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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 4 — Feb. 13, 2012
  • pp: 3983–3989
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Room-temperature operation of npn- AlGaInAs/InP multiple quantum well transistor laser emitting at 1.3-µm wavelength

Mizuki Shirao, Takashi Sato, Noriaki Sato, Nobuhiko Nishiyama, and Shigehisa Arai  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 4, pp. 3983-3989 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.003983


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Abstract

Room-temperature pulsed operation of a 1.3-µm wavelength transistor laser (TL), consisting of a buried heterostructure (BH) with an npn configuration and an AlGaInAs/InP multiple-quantum-well (MQW) active region, was successfully attained. A threshold base current of 18 mA (threshold emitter current of 150 mA) was obtained with a stripe width of 1.3 µm and a cavity length of 500 µm. The transistor activity as well as the lasing operation were achieved at the same time, which is essential for the high-speed operation of TLs.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

In this paper, we report the successful development of a 1.3-µm wavelength AlGaInAs/InP TL with an npn configuration and its operation at RT.

2. Device structure and fabrication

The fabrication processes that we employed and the structure of the device that we created are shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Fabrication processes of AlGaInAs/InP npn-TL with BH structure.
. An AlGaInAs/InP material system was introduced into the active region because higher optical gain could be achieved and given the fact that it exhibited high temperature characteristics. A buried heterostructure (BH) was introduced to confine the carriers and light within the active region.

The fabrication process consisted of five cycles of organometallic vapor phase epitaxial (OMVPE) growth as follows. The initial wafer consisted of a 500-nm-thick n-InP buffer layer, a 130-nm-thick n-AlGaInAs layer, five strain compensated AlGaInAs QWs with 5-nm-thick wells (strain: 1.4%) and 10-nm-thick barriers (strain: −0.7%), a 100-nm-thick p-AlGaInAs layer (Eg = 1.1 eV), a 30-nm-thick p-GaInAsP protection layer (Eg = 1.2 eV), which was introduced to prevent oxidization of the Al-containing layer in air before the regrowth process, and a GaInAs cap layer. An 800-nm-high mesa stripe was formed using wet (Br2/CH3OH = 1:1000) etching followed by reactive ion etching (RIE) with CH4/H2 plasma with a 2.5-µm-wide SiO2 mask. An ex-situ wet cleaning process using 1:40000 Br2:CH3OH, 1:1:40 H2SO4:H2O2:H2O, and 1% BHF followed by in situ thermal cleaning at 650 °C in PH3 for 45 min in the OMPVE system reactor was carried out prior to regrowth. The conditions for thermal cleaning were optimized for high-quality AlGaInAs/InP BH-LD, as described previously [22

22. N. Sato, Y. Takino, M. Shirao, T. Sato, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Effect of thermal cleaning on regrowth interface quality of AlGaInAs/InP buried heterostructure lasers,” The 38th International Symposium on Compound Semiconductors (ISCS2011), Berlin, Germany, paper P5.60 (2011).

]. Then, a BH with n(100 nm)/p(200 nm)/n(300 nm)/p(400 nm)-InP current blocking layers was grown. After removing the SiO2 mask and the GaInAs cap layer, a 100-nm-thick p-GaInAsP base layer and a 100-nm-thick n-InP collector layer were grown across the entire surface.

Next, a 6-µm-wide SiO2 mask was formed on the stripe and a 220-nm-high mesa stripe was formed by RIE (p-InP exposed) followed by OMVPE regrowth of a 300-nm-thick p-InP, a 30-nm-thick p+-GaInAs base contact layer, and a 100-nm-thick n-InP layer. After removing the SiO2 mask, a 2000-nm-thick n-InP collector layer, a 50-nm-thick n +-GaInAs collector contact layer, and an InP cap layer were re-grown. Then, the collector and base mesa were formed by RIE and wet etching. After forming the collector and base electrodes comprising Ti(25 nm)/Au(200 nm), the backside of the wafer was polished chemically to be about 100-µm thick, and an emitter electrode was formed. Finally, a laser cavity was formed by cleaving without any high reflection and anti-reflection coatings. Clear regrowth interfaces were observed without any voids, as shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Cross-sectional SEM image of fabricated device.
.

3. Device characteristics

First, characterization of the device was performed under two-terinal (emitter-base) configuration with a floating collector. Pulsed current with the pulse duty of 0.1% (1 µs pulse width, 1 ms period cycle) was applied and a high threshold current of 160 mA was obtained. The reason of such high threshold may be that electrons passed through the QWs diffused into the p-GaInAsP base layer laterally and recombined with holes at the outside of QWs, which was observed previously [23

23. M. Shirao, T. Sato, Y. Takino, N. Sato, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Lasing operation of long-wavelength transistor laser using AlGaInAs/InP quantum well active region,” The 23rd International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Material (IPRM2011),Berlin, Germany, paper Tu.3.2.4 (2011).

]. Next, Characterization of the device was performed while it was in the common-emitter (CE) configuration. In this case, the bias was controlled by the base current IB. Figure 3(a)
Fig. 3 RT pulse measurements for an npn TL with a cavity length of 500 µm and a stripe width of 1.3 µm. (a) Optical output power as a function of base current (black line) under two-terminal configuration and (red lines) common-emitter (CE) configuration for various VCE (0.1 V steps). (b) Lasing spectrum at a bias current of two times threshold.
shows the IB dependence of the light output power for various collector emitter voltages (VCE) under the CE configuration. A pulsed base current with 0.1% of the pulse duty (1 µs pulse width, 1 ms period cycle) was applied, whereas the reversal bias for the collector was a continous wave. The RT pulsed lasing operation of a 1.3-µm-wavelength AlGaInAs/InP pnp TL was achieved at a cavity length of 500 µm and a stripe width of 1.3 µm. The threshold base current was as high as IBth = 200 mA at VCE = 0 because the recombination of holes and electrons occurred outside of the active regions near the base electrode. However, it decreased dramatically with increasing VCE and reached a constant value of IBth = 18 mA where the threshold base current density JBth was 2.8 kA/cm2 at around VCE = 1 V. This is comparable to the previously reported values for pnp TLs (JBth = 1.9 kA/cm2), whereas a p-type base was used in this case. This phenomenon results from two reasons. One is the forward biased base-collector junction with low VCE region. The collector voltage dependence was numerically explained previously [24

24. W. Shi, L. Chrostowski, and B. Faraji, “Numerical study of the optical saturation and voltage control of a transistor vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2141–2143 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. The other is the change of the electron flow, which was injected from emitter. With high VCE, most holes contributed to lasing because the leakage of electrons diffused into the p-GaInAsP base region laterally, which caused the electron-hole recombination at the outside of the QWs, was reduced owing to the carrier pulling effect to the collector. In such cases, the recombination current or the output power of the laser is governed by the base current. New functions such as gating can be expected for this device because the output power can be controlled independently with IB (or base emitter voltage VBE) by changing VCE.

As can be seen for the lasing spectrum at IB = 2IBth in Fig. 3(b), the lasing wavelength was 1275 nm. Figure 4
Fig. 4 Collector-emitter voltage dependences of threshold base current and external differential quantum efficiency estimated from Fig. 3(a).
shows the VCE dependences for the threshold base current IBth and an external differential quantum efficiency for both facets ηd. Corresponding to the decrease in IBth, ηd was also improved and reached the linear region for VCE > 1.5 V.

The current gain β is an important parameter for enhancing the modulation bandwidths of TLs. Figure 5
Fig. 5 Collector-emitter voltage dependence of the collector current with 5 mA steps for the base current to 50 mA under the CE configuration.
shows the collector current IC dependence on the collector emitter voltage VCE of the same device shown in Figs. 3 and 4. The base current IB was increased with 5 mA steps under CW drive and a high current gain of β ≈6–9 was obtained. No lasing was observed in this case because this laser was operated only under the pulse condition. This means that there was an absence of current gain suppression due to stimulated emission, which has been reported previously [12

12. G. Walter, N. Holonyak, M. Feng, and R. Chan, “Laser operation of a heterojunction bipolar light-emitting transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4768–4770 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. A negative IC was observed at VCE = 0, which implicates the occurrence of an injection of electrons from the collector because of the forward biased collector base electrode. It reached the linear region at VCE = 1 V for the case of IB = 20 mA, which corresponds to the constant region of IBth ( = 18 mA) in Fig. 4. For the saturation region (VCE > 1 V), the electron pulling effect in the collector was weak, which resulted in the enhancement of carrier recombination of the holes injected from the base electrode and electrons that passed through the active region. In the linear region, however, base collector reversal bias was high enough to withdraw electrons from the collector. Therefore, holes were injected effectively into the active region without them recombining with electrons in the p-GaInAsP base layer.

Figure 6
Fig. 6 Emitter current dependence of the output power and the emitter base voltage under a common base (CB) configuration with a 0.5 V of collector base voltage step. Dashed lines show that VCB = 0.
shows the emitter current (IE) dependence of the light output power and emitter base voltage (VEB) for various base collector voltages (VCB) under a common base (CB) configuration. A threshold emitter current of IEth = 150 mA was observed for VBC = 0 V. It should be noted that carrier pulling at the collector occurred under the CB configuration (i.e., linear region) for normal bipolar transistors, and therefore, weak VBC dependences for output power and threshold current were observed. A change in the resistance from 7 Ω to 11 Ω was observed at the threshold as indicated by the dashed line (VCB = 1.5 V). It is evident that the reduction in the collector current was due to the stimulated emission (for carrier recombination) because of the shorter carrier recombination time for the base region compared with that for spontaneous emission. The collector current could not be measured under the CB configuration due to a lack of an experimental system. Assuming that the operation occurred within the linear region of the transistor, the collector current at the threshold condition can be estimated to be approximately 7.3-fold of IBth (ICthIEthIBth = 132 mA), which is much higher than that for a reported previously long wavelength TL at 0.14-fold of IBth [20

20. F. Dixon, M. Feng, J. N. Holonyak, Y. Huang, X. B. Zhang, J. H. Ryou, and R. D. Dupuis, “Transistor laser with emission wavelength at 1544 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021111 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. However, a lower collector current is necessary for TLs because high injection currents cause high heat generation as well as high power consumption. From our calculations, we found that the collector current required to enhance the bandwidth was as low as ~1.8-fold of the base [25

25. M. Shirao, “Study of hetero junction bipolar Transistor type optical devices,” PhD Thesis, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan, 49–76 (2011).

]. Therefore, by carefully designing the thickness and band gap energy of the p-GaInAsP base, RT-CW operation could be realized.

4. Conclusion

In conclusion, RT pulsed operation of a 1.3-µm wavelength npn TL was achieved for the first time by using AlGaInAs/InP quantum wells and a BH structure. A threshold base current of 18 mA was obtained in the linear region under the common-emitter configuration for the device with a stripe width of 1.3 µm and a cavity length of 500 µm. A threshold emitter current of 150 mA was obtained under a common base configuration. This means that lasing and transistor activity were achieved at the same time, which is essential for the high-speed operation of TLs.

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Professors Emeritus Y. Suematsu and K. Iga for their continuous encouragement and Professors M. Asada, F. Koyama, T. Mizumoto, Y. Miyamoto, and Dr. SeungHun Lee of the Tokyo Institute of Technology for fruitful discussions. This research was financially supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Japan, and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) under Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (#19002009, #22360138, #21226010, and #10J09593). The first author also acknowledges the JSPS for the Research Fellowship for Young Scientists.

References and links

1.

D. A. B. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 728–749 (2000). [CrossRef]

2.

R. Nagarajan, M. Ishikawa, T. Fukushima, R. S. Geels, and J. E. Bowers, “High speed quantum-well lasers and carrier transport effects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(10), 1990–2008 (1992). [CrossRef]

3.

S. C. Kan, D. Vassilovski, T. C. Wu, and K. Y. Lau, “Quantum capture limited modulation bandwidth of quantum well, wire, and dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(19), 2307–2309 (1993). [CrossRef]

4.

L. Zhang and J. P. Leburton, “Modeling of the transient characteristics of heterojunction bipolar transistor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(4), 359–366 (2009). [CrossRef]

5.

B. Faraji, W. Shi, D. L. Pulfrey, and L. Chrostowski, “Analytical modeling of the transistor laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 594–603 (2009). [CrossRef]

6.

M. Shirao, S. H. Lee, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Large-signal analysis of a transistor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(3), 359–367 (2011). [CrossRef]

7.

R. Nagarajan, T. Fukushima, M. Ishikawa, J. E. Bowers, R. S. Geels, and L. A. Coldren, “Transport limits in high-speed quantum-well lasers: experiment and theory,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(2), 121–123 (1992). [CrossRef]

8.

K. Furuya, Y. Suematsu, and T. Hong, “Reduction of resonancelike peak in direct modulation due to carrier diffusion in injection laser,” Appl. Opt. 17(12), 1949–1952 (1978). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

M. Willatzen, A. Uskov, J. Mork, H. Olesen, B. Tromborg, and A. P. Jauho, “Nonlinear gain suppression in semiconductor lasers due to carrier heating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3(7), 606–609 (1991). [CrossRef]

10.

J. Shibata, Y. Mori, Y. Sasai, N. Hase, H. Serizawa, and T. Kajiwara, “Fundamental characteristics of an InGaAsP/InP laser transistor,” Electron. Lett. 21(3), 98–100 (1985). [CrossRef]

11.

Y. Mori, J. Shibata, Y. Sasai, H. Serizawa, and T. Kajiwara, “Operation principle of the InGaAsP/InP laser transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47(7), 649–651 (1985). [CrossRef]

12.

G. Walter, N. Holonyak, M. Feng, and R. Chan, “Laser operation of a heterojunction bipolar light-emitting transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4768–4770 (2004). [CrossRef]

13.

R. Chan, M. Feng, J. N. Holonyak, and G. Walter, “Microwave operation and modulation of a transistor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(13), 131114 (2005). [CrossRef]

14.

R. Chan, M. Feng, N. Holonyak, A. James, and G. Walter, “Collector current map of gain and stimulated recombination on the base quantum well transitions of a transistor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(14), 143508 (2006). [CrossRef]

15.

G. Walter, A. James, J. N. Holonyak, and M. Feng, “Chirp in a transistor laser: Franz-Keldysh reduction of the linewidth enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091109 (2007). [CrossRef]

16.

M. Feng, J. N. Holonyak, H. W. Then, and G. Walter, “Charge control analysis of transistor laser operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 053501 (2007). [CrossRef]

17.

H. W. Then, G. Walter, M. Feng, and J. N. Holonyak, “Optical bandwidth enhancement of heterojunction bipolar transistor laser operation with an auxiliary base signal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 163504 (2008). [CrossRef]

18.

H. W. Then, C. H. Wu, G. Walter, M. Feng, and J. N. Holonyak, “Electrical-optical signal mixing and multiplication (2–> 22 GHz) with a tunnel junction transistor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101114 (2009). [CrossRef]

19.

Z. Duan, W. Shi, L. Chrostowski, X. Huang, N. Zhou, and G. Chai, “Design and epitaxy of 1.5 microm InGaAsP-InP MQW material for a transistor laser,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1501–1509 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

F. Dixon, M. Feng, J. N. Holonyak, Y. Huang, X. B. Zhang, J. H. Ryou, and R. D. Dupuis, “Transistor laser with emission wavelength at 1544 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021111 (2008). [CrossRef]

21.

M. Shirao, T. Sato, Y. Takino, N. Sato, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of 1.3-µm transistor laser with AlGaInAs/InP quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(7), 072101 (2011). [CrossRef]

22.

N. Sato, Y. Takino, M. Shirao, T. Sato, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Effect of thermal cleaning on regrowth interface quality of AlGaInAs/InP buried heterostructure lasers,” The 38th International Symposium on Compound Semiconductors (ISCS2011), Berlin, Germany, paper P5.60 (2011).

23.

M. Shirao, T. Sato, Y. Takino, N. Sato, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Lasing operation of long-wavelength transistor laser using AlGaInAs/InP quantum well active region,” The 23rd International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Material (IPRM2011),Berlin, Germany, paper Tu.3.2.4 (2011).

24.

W. Shi, L. Chrostowski, and B. Faraji, “Numerical study of the optical saturation and voltage control of a transistor vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2141–2143 (2008). [CrossRef]

25.

M. Shirao, “Study of hetero junction bipolar Transistor type optical devices,” PhD Thesis, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan, 49–76 (2011).

OCIS Codes
(140.5960) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers
(230.0230) Optical devices : Optical devices

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: August 4, 2011
Revised Manuscript: November 5, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: January 2, 2012
Published: February 2, 2012

Citation
Mizuki Shirao, Takashi Sato, Noriaki Sato, Nobuhiko Nishiyama, and Shigehisa Arai, "Room-temperature operation of npn- AlGaInAs/InP multiple quantum well transistor laser emitting at 1.3-µm wavelength," Opt. Express 20, 3983-3989 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-4-3983


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References

  1. D. A. B. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE88(6), 728–749 (2000). [CrossRef]
  2. R. Nagarajan, M. Ishikawa, T. Fukushima, R. S. Geels, and J. E. Bowers, “High speed quantum-well lasers and carrier transport effects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28(10), 1990–2008 (1992). [CrossRef]
  3. S. C. Kan, D. Vassilovski, T. C. Wu, and K. Y. Lau, “Quantum capture limited modulation bandwidth of quantum well, wire, and dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(19), 2307–2309 (1993). [CrossRef]
  4. L. Zhang and J. P. Leburton, “Modeling of the transient characteristics of heterojunction bipolar transistor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.45(4), 359–366 (2009). [CrossRef]
  5. B. Faraji, W. Shi, D. L. Pulfrey, and L. Chrostowski, “Analytical modeling of the transistor laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(3), 594–603 (2009). [CrossRef]
  6. M. Shirao, S. H. Lee, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Large-signal analysis of a transistor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.47(3), 359–367 (2011). [CrossRef]
  7. R. Nagarajan, T. Fukushima, M. Ishikawa, J. E. Bowers, R. S. Geels, and L. A. Coldren, “Transport limits in high-speed quantum-well lasers: experiment and theory,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.4(2), 121–123 (1992). [CrossRef]
  8. K. Furuya, Y. Suematsu, and T. Hong, “Reduction of resonancelike peak in direct modulation due to carrier diffusion in injection laser,” Appl. Opt.17(12), 1949–1952 (1978). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Willatzen, A. Uskov, J. Mork, H. Olesen, B. Tromborg, and A. P. Jauho, “Nonlinear gain suppression in semiconductor lasers due to carrier heating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.3(7), 606–609 (1991). [CrossRef]
  10. J. Shibata, Y. Mori, Y. Sasai, N. Hase, H. Serizawa, and T. Kajiwara, “Fundamental characteristics of an InGaAsP/InP laser transistor,” Electron. Lett.21(3), 98–100 (1985). [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Mori, J. Shibata, Y. Sasai, H. Serizawa, and T. Kajiwara, “Operation principle of the InGaAsP/InP laser transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.47(7), 649–651 (1985). [CrossRef]
  12. G. Walter, N. Holonyak, M. Feng, and R. Chan, “Laser operation of a heterojunction bipolar light-emitting transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(20), 4768–4770 (2004). [CrossRef]
  13. R. Chan, M. Feng, J. N. Holonyak, and G. Walter, “Microwave operation and modulation of a transistor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(13), 131114 (2005). [CrossRef]
  14. R. Chan, M. Feng, N. Holonyak, A. James, and G. Walter, “Collector current map of gain and stimulated recombination on the base quantum well transitions of a transistor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(14), 143508 (2006). [CrossRef]
  15. G. Walter, A. James, J. N. Holonyak, and M. Feng, “Chirp in a transistor laser: Franz-Keldysh reduction of the linewidth enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(9), 091109 (2007). [CrossRef]
  16. M. Feng, J. N. Holonyak, H. W. Then, and G. Walter, “Charge control analysis of transistor laser operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(5), 053501 (2007). [CrossRef]
  17. H. W. Then, G. Walter, M. Feng, and J. N. Holonyak, “Optical bandwidth enhancement of heterojunction bipolar transistor laser operation with an auxiliary base signal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(16), 163504 (2008). [CrossRef]
  18. H. W. Then, C. H. Wu, G. Walter, M. Feng, and J. N. Holonyak, “Electrical-optical signal mixing and multiplication (2–> 22 GHz) with a tunnel junction transistor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101114 (2009). [CrossRef]
  19. Z. Duan, W. Shi, L. Chrostowski, X. Huang, N. Zhou, and G. Chai, “Design and epitaxy of 1.5 microm InGaAsP-InP MQW material for a transistor laser,” Opt. Express18(2), 1501–1509 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. F. Dixon, M. Feng, J. N. Holonyak, Y. Huang, X. B. Zhang, J. H. Ryou, and R. D. Dupuis, “Transistor laser with emission wavelength at 1544 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(2), 021111 (2008). [CrossRef]
  21. M. Shirao, T. Sato, Y. Takino, N. Sato, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of 1.3-µm transistor laser with AlGaInAs/InP quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express4(7), 072101 (2011). [CrossRef]
  22. N. Sato, Y. Takino, M. Shirao, T. Sato, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Effect of thermal cleaning on regrowth interface quality of AlGaInAs/InP buried heterostructure lasers,” The 38th International Symposium on Compound Semiconductors (ISCS2011), Berlin, Germany, paper P5.60 (2011).
  23. M. Shirao, T. Sato, Y. Takino, N. Sato, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Lasing operation of long-wavelength transistor laser using AlGaInAs/InP quantum well active region,” The 23rd International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Material (IPRM2011),Berlin, Germany, paper Tu.3.2.4 (2011).
  24. W. Shi, L. Chrostowski, and B. Faraji, “Numerical study of the optical saturation and voltage control of a transistor vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(24), 2141–2143 (2008). [CrossRef]
  25. M. Shirao, “Study of hetero junction bipolar Transistor type optical devices,” PhD Thesis, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan, 49–76 (2011).

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