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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 5 — Feb. 27, 2012
  • pp: 5052–5060
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Detection of deep-subwavelength dielectric layers at terahertz frequencies using semiconductor plasmonic resonators

Audrey Berrier, Pablo Albella, M. Ameen Poyli, Ronald Ulbricht, Mischa Bonn, Javier Aizpurua, and Jaime Gómez Rivas  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 5, pp. 5052-5060 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.005052


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Abstract

Plasmonic bowtie antennas made of doped silicon can operate as plasmonic resonators at terahertz (THz) frequencies and provide large field enhancement close to their gap. We demonstrate both experimentally and theoretically that the field confinement close to the surface of the antenna enables the detection of ultrathin (100 nm) inorganic films, about 3750 times thinner than the free space wavelength. Based on model calculations, we conclude that the detection sensitivity and its variation with the thickness of the deposited layer are related to both the decay of the local THz field profile around the antenna and the local field enhancement in the gap of the bowtie antenna. This large field enhancement has the potential to improve the detection limits of plasmon-based biological and chemical sensors.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

Electromagnetic radiation in the terahertz (THz) regime has a widely recognized potential for sensing owing to its capability to couple to various low-energy resonances of matter, including rotational and vibrational motion of molecules, as well as charge carriers and quasi-particles, such as plasmons, in semiconductors [1

1. R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 543–586 (2011). [CrossRef]

,2

2. A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The ability to interrogate specific fingerprints of particular materials renders THz-based approaches promising for the detection and recognition of strategic substances such as metals, explosives, gases, organic or biological substances [3

3. B. M. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition with broadband THz spectroscopy,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1592–1604 (2007). [CrossRef]

,4

4. P. Haring Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Label-free probing of genes by time-domain terahertz sensing,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3815–3821 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, the wavelength of the THz radiation, e.g., 375 μm at 0.8 THz, makes the access to nanometric sensing volumes challenging. Conventional THz spectroscopy makes use of large amounts of matter (requiring flow cells of the order of 1 m for gas spectroscopy [5

5. H. Sun, Y. J. Ding, and I. B. Zotova, “THz spectroscopy by frequency-tuning monochromatic THz source: from single species to gas mixtures,” IEEE Sens. J. 10(3), 621–629 (2010). [CrossRef]

,6

6. N. Shimizu, K. Kikuchi, T. Ikari, K. Matsuyama, A. Wakatsuki, S. Kohjiro, and R. Fukasawa, “Absorption spectra of smoke emitted from heated nylon fabric measured with continuous-wave sub-terahertz spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032401 (2011). [CrossRef]

] and pellets of some mm for solids [3

3. B. M. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition with broadband THz spectroscopy,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1592–1604 (2007). [CrossRef]

]). The quest for finding mechanisms that enhance the signal of terahertz radiation in small volumes, hence reducing the amount of matter needed for THz spectroscopy, is therefore a natural drive in this field.

At THz frequencies however, the potential of resonant structures to improve sensing sensitivity has remained relatively unexplored. Conventionally, thick layers of substance are used for material characterization [14

14. K. Berdel, J. Gómez-Rivas, P. Haring Bolívar, P. de Maagt, and H. Kurz, “Temperature dependence of the permittivity and loss tangent of high-permittivity materials at terahertz frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1266–1271 (2005). [CrossRef]

], where waveguiding can be used to increase the THz radiation-matter interaction [15

15. M. Theuer, R. Beigang, and D. Grischkowsky, “Sensitivity increase for coating thickness determination using THz waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11456–11463 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The use of THz plasmonic structures for the detection of thin layers has recently been demonstrated [16

16. J. Saxler, J. Gómez-Rivas, C. Janke, H. P. M. Pellemans, P. Haring Bolívar, and H. Kurz, “Time-domain measurements of surface plasmon polaritons in the terahertz frequency range,” Phys. Rev. B 69(15), 155427 (2004). [CrossRef]

19

19. B. You, J.-Y. Lu, J.-H. Liou, C.-P. Yu, H.-Z. Chen, T. A. Liu, and J. L. Peng, “Subwavelength film sensing based on terahertz anti-resonant reflecting hollow waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19353–19360 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Organic films of 500 nm thick were detected using THz metamaterial structures [18

18. H. Tao, S. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261909 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. The detection of a polystyrene layer of thickness λ/1000 has been reported [17

17. T. H. Isaac, W. L. Barnes, and E. Hendry, “Determining the terahertz optical properties of subwavelength films using semiconductor surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241115 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. THz sensors with improved sensitivity capabilities despite very small sample volumes have potential applications in areas as diverse as environment monitoring, lab-on-chip for point-of-care monitoring and medical diagnosis.

Here, we show that bowtie antennas made of doped silicon operating as plasmonic resonators at THz frequencies are a versatile platform for thin film detection. Compared to metallic resonators, semiconductor-based structures are easily tunable [20

20. J. Gómez Rivas, M. Kuttge, H. Kurz, P. H. Bolívar, and J. A. Sanchez-Gil, “Low frequency active surface plasmon optics on semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 082106 (2006). [CrossRef]

22

22. V. Giannini, A. Berrier, S. A. Maier, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, and J. G. Rivas, “Scattering efficiency and near field enhancement of active semiconductor plasmonic antennas at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2797–2807 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and operate in a regime where the skin depth of the material is larger, i.e., the impedance is lower, and hence the coupling to surface plasmons is more pronounced. A structure such as a bowtie made of doped silicon provides large field confinement and enhancement in the region of its gap at THz frequencies [21

21. A. Berrier, R. Ulbricht, M. Bonn, and J. G. Rivas, “Ultrafast active control of localized surface plasmon resonances in silicon bowtie antennas,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23226–23235 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. When an inorganic thin film is deposited on top of the bowtie antenna, the area around the gap of the antenna thus provides an enhanced THz field that results in an enhanced interaction of the terahertz radiation with the deposited ultrathin inorganic films, allowing for THz spectroscopy in very small volumes. We experimentally demonstrate the in situ detection of films that are orders of magnitude thinner than the wavelength using doped silicon bowtie antennas. In particular, we show that semiconductor bowtie antennas operating at THz frequencies allow the sensing of thin inorganic films with a layer thickness as small as λ/3750. THz plasmonic antennas thus provide a platform for THz spectroscopy in much smaller volumes, for which the tested material quantity is reduced significantly.

2. Experimental

The structures presented here have been fabricated using conventional micro-fabrication techniques. Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers were implanted with arsenic atoms followed by an activation step at 1050°C, resulting in a carrier concentration of about (6 ± 3) × 1019cm−3. It has been shown [20

20. J. Gómez Rivas, M. Kuttge, H. Kurz, P. H. Bolívar, and J. A. Sanchez-Gil, “Low frequency active surface plasmon optics on semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 082106 (2006). [CrossRef]

,21

21. A. Berrier, R. Ulbricht, M. Bonn, and J. G. Rivas, “Ultrafast active control of localized surface plasmon resonances in silicon bowtie antennas,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23226–23235 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] that, owing to their increasing value of permittivity with carrier concentration, doped silicon is a suitable material for plasmonics at THz frequency. The SOI wafer was subsequently bonded to a quartz wafer by BCB (benzocyclobutene) bonding resulting in a BCB layer of a few microns between the Si and quartz substrates. The back silicon substrate and the silica buffer layer were removed by wet chemical etching using KOH and HF solutions, respectively. The final vertical structure consists of a quartz wafer acting as substrate, a BCB layer, and a 1.5 μm thick doped silicon layer. The bowtie structures were defined by conventional optical lithography, followed by reactive ion etching of the silicon layer using the photoresist as a mask and subsequent photoresist stripping. Similarly to [21

21. A. Berrier, R. Ulbricht, M. Bonn, and J. G. Rivas, “Ultrafast active control of localized surface plasmon resonances in silicon bowtie antennas,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23226–23235 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], the bowtie antennas are arranged in a non-periodic pattern in order to avoid any collective behavior due to periodicity. The SiO2 and TiO2 layers were subsequently deposited on the substrate that holds the patterned bowtie structures using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), which allows a conformal deposition around the antennas. Figure 1(a)
Fig. 1 a) Schematic drawing of a silicon bowtie antenna covered with a TiO2 conformal layer. The inset (i) shows an optical microscopy image of a fabricated silicon bowtie antenna, the inset (i) represents a schematic drawing of the vertical cross section in the middle of the bowtie antenna; b) Far-field extinction of a collection of bowtie antennas without coverage (black line), with a 100 nm TiO2 layer (red line) and with a 100 nm SiO2 layer (blue line); c) FDTD calculated extinction cross section (ECS) for an individual doped silicon antenna with a 200 nm layer of SiO2 (blue line) and TiO2 (red line) deposited on the antenna surface; d) FDTD calculated extinction cross section (ECS) for an individual doped silicon antenna with a 100 nm layer of SiO2 or TiO2.
shows a schematic drawing of the silicon bowtie obtained with use of this technique together with the deposited layer. Samples with oxide layer thicknesses between 100 nm and 2 μm were obtained following this procedure.

The terahertz response of the samples is experimentally characterized using a terahertz time domain spectrometer (THz-TDS) at room temperature. The set-up was purged with N2 gas to remove water vapor, which strongly absorbs THz radiation. The bowtie antennas were designed to resonate around 0.8 THz [21

21. A. Berrier, R. Ulbricht, M. Bonn, and J. G. Rivas, “Ultrafast active control of localized surface plasmon resonances in silicon bowtie antennas,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23226–23235 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Reference [21

21. A. Berrier, R. Ulbricht, M. Bonn, and J. G. Rivas, “Ultrafast active control of localized surface plasmon resonances in silicon bowtie antennas,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23226–23235 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] demonstrates the ultrafast activation of the plasmonic resonance of undoped silicon bowtie antennas by photogeneration of free carriers using an optical pulse. In this work, we use doped silicon to allow localized surface plasmons to be excited without the need of optical pumping. Experimentally, we define the extinction of the sample as 1-T, where T is the transmission through the sample normalized to the transmission through the bare substrate. Defined in this way, the extinction captures both effects of absorption and scattering. The extinction of the bowtie structure in the presence and absence of the oxide layer is shown in Fig. 1(b). The origin of the peak in extinction is attributed to the excitation of localized surface plasmon polaritons (LSPP) in the silicon bowtie structure. LSPPs are resonances due to the collective excitation of the free charge carriers in the material and depend both on material properties (e.g., charge carrier density and carrier mobility) and on the geometry of the structure [23

23. M. Pelton, J. Aizpurua, and G. Bryant, “Metal-nanoparticle plasmonics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2(3), 136–159 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. The measured extinction spectrum of the structures covered with a 100 nm SiO2 layer (red line) is shifted with respect to the non-covered structure (black line) indicating the ability of this method to detect 100 nm thick layers of a material with refractive index n~1.95 at 1 THz [24

24. E. D. Palik, Handbook of optical constants of solids, Elsevier (1998).

]. This corresponds to a thin film of thickness λ/3750. Furthermore, the magnitude of the resonance shift depends on the refractive index of the layer. We demonstrate this by depositing a 100 nm layer of a different material (TiO2) on a similar array of bowtie antennas (n~9 at 1 THz for TiO2 [24

24. E. D. Palik, Handbook of optical constants of solids, Elsevier (1998).

]). It is evident from Fig. 1(b) that the shift of the bowtie resonance is larger for TiO2 than for SiO2,, as expected from their respective values of the refractive indexes.

3. Comparison with simulations

We analyze now the spectral dependence on the layer thickness. Figure 2(a)
Fig. 2 a) Extinction, defined as (1-Transmission), of a collection of doped silicon bowtie antennas as a function of the thickness of the deposited SiO2 layer; b) FDTD calculated extinction cross section (ECS) of an individual doped silicon bowtie antenna covered with SiO2 layers of different thickness ; c) Shift of the resonance frequency for the same situation as in a) and b) as a function of the top layer thickness, as obtained from experiments (red circles) and from FDTD calculations (black squares); d) Sensitivity of the bowtie antenna expressed in frequency shift per nanometer of film thickness, estimated from the experimental (red circles) and calculated (black squares) shift of the resonance.
displays the experimental extinction spectra of the doped silicon bowtie structure covered by a SiO2 layer of varying thickness, ranging from 100 nm to 2 μm. As the thickness of the SiO2 layer increases, the resonance peak red-shifts and the magnitude of the extinction peak increases in accordance with the increase of the volume of the antenna. In the limit of an infinitely thick layer the peak shift is roughly of 0.4 THz. This red-shift can be qualitatively understood by dielectric screening of the elements of the bowtie antenna [23

23. M. Pelton, J. Aizpurua, and G. Bryant, “Metal-nanoparticle plasmonics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2(3), 136–159 (2008). [CrossRef]

] and is reproduced by FDTD simulations, as observed in Fig. 2(b). We note that due to under-etching during the fabrication process, the distance separating the two monomers of the bowtie antennas is relatively large (around 20 μm). The coupling between the two triangular structures that constitute the bowtie for this relatively large separation is weak. As a result, the response of the bowtie is similar to that of isolated triangular structures, i.e., an uncoupled system. Bowtie structures with shorter gap distances might provide even larger detection sensitivities. The case reported here could thus be considered as the lowest detection limit.

In order to quantify the sensitivity of the bowtie antennas to the SiO2 coverage, we have measured the frequency shift of the resonance as a function of the layer thickness (red circles) and compared it to the simulations (black squares), as shown in Fig. 2(c). The error bars on the experimental points cover the measurement uncertainties as well as the sample to sample fluctuations. We observe that the experimental resonant frequency shift does not increase linearly and tends to saturate for thicker layers. Even though the calculated resonance frequency shifts do not exhibit the saturation for exactly the same thickness as in the experiments, the qualitative behavior is reproduced fairly well. This behavior is due to the fact that the electromagnetic field is confined to the proximity of the plasmonic structure and decays over micron length scales from the interface. The sensitivity S of the technique towards the properties of the layer can be expressed as S=Δν/ΔntwhereΔνis the frequency shift of the resonance, Δn is the refractive index difference between air and the covering layer and the thickness of the covering layer. The sensitivity of the localized surface plasmon resonance of the bowtie antenna is plotted versus the layer thickness in Fig. 2(d). S is largest for the thinnest layers, owing to the field confinement near the surface of the structure. This behavior gives the indication that an eventual THz sensor based on silicon plasmonic antennas would perform particularly well in the range of thickness between 100 nm and 2000 nm. The detection of larger layer thickness is possible, even though the sensitivity to variations in the thickness is lower in this case. We note the ability of THz plasmonic antennas to detect layers with low optical thickness nt.This can be particularly interesting for the detection of organic and biological layers, which are usually characterized by low refractive indices.

4. Near-fields

5. Conclusion

We have shown that very thin inorganic films (3750 times thinner than the free space wavelength) can be detected with THz radiation when the films are deposited on top of semiconductor bowtie antennas. Thin films of SiO2 and TiO2 have been deposited with thicknesses varying from 100 nm to 2 μm. The detection is based on a red-shift of the localized plasmon resonance induced by the presence of the layer with respect to the pristine bowtie antenna. This red-shift is more pronounced when the optical thickness of the layer deposited increases, and for a given value of the refractive index, it saturates with increasing film thickness. The sensitivity to the thin film is directly related to the local electromagnetic field distribution in the proximity of the antenna. Good agreement between the experiments and the FDTD simulations is obtained for the resonance frequencies in all cases. As organic or biological constituents have similar optical properties to the films studied in this work, the demonstrated ability to detect very thin, low refractive index layers paves the way for improved biological sensing applications at THz frequencies. A promising application can be the interaction with cells and microorganisms owing to the size of THz hot spots. For other applications, a detection scheme for enhanced spectroscopy such as presented in this article could be applied for gas identification if a surface with plasmonic antennas is inserted in a flow cell with the gas to be identified. Gases with specific absorption lines will couple to the plasmonic resonance. For explosive detection, the deposit of small amounts of powder on the plasmonic antennas could allow detection of smaller amounts than conventional THz spectroscopy. This work demonstrates that it is possible to significantly reduce the sensing volume. The distribution of field enhancement around the bowtie antenna indicates that this sensing volume can be reduced even further when the material to detect is placed in the regions of large field enhancement (mainly the gap of the antenna), or if a reduced amount of antennas is used down to the limit of single antenna spectroscopy.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the European Community's 7th Framework Programme under grant agreement no FP7-224189 (ULTRA project, http://www2.teknik.uu.se/Ultratc) and is part of the research program of the “Stichting voor Fundamenteel Onderzoek der Materie (FOM)”, which is financially supported by the “Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)”. This work was also supported by the European FP7 project “Nanoantenna” (FP7-HEALTH-F5-2009-241818-NANOANTENNA).

References and links

1.

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 543–586 (2011). [CrossRef]

2.

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

B. M. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition with broadband THz spectroscopy,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1592–1604 (2007). [CrossRef]

4.

P. Haring Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Label-free probing of genes by time-domain terahertz sensing,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3815–3821 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

H. Sun, Y. J. Ding, and I. B. Zotova, “THz spectroscopy by frequency-tuning monochromatic THz source: from single species to gas mixtures,” IEEE Sens. J. 10(3), 621–629 (2010). [CrossRef]

6.

N. Shimizu, K. Kikuchi, T. Ikari, K. Matsuyama, A. Wakatsuki, S. Kohjiro, and R. Fukasawa, “Absorption spectra of smoke emitted from heated nylon fabric measured with continuous-wave sub-terahertz spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032401 (2011). [CrossRef]

7.

D. L. Jeanmaire and R. P. Van Duyne, “Surface raman spectroelectrochemistry: Part I. Heterocyclic, aromatic, and aliphatic amines adsorbed on the anodized silver electrode,” J. Electroanal. Chem. Interfacial Electrochem. 84(1), 1–20 (1977). [CrossRef]

8.

M. Moskovits, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: a brief retrospective,” J. Raman Spectros. 36(6-7), 485–496 (2005). [CrossRef]

9.

S. J. Lee, Z. Guan, H. Xu, and M. Moskovits, “Surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy and nanogeometry: the plasmonic origin of SERS,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(49), 17985–17988 (2007). [CrossRef]

10.

A. Hartstein, J. R. Kirtley, and J. C. Tsang, “Enhancement of the infrared absorption from molecular monolayers with thin metal overlayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45(3), 201–204 (1980). [CrossRef]

11.

E. Johnson and R. Aroca, “Surface-enhanced infrared spectroscopy of monolayers,” J. Phys. Chem. 99(23), 9325–9330 (1995). [CrossRef]

12.

A. Pucci, F. Neubrech, D. Weber, S. Hong, T. Toury, and M. Lamy de la Chapelle, “Surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy using gold nanoantennas,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 247(8), 2071–2074 (2010). [CrossRef]

13.

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157403 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

K. Berdel, J. Gómez-Rivas, P. Haring Bolívar, P. de Maagt, and H. Kurz, “Temperature dependence of the permittivity and loss tangent of high-permittivity materials at terahertz frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1266–1271 (2005). [CrossRef]

15.

M. Theuer, R. Beigang, and D. Grischkowsky, “Sensitivity increase for coating thickness determination using THz waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11456–11463 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

J. Saxler, J. Gómez-Rivas, C. Janke, H. P. M. Pellemans, P. Haring Bolívar, and H. Kurz, “Time-domain measurements of surface plasmon polaritons in the terahertz frequency range,” Phys. Rev. B 69(15), 155427 (2004). [CrossRef]

17.

T. H. Isaac, W. L. Barnes, and E. Hendry, “Determining the terahertz optical properties of subwavelength films using semiconductor surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241115 (2008). [CrossRef]

18.

H. Tao, S. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261909 (2010). [CrossRef]

19.

B. You, J.-Y. Lu, J.-H. Liou, C.-P. Yu, H.-Z. Chen, T. A. Liu, and J. L. Peng, “Subwavelength film sensing based on terahertz anti-resonant reflecting hollow waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19353–19360 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

J. Gómez Rivas, M. Kuttge, H. Kurz, P. H. Bolívar, and J. A. Sanchez-Gil, “Low frequency active surface plasmon optics on semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 082106 (2006). [CrossRef]

21.

A. Berrier, R. Ulbricht, M. Bonn, and J. G. Rivas, “Ultrafast active control of localized surface plasmon resonances in silicon bowtie antennas,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23226–23235 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

V. Giannini, A. Berrier, S. A. Maier, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, and J. G. Rivas, “Scattering efficiency and near field enhancement of active semiconductor plasmonic antennas at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2797–2807 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

M. Pelton, J. Aizpurua, and G. Bryant, “Metal-nanoparticle plasmonics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2(3), 136–159 (2008). [CrossRef]

24.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of optical constants of solids, Elsevier (1998).

25.

S. Adachi, Handbook on physical properties of semiconductors, Vol. 1 (Kluwer, 2004).

26.

F. Le, D. W. Brandl, Y. A. Urzhumov, H. Wang, J. Kundu, N. J. Halas, J. Aizpurua, and P. Nordlander, “Metallic nanoparticle arrays: a common substrate for both surface-enhanced Raman scattering and surface-enhanced infrared absorption,” ACS Nano 2(4), 707–718 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
(250.5403) Optoelectronics : Plasmonics
(300.6495) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, teraherz

ToC Category:
Optics at Surfaces

History
Original Manuscript: November 9, 2011
Revised Manuscript: January 12, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: January 25, 2012
Published: February 14, 2012

Virtual Issues
Vol. 7, Iss. 4 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Audrey Berrier, Pablo Albella, M. Ameen Poyli, Ronald Ulbricht, Mischa Bonn, Javier Aizpurua, and Jaime Gómez Rivas, "Detection of deep-subwavelength dielectric layers at terahertz frequencies using semiconductor plasmonic resonators," Opt. Express 20, 5052-5060 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-5-5052


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References

  1. R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys.83(2), 543–586 (2011). [CrossRef]
  2. A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett.8(11), 3766–3770 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. B. M. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition with broadband THz spectroscopy,” Proc. IEEE95(8), 1592–1604 (2007). [CrossRef]
  4. P. Haring Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Label-free probing of genes by time-domain terahertz sensing,” Phys. Med. Biol.47(21), 3815–3821 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Sun, Y. J. Ding, and I. B. Zotova, “THz spectroscopy by frequency-tuning monochromatic THz source: from single species to gas mixtures,” IEEE Sens. J.10(3), 621–629 (2010). [CrossRef]
  6. N. Shimizu, K. Kikuchi, T. Ikari, K. Matsuyama, A. Wakatsuki, S. Kohjiro, and R. Fukasawa, “Absorption spectra of smoke emitted from heated nylon fabric measured with continuous-wave sub-terahertz spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. Express4(3), 032401 (2011). [CrossRef]
  7. D. L. Jeanmaire and R. P. Van Duyne, “Surface raman spectroelectrochemistry: Part I. Heterocyclic, aromatic, and aliphatic amines adsorbed on the anodized silver electrode,” J. Electroanal. Chem. Interfacial Electrochem.84(1), 1–20 (1977). [CrossRef]
  8. M. Moskovits, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: a brief retrospective,” J. Raman Spectros.36(6-7), 485–496 (2005). [CrossRef]
  9. S. J. Lee, Z. Guan, H. Xu, and M. Moskovits, “Surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy and nanogeometry: the plasmonic origin of SERS,” J. Phys. Chem. C111(49), 17985–17988 (2007). [CrossRef]
  10. A. Hartstein, J. R. Kirtley, and J. C. Tsang, “Enhancement of the infrared absorption from molecular monolayers with thin metal overlayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.45(3), 201–204 (1980). [CrossRef]
  11. E. Johnson and R. Aroca, “Surface-enhanced infrared spectroscopy of monolayers,” J. Phys. Chem.99(23), 9325–9330 (1995). [CrossRef]
  12. A. Pucci, F. Neubrech, D. Weber, S. Hong, T. Toury, and M. Lamy de la Chapelle, “Surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy using gold nanoantennas,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.247(8), 2071–2074 (2010). [CrossRef]
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