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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 4 — Feb. 13, 2012
  • pp: 4369–4375
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2x2 MIMO-OFDM Gigabit fiber-wireless access system based on polarization division multiplexed WDM-PON

Lei Deng, Xiaodan Pang, Ying Zhao, M. B. Othman, Jesper Bevensee Jensen, Darko Zibar, Xianbin Yu, Deming Liu, and Idelfonso Tafur Monroy  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 4, pp. 4369-4375 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.004369


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Abstract

We propose a spectral efficient radio over wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) system by combining optical polarization division multiplexing (PDM) and wireless multiple input multiple output (MIMO) spatial multiplexing techniques. In our experiment, a training-based zero forcing (ZF) channel estimation algorithm is designed to compensate the polarization rotation and wireless multipath fading. A 797 Mb/s net data rate QPSK-OFDM signal with error free (<1 × 10−5) performance and a 1.59 Gb/s net data rate 16QAM-OFDM signal with BER performance of 1.2 × 10−2 are achieved after transmission of 22.8 km single mode fiber followed by 3 m and 1 m air distances, respectively.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

Recently, known as ‘home base station’, femtocell network has been attracting more and more attentions due to its improved indoor coverage, increased capacity and reliable communication compared to macrocell network [1

1. J. Zhang and G. de la Roche, Femtocells: Technologies and Deployment (Wiley, 2010), Chaps. 2, 4, 9.

]. Radio-over-fiber (RoF) is considered as a promising candidate technology for femtocell networks because it allows for centralization of signal processing and network management, resulting in simple remote antenna unit (RAU) design and therefore low-cost implementation [2

2. M. Sauer, A. Kobyakov, and J. George, “Radio over fiber for picocellular network architectures,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(11), 3301–3320 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. However, to meet the ever growing demand for high capacity wireless services like video-on-demand and video conferencing, it is highly desirable to develop new technologies for in-building femtocell networks. Wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) technology is therefore widely adopted to increase the capacity of RoF networks and the number of base stations serviced by a single central station [3

3. K. Tsukamoto, T. Nishiumi, T. Yamagami, T. Higashino, S. Komaki, R. Kubo, T. Taniguchi, J.-I. Kani, N. Yoshimoto, H. Kimura, and K. Iwatsuki, “Convergence of WDM access and ubiquitous antenna architecture for broadband wireless services,” PIERS Online 6(4), 385–389 (2010). [CrossRef]

], and the schematic scenario of in-home and in-building femtocell network is shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The schematic scenario of in-home and in-building femtocell network system.
. Moreover, to further increase the capacity per-wavelength of the femtocell network system, high spectral efficiency modulation and transmission technologies are highly desired. For instance, optical polarization division multiplexing (PDM) technology [4

4. S. Chen, Q. Yang, Y. Ma, and W. Shieh, “Real-time multi-gigabit receiver for coherent optical MIMO-OFDM signals,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(16), 3699–3704 (2009). [CrossRef]

, 5

5. A. Agmon, B. Schrenk, J. Prat, and M. Nazarathy, “Polarization beamforming PON doubling bidirectional throughput,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(17), 2579–2585 (2010). [CrossRef]

] is regarded as an appealing solution by transmitting data in two orthogonal polarization modes within the same spectral range. Likewise, wireless multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology is also a promising technology to exploit the spatial dimension by applying multiple antennas at both the transmitter and receiver sides [6

6. G. L. Stuber, J. R. Barry, S. W. Mclaughlin, Y. Li, M. A. Ingram, and T. G. Pratt, “Broadband MIMO-OFDM wireless communications,” Proc. IEEE 92(2), 271–294 (2004). [CrossRef]

].

Due to the inherent high chromatic dispersion tolerance in optical fibers and robustness against frequency selective fading or narrowband interference in wireless channels, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) has been widely used in current RoF systems [7

7. W. Shieh and I. Djordjevic, OFDM for Optical Communications (Springer, 2009), Chap. 2.

]. Therefore, a RoF system combining OFDM with PDM and MIMO techniques can fulfill requirements of robustness, high flexibility and high spectral efficiency for providing broadband services in femtocell network. In addition, for multi-carrier systems like OFDM, a large computational complexity will be introduced by using the classical MIMO channel estimation method. In contrast, training-based channel estimation has the relatively low computational complexity at the receiver and draws more interests [8

8. S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. Schenk, and H. Tanaka, “Long-haul transmission of 16x52.5 Gbits/s polarization-division multiplexed OFDM enabled by MIMO processing (Invited),” J. Opt. Netw. 7(2), 173–182 (2008). [CrossRef]

].

In this paper, we demonstrate a 2x2 MIMO-OFDM radio over WDM-PON system based on polarization division multiplexing and wireless MIMO techniques. The MIMO-OFDM training-based zero forcing (ZF) channel estimation algorithm is designed to compensate the optical polarization rotation and the wireless multipath fading. Furthermore, up to 1.59 Gb/s 16-QAM MIMO-OFDM fiber-wireless transmission over 1 m air distance and 22.8 km single mode fiber (SMF) are achieved for broadband wireless services around Gb/s. We also demonstrate the scalability of the proposed system under different signal to noise ratio (SNR), cross channel interference and wireless coverage by changing the wireless distance in our experiment.

2. Training-based PDM-MIMO-OFDM composite channel estimation

Channel estimation is important for signal demodulation in MIMO system, in particular when a large number of subcarriers and advanced multiplexing technique are employed. In our PDM MIMO-OFDM system, the two orthogonal polarization modes which carry independent OFDM signal will experience a slow polarization rotation, which can be described as:
[rxry]=HF[cosθsinθsinθcosθ][txty],
(1)
where tx and rx are respectively transmitted and received X branch optical signals, so as ty and ry for Y branch signals. The symbol ө is the rotational angle. HF represents the combined effect of fiber chromatic dispersion and polarization dependent loss. In our transmitter, after two photodetectors, two antennas are used to radiate two radio signals, respectively. The wireless channel response could be represented by a matrix HMIMO. Notice that, the polarization rotation in fiber does not change so fast compared to the wireless channel, so it is not difficult to estimate the channel. The hybrid optical and wireless response for our MIMO-OFDM signal can be represented as Eq. (2), where nx and ny are the random noises, and hxx, hxy, hyx and hyy represent the elements in the combined channel response matrix.

[rxry]=HMIMOHF[cosθsinθsinθcosθ][txty]+[nxny]=[hxxhxyhyxhyy][txty]+[nxny].
(2)

In order to estimate this composite channel transfer matrix at the receiver, we transmit a pair of time-interleaved training sequences TX = [T1, 0]T, TY = [0, T2]T in the two tributaries. The received training sequences in two consecutive training durations can be expressed as:
[RTx1RTx2RTy1RTy2]=[hxxhxyhyxhyy][T100T2]+[nx1nx2ny1ny2],
(3)
where RTx1 and RTx2 stand for the received training symbol from X branch at the first and second training duration, respectively, so do RTy1 and RTy2 for the Y branch. And nx1, nx2, ny1 and ny2 are the random noises. The estimated channel transfer matrix then can be easily calculated as Eq. (4). From Eq. (4) we see that even with perfect channel estimation an error term will occur due to the random noises. More advanced algorithm such as minimum mean-squared-error (MMSE) algorithm could be used to improve the performance. However, in our experiment, zero forcing (ZF) instead of MMSE algorithm is used for channel estimation due to its lower computational complexity [4

4. S. Chen, Q. Yang, Y. Ma, and W. Shieh, “Real-time multi-gigabit receiver for coherent optical MIMO-OFDM signals,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(16), 3699–3704 (2009). [CrossRef]

].

[h˜xxh˜xyh˜yxh˜yy]=[RTx1T1RTx2T2RTy1T1RTy2T2]=[hxxhxyhyxhyy]+[nx1T1nx2T2ny1T1ny2T2].
(4)

3. Experimental setup

The experimental setup for a single wavelength channel of our proposed MIMO-OFDM signal over PDM WDM-PON system is shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental setup for the proposed PDM MIMO-OFDM system.
, for a demonstration purpose. At the central office (CO), a 1.25 GSa/s arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) is performed to generate two-channel baseband real-valued OFDM signals. For each channel, a data stream with a pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS) length of 215-1 is mapped onto 129 subcarriers, of which 64 subcarriers carry real QPSK/16-QAM data and one is unfilled DC subcarrier. The remaining 64 subcarriers are the complex conjugate of the aforementioned 64 subcarriers to enforce Hermitian symmetry in the input facet of 256-point inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT). The cyclic prefix is 1/10 of the IFFT length resulting in an OFDM symbol size of 281. To facilitate time synchronization and MIMO channel estimation, 3 training symbols are inserted at the beginning of each OFDM frame that contains 7 data symbols. Each channel has a net data rate of 398.5 Mb/s (1.25 GSa/s × 2 × 64/281 × 7/10) for QPSK case and 797.1 Mb/s for 16QAM case with a bandwidth of 629.8 MHz (1.25 GSa/s × 129/256). For simplicity, one frame delay is applied in one channel to decorrelate the two channel signals in the AWG. These two-channel OFDM signals are then separately up-converted to 5.65 GHz. The two RF OFDM signals are used to modulate a 100 kHz-linewidth continuous-wave (CW) external cavity laser (ECL, λ1 = 1550 nm) at two Mach-Zehnder modulators (MZMs), respectively. A pair of polarization controllers (PCs), namely PCX1 and PCY1 are used to optimize the response of the MZMs. PCX2 and PCY2 are inserted at the MZMs outputs to align the optical OFDM signal in each channel to the X and Y axis of the following polarization beam combiner (PBC), which then combines the two orthogonal polarizations. Subsquently PCF is introduced to roughly adjust the polarization of optical signal in the trunk fiber and set the variable power splitting ratio for equal SNR at each transmitter antenna. An erbium-doped fiber amplifer (EDFA) and an optical filter with 0.8 nm bandwidth are used to boost the optical OFDM signal and filter out the outband noise. The optical spectrum and the poincaré sphere of the combined optical signal are shown in the insets of Fig. 2. After excluding the overhead from cyclic prefix and training sequences, the output signal from the PBC is at a net data rate of 797 Mb/s with a spectral efficiency of 1.26 bits/s/Hz for QPSK case and 1.59 Gb/s with a spectral efficiency of 2.52 bits/s/Hz for 16-QAM case.

After 22.8 km of standard single mode fiber (SSMF) propagation, the optical OFDM signal is divided back to X and Y polarizations by a polarization beam splitter (PBS) at the femtocell access point (FAP). By using two 10 GHz bandwidth photodiode (PD), these two tributaries are converted into the RF signals, which are then fed into the FAP antennas after two RF amplifiers with 20 dB gain. After air transmission, these two wireless signals are detected by two receiver antennas and amplified by two 20 dB gain low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) at the mobile station (MS) receiver. Subsequently, a 40 GSa/s digital sampling oscilloscope (DSO) with 13 GHz analog bandwidth is used to capture these two RF signals. Offline signal demodulation is then performed by a digital signal processing (DSP)-based receiver consisting of frequency and phase recovery, frequency down-conversion, training-based PDM MIMO-OFDM channel estimation, OFDM demodulation modules, data mapping and bit error rate (BER) tester. In our experiment, 80896 bits are calculated for BER test.

4. Experimental results and discussions

Figure 3
Fig. 3 Measured BER performance of Pol-x and Pol-y singal in optical B2B case and 22.8 km SMF fiber transmission case.
shows the measured BER in terms of the receiver optical power into the PD in both optical back to back (OB2B) and 22.8 km SMF transmission cases without wireless link. In optical B2B case, we can observe that the receiver sensitivity at the forward-error correction (FEC) limit (BER of 2 × 10−3) is achieved at −17.2 dBm and −14.3 dBm for the X polarization OFDM signal (Pol-x) and Y polarization OFDM signal (Pol-y), respectively. This 2.9 dB power penalty between Pol-x and Pol-y could be attributed to the different performances of optical and electrical components, particularly the responsivity of the two photodiodes used in these two branches. Negligible power penalty (around 0.5 dB) is induced after 22.8 km SMF transmission by using training-based MIMO OFDM channel estimation algorithm. The received constellations of Pol-x and Pol-y signal after 22.8 km SMF transmission are shown in the insets of Fig. 3 as well.

Figure 4
Fig. 4 Measured BER performance of PDM MIMO-OFDM signal wireless transmission with 22.8 km SMF fiber transmission.
presents the wireless transmission BER performance of QPSK-OFDM PDM-MIMO signal after 22.8 km SMF transmission. The separation spacing between the elements of the FAP and MS antenna arrays is fixed at 1 m in the experiment. The received sensitivity at the FEC limit is obtained at −15.2 dBm, −13.4 dBm and −12.5 dBm for the Pol-x signal over air transmission of 1 m, 2 m and 3 m, respectively. The higher required optical power at the FEC limit as air distance increases can be attributed to the increasing cross interference, severer multipath effect and lower SNR. We can also note that larger power penalty is induced between Pol-x and Pol-y for longer air distance. This could be explained by the misalignment between the transmitter and receiver antennas. The received constellations of Pol-x and Pol-y with 3 m air distance and 22.8 km SMF transmission are indicated in the insets of Fig. 4.

We also test the performance of 1.59 Gb/s 16-QAM MIMO-OFDM signal over 1 m air distance and 22.8 km SMF transmission, as depicted in Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured BER performance of 797 Mb/s QPSK MIMO-OFDM and 1.59 Gb/s 16-QAM MIMO-OFDM signal over 1 m air distance and 22.8 km SMF transmission.
. We can see that the receiver sensitivity of 16-QAM MIMO-OFDM Pol-x signal to reach the FEC limit is −10.7 dBm. 4.5 dB power penalty compared to QPSK MIMO-OFDM Pol-x wireless transmission can be explained that the constellations states of higher-level modulation format are closer than QPSK, resulting in higher SNR requirement for the same performance. The received constellations of 16-QAM MIMO-OFDM signal are shown in the insets of Fig. 5. The constellation symbols at the higher amplitude are dispersed widely compared to the center ones. This is expected, since OFDM signal is sensitive to the nonlinearity of fiber and wireless transmission due to its high peak-to-average-power-ratio (PAPR). However, we can get BER of 5.01 × 10−4 and 1.28 × 10−2 for 16-QAM MIMO-OFDM Pol-x and Pol-y signal after 1 m air distance and 22.8 km SMF transmission, respectively.

5. Conclusion

We have presented a spectral efficient and WDM-PON compatible MIMO-OFDM access system by combining optical polarization division multiplexing (PDM) and wireless multiple input multiple output (MIMO) spatial multiplexing techniques. Moreover, a training-based zero forcing (ZF) scheme is digitally developed to estimate the polarization multiplexed MIMO transmission channel. A 797 Mb/s net data rate QPSK-OFDM signal and a 1.59 Gb/s net data rate 16 QAM-OFDM signal at 5.65 GHz RF carrier frequency are transmitted over 3 m and 1 m air distance with 22.8 km single mode fiber, respectively. This system has potential application in future in-door femtocell network supporting Gb/s broadband wireless service.

Acknowledgments

We would like to acknowledge the support of the Chinese Scholarship Council (CSC), National “863” Program of China (No. 2009AA01A347) and National Science and Technology Major Project of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (No. 2010ZX03007-002-02).

References and links

1.

J. Zhang and G. de la Roche, Femtocells: Technologies and Deployment (Wiley, 2010), Chaps. 2, 4, 9.

2.

M. Sauer, A. Kobyakov, and J. George, “Radio over fiber for picocellular network architectures,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(11), 3301–3320 (2007). [CrossRef]

3.

K. Tsukamoto, T. Nishiumi, T. Yamagami, T. Higashino, S. Komaki, R. Kubo, T. Taniguchi, J.-I. Kani, N. Yoshimoto, H. Kimura, and K. Iwatsuki, “Convergence of WDM access and ubiquitous antenna architecture for broadband wireless services,” PIERS Online 6(4), 385–389 (2010). [CrossRef]

4.

S. Chen, Q. Yang, Y. Ma, and W. Shieh, “Real-time multi-gigabit receiver for coherent optical MIMO-OFDM signals,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(16), 3699–3704 (2009). [CrossRef]

5.

A. Agmon, B. Schrenk, J. Prat, and M. Nazarathy, “Polarization beamforming PON doubling bidirectional throughput,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(17), 2579–2585 (2010). [CrossRef]

6.

G. L. Stuber, J. R. Barry, S. W. Mclaughlin, Y. Li, M. A. Ingram, and T. G. Pratt, “Broadband MIMO-OFDM wireless communications,” Proc. IEEE 92(2), 271–294 (2004). [CrossRef]

7.

W. Shieh and I. Djordjevic, OFDM for Optical Communications (Springer, 2009), Chap. 2.

8.

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. Schenk, and H. Tanaka, “Long-haul transmission of 16x52.5 Gbits/s polarization-division multiplexed OFDM enabled by MIMO processing (Invited),” J. Opt. Netw. 7(2), 173–182 (2008). [CrossRef]

9.

A. Kobyakov, M. Sauer, A. Ng’oma, and J. H. Winters, “Effect of optical loss and antenna separation in 2x2 MIMO fiber-radio systems,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 58(1), 187–194 (2010). [CrossRef]

10.

M. B. Othman, L. Deng, X. Pang, J. Caminos, W. Kozuch, K. Prince, J. B. Jensen, and I. T. Monroy, “Directly-modulated VCSELs for 2x2 MIMO-OFDM radio over fiber in WDM-PON,” in 37th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2011 (2011), Paper We.10.P1.119.

11.

M. B. Othman, L. Deng, X. Pang, J. Caminos, W. Kozuch, K. Prince, X. Yu, J. B. Jensen, and I. T. Monroy, “MIMO-OFDM WDM PON with DM-VCSEL for femtocells application,” Opt. Express 19(26), B537–B542 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

S.-H. Fan, H.-C. Chien, A. Chowdhury, C. Liu, W. Jian, Y.-T. Hsueh, and G.-K. Chang, “A novel radio-over-fiber system using the xy-MIMO wireless technique for enhanced radio spectral efficiency,” in 36th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2010 (2010), Paper Th.9.B.1.

13.

X. Liu and F. Buchali, “Intra-symbol frequency-domain averaging based channel estimation for coherent optical OFDM,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21944–21957 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, B. Zhu, P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, and D. W. Peckham, “448-Gb/s reduced-guard-interval CO-OFDM transmission over 2000km of ultra-large-area fiber and five 80-GHz-Grid ROADMs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(4), 483–490 (2011). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.0060) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics and optical communications
(060.2360) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics links and subsystems
(060.5625) Fiber optics and optical communications : Radio frequency photonics

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: January 4, 2012
Revised Manuscript: January 30, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: January 30, 2012
Published: February 7, 2012

Citation
Lei Deng, Xiaodan Pang, Ying Zhao, M. B. Othman, Jesper Bevensee Jensen, Darko Zibar, Xianbin Yu, Deming Liu, and Idelfonso Tafur Monroy, "2x2 MIMO-OFDM Gigabit fiber-wireless access system based on polarization division multiplexed WDM-PON," Opt. Express 20, 4369-4375 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-4-4369


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References

  1. J. Zhang and G. de la Roche, Femtocells: Technologies and Deployment (Wiley, 2010), Chaps. 2, 4, 9.
  2. M. Sauer, A. Kobyakov, and J. George, “Radio over fiber for picocellular network architectures,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(11), 3301–3320 (2007). [CrossRef]
  3. K. Tsukamoto, T. Nishiumi, T. Yamagami, T. Higashino, S. Komaki, R. Kubo, T. Taniguchi, J.-I. Kani, N. Yoshimoto, H. Kimura, and K. Iwatsuki, “Convergence of WDM access and ubiquitous antenna architecture for broadband wireless services,” PIERS Online6(4), 385–389 (2010). [CrossRef]
  4. S. Chen, Q. Yang, Y. Ma, and W. Shieh, “Real-time multi-gigabit receiver for coherent optical MIMO-OFDM signals,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(16), 3699–3704 (2009). [CrossRef]
  5. A. Agmon, B. Schrenk, J. Prat, and M. Nazarathy, “Polarization beamforming PON doubling bidirectional throughput,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(17), 2579–2585 (2010). [CrossRef]
  6. G. L. Stuber, J. R. Barry, S. W. Mclaughlin, Y. Li, M. A. Ingram, and T. G. Pratt, “Broadband MIMO-OFDM wireless communications,” Proc. IEEE92(2), 271–294 (2004). [CrossRef]
  7. W. Shieh and I. Djordjevic, OFDM for Optical Communications (Springer, 2009), Chap. 2.
  8. S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. Schenk, and H. Tanaka, “Long-haul transmission of 16x52.5 Gbits/s polarization-division multiplexed OFDM enabled by MIMO processing (Invited),” J. Opt. Netw.7(2), 173–182 (2008). [CrossRef]
  9. A. Kobyakov, M. Sauer, A. Ng’oma, and J. H. Winters, “Effect of optical loss and antenna separation in 2x2 MIMO fiber-radio systems,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag.58(1), 187–194 (2010). [CrossRef]
  10. M. B. Othman, L. Deng, X. Pang, J. Caminos, W. Kozuch, K. Prince, J. B. Jensen, and I. T. Monroy, “Directly-modulated VCSELs for 2x2 MIMO-OFDM radio over fiber in WDM-PON,” in 37th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2011 (2011), Paper We.10.P1.119.
  11. M. B. Othman, L. Deng, X. Pang, J. Caminos, W. Kozuch, K. Prince, X. Yu, J. B. Jensen, and I. T. Monroy, “MIMO-OFDM WDM PON with DM-VCSEL for femtocells application,” Opt. Express19(26), B537–B542 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S.-H. Fan, H.-C. Chien, A. Chowdhury, C. Liu, W. Jian, Y.-T. Hsueh, and G.-K. Chang, “A novel radio-over-fiber system using the xy-MIMO wireless technique for enhanced radio spectral efficiency,” in 36th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2010 (2010), Paper Th.9.B.1.
  13. X. Liu and F. Buchali, “Intra-symbol frequency-domain averaging based channel estimation for coherent optical OFDM,” Opt. Express16(26), 21944–21957 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, B. Zhu, P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, and D. W. Peckham, “448-Gb/s reduced-guard-interval CO-OFDM transmission over 2000km of ultra-large-area fiber and five 80-GHz-Grid ROADMs,” J. Lightwave Technol.29(4), 483–490 (2011). [CrossRef]

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