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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 4 — Feb. 13, 2012
  • pp: 4291–4296
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Fabrication of three-dimensional microfluidic channels inside glass using nanosecond laser direct writing

Changning Liu, Yang Liao, Fei He, Yinglong Shen, Danping Chen, Ya Cheng, Zhizhan Xu, Koji Sugioka, and Katsumi Midorikawa  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 4, pp. 4291-4296 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.004291


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Abstract

We show that fabrication of three-dimensional microfluidic channels embedded in glass can be achieved by using a Q-switched, frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. The processing mainly consists of two steps: (1) formation of hollow microfluidic channels in porous glass immersed in Rhodamine 6G dissolved in water by nanosecond laser ablation; and (2) postannealing of the fabricated porous glass sample at 1120 °C for consolidation of the sample. In particular, a bilayer microfluidic structure is created in glass substrate using this technique for showcasing its capability of three-dimensional structuring.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

Recent years have witnessed a rapid growth in the development of microfluidics. Owing to their capability of manipulating tiny volumes of liquids with high precision, microfluidic systems have attracted significant attention [1

1. G. M. Whitesides, “The origins and the future of microfluidics,” Nature 442(7101), 368–373 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,2

2. A. Manz, N. Graber, and H. M. Widmer, “Miniaturized total chemical analysis systems: a novel concept for chemical sensing,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 1(1-6), 244–248 (1990). [CrossRef]

]. To date, fabrication of microchannels heavily relies on photolithography which is inherently a two-dimensional (2D) planar fabrication technology [3

3. B. H. Jo, L. M. Van Lerberghe, K. M. Motsegood, and D. J. Beebe, “Three-dimensional micro-channel fabrication in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 9(1), 76–81 (2000). [CrossRef]

,4

4. M. S. Giridhar, K. Seong, A. Schülzgen, P. Khulbe, N. Peyghambarian, and M. Mansuripur, “Femtosecond pulsed laser micromachining of glass substrates with application to microfluidic devices,” Appl. Opt. 43(23), 4584–4589 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Fabrication of three-dimensional microfluidic structures by photolithography-based techniques therefore requires stacking and bonding, leading to increased complexity and cost. One elegant solution for achieving 3D microfluidic structures in transparent substrates is to use femtosecond laser direct writing, as demonstrated by many groups [5

5. Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, “Three-dimensional micro-optical components embedded in photosensitive glass by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 28(13), 1144–1146 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10

10. S. Rajesh and Y. Bellouard, “Towards fast femtosecond laser micromachining of fused silica: The effect of deposited energy,” Opt. Express 18(20), 21490–21497 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. As a direct and maskless fabrication technique, the microfluidic structures fabricated by femtosecond laser have indeed found a broad spectrum of applications, such as optofluidic sensors with various functions including refractive index monitoring [11

11. A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach-Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10(9), 1167–1173 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], nanoaquariums for observing living organisms [12

12. Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, H. Kawano, I. S. Ishikawa, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nano-aquarium for dynamic observation of living cells fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing of photostructurable glass,” Biomed. Microdevices 10(3), 403–410 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,13

13. Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, I. Shihira-Ishikawa, H. Kawano, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “3D microfluidic chips with integrated functional microelements fabricated by a femtosecond laser for studying the gliding mechanism of cyanobacteria,” Lab Chip 11(12), 2109–2115 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and microfluidic lasers [14

14. Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Microfluidic laser embedded in glass by three-dimensional femtosecond laser microprocessing,” Opt. Lett. 29(17), 2007–2009 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], single-cell detection and manipulation [15

15. M. Kim, D. J. Hwang, H. Jeon, K. Hiromatsu, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Single cell detection using a glass-based optofluidic device fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Lab Chip 9(2), 311–318 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,16

16. F. Bragheri, L. Ferrara, N. Bellini, K. C. Vishnubhatla, P. Minzionil, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and I. Cristiani, “Optofluidic chip for single cell trapping and stretching fabricated by a femtosecond,” J. Biophoton. 3, 234–243 (2010).

], and rapid screening of algae populations [17

17. A. Schaap, Y. Bellouard, and T. Rohrlack, “Optofluidic lab-on-a-chip for rapid algae population screening,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(3), 658–664 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], etc. Generally, microfluidic channels can be formed in glass by two strategies: either by femtosecond laser direct writing followed by chemical etching [18

18. A. Marcinkevicius, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, M. Miwa, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Femtosecond laser-assisted three-dimensional microfabrication in silica,” Opt. Lett. 26(5), 277–279 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21

21. F. Venturini, W. Navarrini, G. Resnati, P. Metrangolo, R. M. Vazquez, R. Osellame, and G. Cerullo, “Selective iterative etching of fused silica with gaseous hydrofluoric acid,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(43), 18712–18716 (2010). [CrossRef]

] or by water-assisted [22

22. D. J. Hwang, T. Y. Choi, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Liquid-assisted femtosecond laser drilling of straight and three-dimensional microchannels in glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79(3), 605–612 (2004). [CrossRef]

25

25. K. Ke, E. F. Hasselbrink Jr, and A. J. Hunt, “Rapidly prototyped three-dimensional nanofluidic channel networks in glass substrates,” Anal. Chem. 77(16), 5083–5088 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] femtosecond laser 3D drilling. More recently, we have developed a technique which allows fabrication of microfluidic channels of arbitrary configurations and lengths in a porous glass material immersed in water followed by postannealing [26

26. Y. Liao, Y. Ju, L. Zhang, F. He, Q. Zhang, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional microfluidic channel with arbitrary length and configuration fabricated inside glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3225–3227 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,27

27. Y. Ju, Y. Liao, L. Zhang, Y. Sheng, Q. Zhang, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Fabrication of large-volume microfluidic chamber embedded in glass using three-dimensional femtosecond laser micromachining,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 11(1), 111–117 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. Using this technique, we can rapidly fabricate complex 3D micro-total analysis systems (μ-TAS) and Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) systems for biological and chemical analysis applications.

In this article, we show, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, that 3D microfluidic channels can also be fabricated in porous glass using a Q-switched, frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. The processing mainly consists of two steps: (1) formation of hollow microfluidic channels in porous glass immersed in Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) dissolved in water by nanosecond laser ablation; and (2) postannealing of the fabricated porous glass sample at 1120 °C for consolidation of the sample. Here, Rh6G plays an important role as an absorber for promoting the ablation by the nanosecond laser within the porous glass sample, e. g., near the focal volume. The mechanism behind this technique is somewhat similar to that of laser induced backside wet etching (LIBWE) [28

28. J. Wang, H. Niino, and A. Yabe, “One-step microfabrication of fused silica by laser ablation of an organic solution,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 68(1), 111–113 (1999). [CrossRef]

30

30. C. Vass, K. Osvay, and B. Hopp, “Fabrication of 150 nm period grating in fused silica by two-beam interferometric laser induced backside wet etching method,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8354–8359 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], in which glass surface in contact with organic solution can be ablated by nanosecond laser to form surface microstructures. Due to the fact that the porous glass is immersed in a solution doped with Rh6G, the liquid can penetrate into the substrate through the nanopores. Since we use a 532 nm laser whose wavelength is close to the absorption peak of Rh6G (~520 nm), we choose the Rh6G in water for achieving an efficient absorption at the focus. Therefore, ablation inside glass is possible. There is no doubt that replacing the femtosecond laser by the nanosecond laser will greatly reduce the cost for fabricating 3D microfluidic devices whereas in the meantime enhance the stability of the laser source.

2. Experiment

In the experiment, we use a high-silica porous glass as the substrate material. The porous glass samples were obtained by removing the borate phase from phase-separated alkali-borosilicate glass in hot acid solution [31

31. D. Chen, H. Miyoshi, T. Akai, and T. Yazawa, “Colorless transparent fluorescence material: sintered porous glass containing rare-earth and transition-metal ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(23), 231908 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. The phase-separated alkali-borosilicate glasses were cut to 10 mm × 10 mm × 2 mm coupons and polished before treated in hot acid. The composition of the porous glass is 95.5SiO2-4B2O3-0.5Na2O (wt. %). The pores with a mean size of ~10 nm occupy 40% volume of the whole glass and are distributed uniformly in the glass to form a 3D connective network, allowing liquid to infiltrate into the glass.

The 3D microstructure inside the porous glass was formed using nanosecond laser direct writing. The laser pulses are operated at 532 nm wavelength, with a duration (full-width at half-maximum (FWHM)) of ~8 ns and a repetition rate of 10 Hz. We stress that a YAG laser operated at higher repetition rates should be better than the 10 Hz system used in our experiment, which is able to offer higher scanning speeds. The average power of the laser beam is controlled through a combination of polarizer and wave plate and a set of neutral density filters. In addition, in order to ensure a high quality beam, a circular aperture is used to clip the initial 8.8 mm beam to 5 mm. The incident pulse energy was chosen to be ~100 μJ. The beam was focused into the porous glass through a 50 × microscope objective (BX51, Olympus, Tokyo, Japan) with a numerical aperture of 0.80. The samples can be arbitrarily translated three dimensionally by a computer -controlled X-Y-Z stage with a resolution of 0.1 μm. A charge couple device (CCD) connected to a personal computer is used for monitoring the whole direct-writing process in real time, and the procedures of the fabricated structures could be captured by the CCD camera.

3. Results and discussion

Top view optical micrograph of 3D microfluidic channels embedded in porous glass before post-annealing are shown in Fig. 2(a)
Fig. 2 (a) Top view optical micrograph of 3D microfluidic channels embedded in porous glass before post-annealing. (b) Closed-up view of microchannel partially filled with water before post-annealing. (c) Fluorescence microscopy image of the microchannels filled with a solution of fluorescein. The confined fluorescent solution gives a proof that the nanopores have all collapsed to form the consolidated substrate.
, and microchannels partially filled with water are shown by the closed-up view in Fig. 2(b). The diameter of the microfluidic channels is approximately 20 μm. After the postannealing process, fluorescence microscopy image of the microchannels filled with a solution of fluorescein is shown in Fig. 2(c). The confined fluorescent solution gives a clear evidence that the nanopores have all collapsed to form the consolidated substrate. (No leakage is observed in this experiment even if the liquid is stocked in the microfluidic channels for 7 days). It should be specifically mentioned that, since all the pores have collapsed, the total volume of the annealed substrate will decrease to 60% ~70% of that of the unannealed sample. As a result, the diameter of the microchannels will decrease from ~20 μm to ~17 μm. However, the shapes of the microchannels remain almost unchanged.

For investigating the cross sections of micro-channels, six microchannels are fabricated 210 μm beneath the porous glass surface with pulse energies of 60, 120, 180, 160, 170, and 180 μJ, respectively, and three more microchannels are fabricated 420 μm beneath the glass surface with pulse energies of 120, 160, and 180 μJ, respectively. We then broke up the microchannels by mechanical cutting and subsequent cleavage. Next, we polished the sample from the end of the channel until the microchannels were exposed. Figure 3
Fig. 3 SEM image of the cross-sectional view of the cleaved microchannels after the postanneanling. Small cracks can be found near the microchannel. The pulse energy chosen for fabricating each channel is indicated in the SEM image.
shows the cross sections of the microchannels fabricated in porous glass at the different positions after the postannealing. We can see that the higher the pulse energy the larger the width of the channel. Furthermore, for channels deeper in the sample, their widths are smaller than those embedded shallower in the sample. This is most probably due to the absorption of light by the Rh6G solution. The consolidation of the porous glass also results in up-shift of the microchannel, leading to a distance shortened by ~15% between the glass surface and the channels.

In order to examine the morphology of the innerwall of microchannel, we polished the sample from the top surface until the microchannel was exposed. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the surface morphology of the sample after the post-annealing is shown in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 SEM image of the innerwall of the microfluidic channel after post-annealing.
. It is clear that the innerwalls of the channel after the post-annealing process show relatively high surface roughness, which can be attributed to the debris redeposited onto the inner wall of the microchannel. The debris possibly could be reduced or even totally removed by an additional chemical etching in diluted HF acid, as we will try in the future.

With the nanosecond laser operated at the 10 Hz repetition rate, we can obtain the microchannel with a total length of ~1 cm and a diameter of approximately 20 μm, as shown in Figs. 2(a) and 2(b). It is noteworthy that for achieving such thin channels, the pulse energy is chosen to be ~100 μJ, and the scanning speed is 10 μm/s. We expect that microfluidic channels of higher uniformity can be achieved with multiple scans at higher translation speeds, for which use of a high-repetition-rate YAG laser should be more appropriate.

4. Conclusions

To summarize, we demonstrate the fabrication of 3D microfluidic channels by nanosecond laser direct writing in the porous glass, providing an alternative solution for fabrication of 3D microfluidic systems in glass which are usually achieved with femtosecond laser pulses.

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2011CB808102) and NSFC (Nos. 10974213,60825406, 61108015 and 11104294).

References and links

1.

G. M. Whitesides, “The origins and the future of microfluidics,” Nature 442(7101), 368–373 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

A. Manz, N. Graber, and H. M. Widmer, “Miniaturized total chemical analysis systems: a novel concept for chemical sensing,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 1(1-6), 244–248 (1990). [CrossRef]

3.

B. H. Jo, L. M. Van Lerberghe, K. M. Motsegood, and D. J. Beebe, “Three-dimensional micro-channel fabrication in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 9(1), 76–81 (2000). [CrossRef]

4.

M. S. Giridhar, K. Seong, A. Schülzgen, P. Khulbe, N. Peyghambarian, and M. Mansuripur, “Femtosecond pulsed laser micromachining of glass substrates with application to microfluidic devices,” Appl. Opt. 43(23), 4584–4589 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, “Three-dimensional micro-optical components embedded in photosensitive glass by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 28(13), 1144–1146 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

C. Lee, T. Chang, S. Wang, C. Chien, and C. Cheng, “Using femtosecond laser to fabricate highly precise interior three-dimensional microstructures in polymeric flow chip,” Biomicrofluid. 4(4), 046502 (2010). [CrossRef]

7.

F. He, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, Y. Liao, J. Xu, H. Sun, C. Wang, Z. Zhou, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, Y. Xu, and X. Chen, “Direct fabrication of homogeneous microfluidic channels embedded in fused silica using a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 282–284 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

J. Cheng, C. Wei, K. Hsu, and T. Young, “Direct-write laser micromachining and universal surface modification of PMMA for device development,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 99(1), 186–196 (2004). [CrossRef]

9.

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Microfabrication of 3D hollow structures embedded in glass by femtosecond laser for lab-on-a-chip applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 248(1-4), 172–176 (2005). [CrossRef]

10.

S. Rajesh and Y. Bellouard, “Towards fast femtosecond laser micromachining of fused silica: The effect of deposited energy,” Opt. Express 18(20), 21490–21497 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach-Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip 10(9), 1167–1173 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, H. Kawano, I. S. Ishikawa, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nano-aquarium for dynamic observation of living cells fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing of photostructurable glass,” Biomed. Microdevices 10(3), 403–410 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, I. Shihira-Ishikawa, H. Kawano, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “3D microfluidic chips with integrated functional microelements fabricated by a femtosecond laser for studying the gliding mechanism of cyanobacteria,” Lab Chip 11(12), 2109–2115 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Microfluidic laser embedded in glass by three-dimensional femtosecond laser microprocessing,” Opt. Lett. 29(17), 2007–2009 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

M. Kim, D. J. Hwang, H. Jeon, K. Hiromatsu, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Single cell detection using a glass-based optofluidic device fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Lab Chip 9(2), 311–318 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

F. Bragheri, L. Ferrara, N. Bellini, K. C. Vishnubhatla, P. Minzionil, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and I. Cristiani, “Optofluidic chip for single cell trapping and stretching fabricated by a femtosecond,” J. Biophoton. 3, 234–243 (2010).

17.

A. Schaap, Y. Bellouard, and T. Rohrlack, “Optofluidic lab-on-a-chip for rapid algae population screening,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(3), 658–664 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

A. Marcinkevicius, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, M. Miwa, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Femtosecond laser-assisted three-dimensional microfabrication in silica,” Opt. Lett. 26(5), 277–279 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional micromachining of glass using femtosecond laser for lab-on-a-chip device manufacture,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 81(1), 1–10 (2005). [CrossRef]

20.

K. Sugioka, Y. Hanada, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional femtosecond laser micromachining of photosensitive glass for biomicrochips,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4(3), 386–400 (2010). [CrossRef]

21.

F. Venturini, W. Navarrini, G. Resnati, P. Metrangolo, R. M. Vazquez, R. Osellame, and G. Cerullo, “Selective iterative etching of fused silica with gaseous hydrofluoric acid,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(43), 18712–18716 (2010). [CrossRef]

22.

D. J. Hwang, T. Y. Choi, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Liquid-assisted femtosecond laser drilling of straight and three-dimensional microchannels in glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79(3), 605–612 (2004). [CrossRef]

23.

R. An, Y. Li, Y. Dou, D. Liu, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Water-assisted drilling of microfluidic chambers inside silica glass with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 83(1), 27–29 (2006). [CrossRef]

24.

Y. Li, K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, D. Kuroda, J. Nishii, and Y. Jiang, “Three-dimensional hole drilling of silica glass from the rear surface with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26(23), 1912–1914 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

K. Ke, E. F. Hasselbrink Jr, and A. J. Hunt, “Rapidly prototyped three-dimensional nanofluidic channel networks in glass substrates,” Anal. Chem. 77(16), 5083–5088 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

Y. Liao, Y. Ju, L. Zhang, F. He, Q. Zhang, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional microfluidic channel with arbitrary length and configuration fabricated inside glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3225–3227 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

Y. Ju, Y. Liao, L. Zhang, Y. Sheng, Q. Zhang, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Fabrication of large-volume microfluidic chamber embedded in glass using three-dimensional femtosecond laser micromachining,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 11(1), 111–117 (2011). [CrossRef]

28.

J. Wang, H. Niino, and A. Yabe, “One-step microfabrication of fused silica by laser ablation of an organic solution,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 68(1), 111–113 (1999). [CrossRef]

29.

H. Niino, Y. Yasui, X. Ding, A. Narazaki, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, and A. Yabe, “Surface micro-fabrication of silica glass by excimer laser irradiation of organic solvent,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. 158(2-3), 179–182 (2003). [CrossRef]

30.

C. Vass, K. Osvay, and B. Hopp, “Fabrication of 150 nm period grating in fused silica by two-beam interferometric laser induced backside wet etching method,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8354–8359 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

31.

D. Chen, H. Miyoshi, T. Akai, and T. Yazawa, “Colorless transparent fluorescence material: sintered porous glass containing rare-earth and transition-metal ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(23), 231908 (2005). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.3390) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials processing
(140.3540) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, Q-switched
(160.2750) Materials : Glass and other amorphous materials
(270.4180) Quantum optics : Multiphoton processes

ToC Category:
Laser Microfabrication

History
Original Manuscript: November 21, 2011
Revised Manuscript: January 10, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: January 12, 2012
Published: February 7, 2012

Virtual Issues
Vol. 7, Iss. 4 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Changning Liu, Yang Liao, Fei He, Yinglong Shen, Danping Chen, Ya Cheng, Zhizhan Xu, Koji Sugioka, and Katsumi Midorikawa, "Fabrication of three-dimensional microfluidic channels inside glass using nanosecond laser direct writing," Opt. Express 20, 4291-4296 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-4-4291


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References

  1. G. M. Whitesides, “The origins and the future of microfluidics,” Nature442(7101), 368–373 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Manz, N. Graber, and H. M. Widmer, “Miniaturized total chemical analysis systems: a novel concept for chemical sensing,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.1(1-6), 244–248 (1990). [CrossRef]
  3. B. H. Jo, L. M. Van Lerberghe, K. M. Motsegood, and D. J. Beebe, “Three-dimensional micro-channel fabrication in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.9(1), 76–81 (2000). [CrossRef]
  4. M. S. Giridhar, K. Seong, A. Schülzgen, P. Khulbe, N. Peyghambarian, and M. Mansuripur, “Femtosecond pulsed laser micromachining of glass substrates with application to microfluidic devices,” Appl. Opt.43(23), 4584–4589 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, “Three-dimensional micro-optical components embedded in photosensitive glass by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett.28(13), 1144–1146 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. Lee, T. Chang, S. Wang, C. Chien, and C. Cheng, “Using femtosecond laser to fabricate highly precise interior three-dimensional microstructures in polymeric flow chip,” Biomicrofluid.4(4), 046502 (2010). [CrossRef]
  7. F. He, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, Y. Liao, J. Xu, H. Sun, C. Wang, Z. Zhou, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, Y. Xu, and X. Chen, “Direct fabrication of homogeneous microfluidic channels embedded in fused silica using a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett.35(3), 282–284 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Cheng, C. Wei, K. Hsu, and T. Young, “Direct-write laser micromachining and universal surface modification of PMMA for device development,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.99(1), 186–196 (2004). [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Microfabrication of 3D hollow structures embedded in glass by femtosecond laser for lab-on-a-chip applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci.248(1-4), 172–176 (2005). [CrossRef]
  10. S. Rajesh and Y. Bellouard, “Towards fast femtosecond laser micromachining of fused silica: The effect of deposited energy,” Opt. Express18(20), 21490–21497 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Crespi, Y. Gu, B. Ngamsom, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, C. Dongre, M. Pollnau, R. Ramponi, H. H. van den Vlekkert, P. Watts, G. Cerullo, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional Mach-Zehnder interferometer in a microfluidic chip for spatially-resolved label-free detection,” Lab Chip10(9), 1167–1173 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, H. Kawano, I. S. Ishikawa, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Nano-aquarium for dynamic observation of living cells fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing of photostructurable glass,” Biomed. Microdevices10(3), 403–410 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Y. Hanada, K. Sugioka, I. Shihira-Ishikawa, H. Kawano, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “3D microfluidic chips with integrated functional microelements fabricated by a femtosecond laser for studying the gliding mechanism of cyanobacteria,” Lab Chip11(12), 2109–2115 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Microfluidic laser embedded in glass by three-dimensional femtosecond laser microprocessing,” Opt. Lett.29(17), 2007–2009 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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