of 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0 mm.
shows the threshold current and threshold current density of tunable QD ECLs as function of tuning wavelength for three cavity lengths. The minimum threshold currents are achieved around 1260 nm where as-cleaved emitters exhibit their spectral gain peaks. It is worthy to mention that the threshold current increases almost monotonically from minimum-threshold wavelength toward longer and shorter wavelengths with no significant jump in threshold current. The spectral gain dip between the GS and ES, which is prominent in conventional unchirped QD structure [7

7. H. Li, G. T. Liu, P. M. Varangis, T. C. Newell, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “150-nm tuning range in a grating-coupled external cavity quantum-dot laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(7), 759–761 (2000). [CrossRef]

,8

8. P. M. Varangis, H. Li, G. T. Liu, T. C. Newell, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “Lowthreshold quantum dot lasers with 201 nm tuning range,” Electron. Lett. 36(18), 1544–1545 (2000). [CrossRef]

], is now unobvious or absent in our chirped multilayer QD structure. The tuning range of 3-mm ECL is only 63 nm (from 1218 to 1281 nm) with maximum threshold near its solitary threshold current, while the 1.5-mm ECL can tune across 150 nm (from 1143 to 1293 nm) under maximum threshold current of 90 mA (1.2 kA/cm2), which is a little below its solitary threshold current. The short-wavelength and long-wavelength ends are therefore limited by mode competitions from free-running lasing modes of internal Fabry-Perot (FP) emitter.

As regard to the 2-mm ECL, the maximum threshold current of 2-mm ECL is no more than 90 mA (0.9 kA/cm2) across the 130 nm tuning range; nonetheless, the maximum threshold at tuning-wavelength ends is about 1.2 times its solitary threshold current of 75 mA. The mechanism is two fold. First, the grating-forced operation can suppress the internal FP emissions within spectral width of homogeneous broadening [8

8. P. M. Varangis, H. Li, G. T. Liu, T. C. Newell, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “Lowthreshold quantum dot lasers with 201 nm tuning range,” Electron. Lett. 36(18), 1544–1545 (2000). [CrossRef]

,16

16. P. Eliseev, H. Li, A. Stintz, G. T. Liu, T. C. Newell, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “Tunable Grating-Coupled Laser Oscillation and Spectral Hole Burning in an InAs Quantum-Dot Laser Diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(4), 479–485 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. The 20-nm separation between our measured short-wavelength end (1160 nm) and the solitary lasing peak (1180 nm) is safely within the homogeneous broadening (typically 10~20 meV) [17

17. M. Sugawara, K. Mukai, Y. Nakata, H. Ishikawa, and A. Sakamoto, “Effect of homogeneous broadening of optical gain on lasing spectra in self-assembled InxGa1-xAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 61(11), 7595–7603 (2000). [CrossRef]

,18

18. M. Sugawara, N. Hatori, H. Ebe, M. Ishida, Y. Arakawa, T. Akiyama, K. Otsubo, and Y. Nakata, “Modeling room-temperature lasing spectra of 1.3-µm self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers: Homogeneous broadening of optical gain under current injection,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(4), 043523 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. Second, simultaneous lasing conditions can be met for both free-running peak wavelength of internal FP cavity and long-wavelength end of external cavity; however, the ECL lasing at long-wavelength end can suppress the internal FP lasing due to depletion of ES carriers by relaxation to GS [19

19. T. W. Berg, S. Bischoff, I. Magnusdottir, and J. Mørk, “Ultrafast gain recovery and modulation limitations in self-assembled quantum-dot devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(6), 541–543 (2001). [CrossRef]

,20

20. A. Markus, M. Rossetti, V. Calligari, D. Chek-Al-Kar, J. X. Chen, A. Fiore, and R. Scollo, “Two-state switching and dynamics in quantum dot two-section lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113104 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. We also investigate the temperature dependence on QD ECL tuning for 2-mm emitter. At cooled heatsink temperature of 10 °C, the tuning range is slightly reduced to 126 nm, from 1157 to 1283 nm. At elevated heatsink temperature of 30 °C, the tuning range is slightly enhanced to 133 nm, from 1163 to 1296 nm, which is consistent to the observation in Ref [10

10. K. A. Fedorova, M. A. Cataluna, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, and E. U. Rafailov, “Broadly tunable high-power InAs/GaAs quantum-dot external cavity diode lasers,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19438–19443 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The small temperature rise causes thermal excitation of carrier in the higher energy states out of the QDs into the wetting layer, which results in spectral broadening as well as red-shits of spectral peak.

To further extend the tuning range, one could apply an ultralow reflectivity coating (R < 0.1%) or incorporate a tilted-waveguide design; however, the expense is higher injection current density. The alternative strategy is through the epitaxial design and optimization of the multilayer QD structure. It is summarized in this work that the 130-nm tuning (1160-1290 nm) covers light emissions from GS-QDL, GS-QDM, GS-QDS, ES-QDL and ES-QDM, while the 150-nm tuning (1143-1293 nm) covers those from all six energy states, both GS and ES of QDL, QDM and QDS. Therefore, it is proposed to change the thickness of InGaAs SRL, say 5, 3 and 1 nm for three chirped wavelength of QDL, QDM and QDS or one can introduce the fourth QD layers of even shorter wavelength. The last degree of freedom for optimization is the number of stacking layers for each chirped wavelength.

4. Conclusions

Low threshold and widely tunable InAs/InGaAs/GaAs QD lasers are implemented with external-cavity arrangement in Littrow configuration. The broad and flat gain spectra are achieved in the chirped multilayer QD gain media. Across the tuning range of 130 nm (1160-1290 nm), no noticeable threshold jump is observed and the maximum threshold current density is not more than 0.9 kA/cm2 for 2-mm QD ECL. The tuning range is further extended to 150 nm (1143-1293 nm) for 1.5-mm QD ECL under record low threshold current of 90 mA. We discuss the effect of cavity length on tuning characteristics of tuning range and tuning threshold. With clever choice of cavity length, the short-wavelength and long-wavelength tuning ends are optimized under injection current even slightly above the threshold current of solitary device. We also propose the strategy to further extend the tuning wavelength without sacrificing its tuning threshold. It can be easily implemented by the epitaxial growth design through optimization of QD-stacks of three or more chirped wavelengths, each with separate number of stacking layers.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thanks the Union Optronics Corporation (UOC) for broadband AR coatings. They are also indebted to K. F. Lin of Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) for device fabrication. The growth of QD laser structure is credited to Innolume GmbH in Dortmund, Germany. This work was supported by the Ministry of Education under the Aiming for the Top University and Elite Research Center Development Plan as well as the National Science Council Project under the contract number NSC 100-2221-E-009-021.

References and links

1.

T. Tanaka, Y. Hibino, T. Hashimoto, M. Abe, R. Kasahara, and Y. Tohmori, “100-GHz spacing 8-channel light source integrated with external cavity lasers on planar lightwave circuit platform,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(2), 567–573 (2004). [CrossRef]

2.

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Y. Jiang, and A. E. Cable, “Three-dimensional and C-mode OCT imaging with a compact, frequency swept laser source at 1300 nm,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10523–10538 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

M. E. Brezinski and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: High-resolution imaging in nontransparent tissue,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1185–1192 (1999). [CrossRef]

4.

M. Bagley, R. Wyatt, D. J. Elton, H. J. Wickes, P. C. Spurdens, C. P. Seltzer, D. M. Cooper, and E. J. Devlin, “242nm continuous tuning from a GRIN-SC-MQW-BH InGaAsP laser in an extended cavity,” Electron. Lett. 26(4), 267–269 (1990). [CrossRef]

5.

H. Tabuchi and H. Ishikawa, “External grating tunable MQWlaser with wide tuning range of 240 nm,” Electron. Lett. 26(11), 742–743 (1990). [CrossRef]

6.

C. P. Seltzer, M. Bagley, D. J. Elton, S. Perrin, and D. M. Cooper, “160 nm continuous tuning of an MQW laser in an external cavity across the entire 1.3 µm communication window,” Electron. Lett. 27(1), 95–96 (1991). [CrossRef]

7.

H. Li, G. T. Liu, P. M. Varangis, T. C. Newell, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “150-nm tuning range in a grating-coupled external cavity quantum-dot laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(7), 759–761 (2000). [CrossRef]

8.

P. M. Varangis, H. Li, G. T. Liu, T. C. Newell, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “Lowthreshold quantum dot lasers with 201 nm tuning range,” Electron. Lett. 36(18), 1544–1545 (2000). [CrossRef]

9.

X. Q. Lv, P. Jin, W. Y. Wang, and Z. G. Wang, “Broadband external cavity tunable quantum dot lasers with low injection current density,” Opt. Express 18(9), 8916–8922 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

K. A. Fedorova, M. A. Cataluna, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, and E. U. Rafailov, “Broadly tunable high-power InAs/GaAs quantum-dot external cavity diode lasers,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19438–19443 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

L. H. Li, M. Rossetti, and A. Fiore, “Chirped multiple InAs quantum dot structure for wide spectrum device applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 278(1-4), 680–684 (2005). [CrossRef]

12.

G. Lin, C. Y. Chang, W. C. Tseng, C. P. Lee, K. F. Lin, R. Xuan, and J. Y. Chi, “Novel chirped multilayer quantum-dot lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6997, 69970R, 69970R-8 (2008). [CrossRef]

13.

C. J. Hawthorn, K. P. Weber, and R. E. Scholten, “Littrow configuration tunable external cavity diode laser with fixed direction output beam,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(12), 4477–4479 (2001). [CrossRef]

14.

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, V. M. Ustinov, A. Y. Egorov, N. N. Ledentsov, A. F. Tsatsul’nikov, M. V. Maximov, Y. M. Shernyakov, V. I. Kopchatov, A. V. Lunev, P. S. Kop’ev, D. Bimberg, and Z. I. Alferov, “Gain characteristics of quantum dot injection lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 14(1), 118–123 (1999). [CrossRef]

15.

M. W. Fleming and A. Mooradian, “Spectral Characteristics of External-Cavity Controlled Semiconductor Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17(1), 44–59 (1981). [CrossRef]

16.

P. Eliseev, H. Li, A. Stintz, G. T. Liu, T. C. Newell, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “Tunable Grating-Coupled Laser Oscillation and Spectral Hole Burning in an InAs Quantum-Dot Laser Diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(4), 479–485 (2000). [CrossRef]

17.

M. Sugawara, K. Mukai, Y. Nakata, H. Ishikawa, and A. Sakamoto, “Effect of homogeneous broadening of optical gain on lasing spectra in self-assembled InxGa1-xAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 61(11), 7595–7603 (2000). [CrossRef]

18.

M. Sugawara, N. Hatori, H. Ebe, M. Ishida, Y. Arakawa, T. Akiyama, K. Otsubo, and Y. Nakata, “Modeling room-temperature lasing spectra of 1.3-µm self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers: Homogeneous broadening of optical gain under current injection,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(4), 043523 (2005). [CrossRef]

19.

T. W. Berg, S. Bischoff, I. Magnusdottir, and J. Mørk, “Ultrafast gain recovery and modulation limitations in self-assembled quantum-dot devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(6), 541–543 (2001). [CrossRef]

20.

A. Markus, M. Rossetti, V. Calligari, D. Chek-Al-Kar, J. X. Chen, A. Fiore, and R. Scollo, “Two-state switching and dynamics in quantum dot two-section lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113104 (2006). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.0140) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers and laser optics
(140.2020) Lasers and laser optics : Diode lasers
(140.3410) Lasers and laser optics : Laser resonators
(140.3600) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, tunable
(140.5960) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers
(250.5590) Optoelectronics : Quantum-well, -wire and -dot devices

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: December 15, 2011
Revised Manuscript: January 21, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: January 23, 2012
Published: February 1, 2012

Citation
Gray Lin, Pei-Yin Su, and Hsu-Chieh Cheng, "Low threshold current and widely tunable external cavity lasers with chirped multilayer InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum-dot structure," Opt. Express 20, 3941-3947 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-4-3941


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References

  1. T. Tanaka, Y. Hibino, T. Hashimoto, M. Abe, R. Kasahara, and Y. Tohmori, “100-GHz spacing 8-channel light source integrated with external cavity lasers on planar lightwave circuit platform,” J. Lightwave Technol.22(2), 567–573 (2004). [CrossRef]
  2. R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Y. Jiang, and A. E. Cable, “Three-dimensional and C-mode OCT imaging with a compact, frequency swept laser source at 1300 nm,” Opt. Express13(26), 10523–10538 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. E. Brezinski and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography: High-resolution imaging in nontransparent tissue,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.5(4), 1185–1192 (1999). [CrossRef]
  4. M. Bagley, R. Wyatt, D. J. Elton, H. J. Wickes, P. C. Spurdens, C. P. Seltzer, D. M. Cooper, and E. J. Devlin, “242nm continuous tuning from a GRIN-SC-MQW-BH InGaAsP laser in an extended cavity,” Electron. Lett.26(4), 267–269 (1990). [CrossRef]
  5. H. Tabuchi and H. Ishikawa, “External grating tunable MQWlaser with wide tuning range of 240 nm,” Electron. Lett.26(11), 742–743 (1990). [CrossRef]
  6. C. P. Seltzer, M. Bagley, D. J. Elton, S. Perrin, and D. M. Cooper, “160 nm continuous tuning of an MQW laser in an external cavity across the entire 1.3 µm communication window,” Electron. Lett.27(1), 95–96 (1991). [CrossRef]
  7. H. Li, G. T. Liu, P. M. Varangis, T. C. Newell, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “150-nm tuning range in a grating-coupled external cavity quantum-dot laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.12(7), 759–761 (2000). [CrossRef]
  8. P. M. Varangis, H. Li, G. T. Liu, T. C. Newell, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “Lowthreshold quantum dot lasers with 201 nm tuning range,” Electron. Lett.36(18), 1544–1545 (2000). [CrossRef]
  9. X. Q. Lv, P. Jin, W. Y. Wang, and Z. G. Wang, “Broadband external cavity tunable quantum dot lasers with low injection current density,” Opt. Express18(9), 8916–8922 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. A. Fedorova, M. A. Cataluna, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, and E. U. Rafailov, “Broadly tunable high-power InAs/GaAs quantum-dot external cavity diode lasers,” Opt. Express18(18), 19438–19443 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. L. H. Li, M. Rossetti, and A. Fiore, “Chirped multiple InAs quantum dot structure for wide spectrum device applications,” J. Cryst. Growth278(1-4), 680–684 (2005). [CrossRef]
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