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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 5 — Feb. 27, 2012
  • pp: 5281–5290
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Dispersion control in square lattice photonic crystal fiber using hollow ring defects

Jiyoung Park, Sejin Lee, Sungrae Lee, So Eun Kim, and Kyunghwan Oh  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 5, pp. 5281-5290 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.005281


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Abstract

We propose a new dispersion control scheme by introducing hollow ring defects having a central air hole and a GeO2-or F-doped silica ring with in a square lattice photonic crystal fiber. We confirmed the flexible dispersion controllability in the proposed structure in two aspects of dispersion managements: ultra-flattened near-zero dispersion in the 530nm-bandwidth over all communication bands and dispersion compensation in C, L, and U band with a high compensation ratio of 0.96~1.0 in reference to the standard single mode fiber. The proposed SLPCFs were also estimated to have an inherently low splice loss due to the index contrast between the doped-ring and silica that kept a good guidance even along with collapsed air holes, which cannot be achieved in conventional PCFs.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

Flexible dispersion control in optical fibers at a desired spectral range has been a major issue in high bit rate long-haul wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) optical communication systems [1

1. F. M. Madani and K. Kikuchi, “Design theory of long-distance WDM dispersion-managed transmission system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(8), 1326–1335 (1999). [CrossRef]

]. In recent years, several hundreds of Gbps based dense WDM (DWDM) transmission systems are being successfully introduced in the fields [2

2. M. Bass and E. W. V. Stryland, Fiber Optics Handbook: Fiber, Devices, and Systems for Optical Communications (McGraw-Hill, 2002), Chap. 13.

]. The intersymbol interference (ISI) between adjacent bits in the channel can occur by the linearly accumulated chromatic dispersion along the transmission fiber, which can significantly deteriorate the communication quality [2

2. M. Bass and E. W. V. Stryland, Fiber Optics Handbook: Fiber, Devices, and Systems for Optical Communications (McGraw-Hill, 2002), Chap. 13.

]. Chromatic dispersion management in optical fiber design is largely divided into three categories: non-zero dispersion shifted fiber (NZDSF), dispersion flattened fiber (DFF) and dispersion compensating fiber (DCF), which require specific waveguide designs different from standard single mode fiber (SSMF) [3

3. S. Yin, K. Chung, H. Liu, P. Kurtz, and K. Reichard, “A new design for non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber (NZ-DSF) with a large effective area over 100μm2 and low bending and splice loss,” Opt. Commun. 177(1-6), 225–232 (2000). [CrossRef]

5

5. L. Gruner-Nielsen, S. N. Knudsen, B. Edvold, T. Veng, D. Magnussen, C. C. Larsen, and H. Damsgaard, “Dispersion compensating fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 6(2), 164–180 (2000). [CrossRef]

].

In recent years, photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) has been intensively investigated to explore their potential in the chromatic dispersion control as an alternative to conventional solid core/cladding optical fibers [6

6. K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, T. Hasegawa, and E. Sasaoka, “Chromatic dispersion control in photonic crystal fibers: application to ultra-flattened dispersion,” Opt. Express 11(8), 843–852 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11

11. F. Gérôme, J.-L. Auguste, and J.-M. Blondy, “Design of dispersion-compensating fibers based on a dual-concentric-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 29(23), 2725–2727 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Due to their unique holey cladding structures, PCFs enabled an exquisite dispersion control by varying structural parameters such as the air hole diameter d, the hole-to-hole pitch Λ, and symmetric arrangements of air holes. In pure silica PCFs, the local refractive index can be effectively controlled by locally varying the air hole diameter such that a layer of air holes with a smaller or larger diameter can serve as a higher refractive index pedestal or a lower refractive index trench, respectively. Flattened near-zero dispersion over a broad spectral range was recently reported in a PCF using a similar technique with five concentric air-hole layers with different diameters in the hexagonal arrangement [6

6. K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, T. Hasegawa, and E. Sasaoka, “Chromatic dispersion control in photonic crystal fibers: application to ultra-flattened dispersion,” Opt. Express 11(8), 843–852 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Despite notable dispersion characteristics in prior theoretical predictions, such PCFs have not been successfully fabricated due to their strict requirements meticulous control and maintenance of the hole geometry with a very low tolerance.

Recently the authors and other researchers have proposed a new method to control the guiding properties of hexagonal PCF by introducing hollow ring defects (HRDs) [12

12. S. Kim, Y. Jung, K. Oh, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, and J. Kirchhof, “Defect and lattice structure for air-silica index-guiding holey fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 164–166 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14

14. T. Grujic, B. T. Kuhlmey, A. Argyros, S. Coen, and C. M. de Sterke, “Solid-core fiber with ultra-wide bandwidth transmission window due to inhibited coupling,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25556–25566 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. These HRDs were adopted from the hollow optical fiber (HOF) structure that consists of a central air hole, a high index ring core, and a silica cladding [15

15. K. Oh, S. Choi, Y. Jung, and J. W. Lee, “Novel hollow optical fibers and their applications in photonic devices for optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(2), 524–532 (2005). [CrossRef]

, 16

16. S. Lee, J. Park, Y. Jeong, H. Jung, and K. Oh, “Guided wave analysis of hollow optical fiber for mode coupling device applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(22), 4919–4926 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. In this paper, we further explore the potential of HRDs in a square lattice photonic crystal fiber (SLPCF) to provide a new method to flexibly control the chromatic dispersion characteristics (Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic cross-section of the proposed SLPCF along with its geometrical parameters: air-hole diameter d and its pitch Λ. (b) Enlarged view of GeO2-doped silica high-index hollow ring defect (HRD) on the top and F-doped silica low-index HRD with the relative index difference Δring and the ring thickness tring. (c) Commercially available silica tube with a square hole [17]. (d) Schematic diagram of modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) process for GeO2- or F-doped silica ring tube, which is the preform for HRDs in (b).
). By adjusting the refractive index of its ring, which would be maintained far more robustly than adjusting the air hole diameter during the high temperature fabrication processes, HRD can significantly relieve the stringent requirements in the prior PCFs with various air hole geometries. Note that HRDs can be routinely fabricated by conventional modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD, Fig. 1(d)), along with the well-established stack and draw process [17

17. VitroCom, Square Tubing in Borosilicate and Clear Fused Quartz glasses, http://www.vitrocom.com/categories/view/25/Square_Tubing

]. Moreover, SLPCFs recently showed significant design advantages: the larger number of air holes per a hole-layer to improve the confinement loss [18

18. A. Bouk, A. Cucinotta, F. Poli, and S. Selleri, “Dispersion properties of square-lattice photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 12(5), 941–946 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and commercialized square hole silica tube (Fig. 1(c)) to ease the stack-and-draw process during fabrication.

The proposed structure is schematically shown in Fig. 1(a), which is composed of a central silica defect and HRDs within the innermost three layers, and three more air-hole layers outside the HRD structures. In contrast to prior PCFs requiring meticulous hole-diameter control in every layer, the proposed structure has the same hole diameter d and hole-to-hole pitch Λ over the entire lattice as shown in Fig. 1(a), which can significantly enhance fiber fabrication capability. The local refractive index of SLPCF was efficiently controlled by layers of HRDs by individually doping GeO2 or F in the ring of HRD to increase or decrease its refractive index, respectively as shown in Fig. 1(b). These GeO2/F-doped HRDs can serve as an efficient index modifying element in the SLPCF, providing a higher tolerance against structural parameter variations.

2. Structural parameters in the proposed SLPCF with GeO2/F-doped HRDs

In addition to conventional PCF structural parameters such as hole diameter d and hole-to-hole pitch Λ, the proposed fiber has HRD parameters: the relative index difference between the GeO2/F-doped ring and silica, Δring, and the ring thickness tring. Here Δring of the doped ring in reference to the pure silica glass is defined as Δring=(ndopednSiO2)/nSiO2×100 in the unit of %, where ndoped and nSiO2 are the refractive index of the doped ring and pure silica glass respectively. The Sellmeier equation for the refractive index of the pure silica glass [20

20. I. H. Malitson, “Interspecimen comparison of the refractive index of fused silica,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55(10), 1205–1209 (1965). [CrossRef]

] was used in the following calculations to take the material dispersion into account. The range of Δring was from −2.0 to 2.0%, which can be readily obtainable by adjusting the mole fraction of dopants, for example, GeO2-doped silica glass for the positive value and F-doped silica for the negative value [21

21. J. W. Fleming, “Dispersion in GeO2-SiO2 glasses,” Appl. Opt. 23(24), 4486–4493 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 22

22. J. W. Fleming and D. L. Wood, “Refractive index dispersion and related properties in fluorine doped silica,” Appl. Opt. 22(19), 3102–3104 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. As shown in Fig. 1(a), each HRD layer can have different Δring, and we will use a notation ‘ΔLi’ for the ith layer in the following discussions. The proposed SLPCF has six air-hole layers in total, three layers with HRDs and three without HRDs.

3. Numerical analysis and results

3.1 Numerical analysis methodology and investigated optical properties

To analyze optical properties, we use the widely accepted numerical analysis method, the full-vectorial finite element method (FEM) [16

16. S. Lee, J. Park, Y. Jeong, H. Jung, and K. Oh, “Guided wave analysis of hollow optical fiber for mode coupling device applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(22), 4919–4926 (2009). [CrossRef]

] which provides a well-proven reliability. Using FEM with anisotropic perfectly matched layer (PML) assuming the absorbing boundary condition [6

6. K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, T. Hasegawa, and E. Sasaoka, “Chromatic dispersion control in photonic crystal fibers: application to ultra-flattened dispersion,” Opt. Express 11(8), 843–852 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], the complex effective indices neff are achieved from below eigenvalue equation for magnetic field, H(x,y,z,t)=H(x,y)exp[i(ωtβz)], propagating along z direction,.

×(n2(ω)×H)k02H=0
(1)

Here ω is the angular frequency, β is propagating constant, and k0=2π/λis the free-space wave number.

The chromatic dispersion D(λ) is obtained from the real part of neff in the unit of ps/nm∙km as below, where λ is the wavelength and c is the speed of light in vacuum [6

6. K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, T. Hasegawa, and E. Sasaoka, “Chromatic dispersion control in photonic crystal fibers: application to ultra-flattened dispersion,” Opt. Express 11(8), 843–852 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9

9. F. Begum, Y. Namihira, S. M. A. Razzak, S. F. Kaijage, N. H. Hai, K. Miyagi, H. Higa, and N. Zou, “Flattened chromatic dispersion in square photonic crystal fibers with low confinement losses,” Opt. Rev. 16(2), 54–58 (2009). [CrossRef]

, 23

23. Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, J. Ju, and H. L. Ho, “Loss analysis of single-mode fiber/photonic-crystal fiber splice,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 40(5), 378–380 (2004). [CrossRef]

].

D(λ)=λc2Re[neff(λ)]λ2
(2)

The effective mode area Aeff which is calculated from the transverse electric field of the guided mode Et, in the unit of μm2 as in Eq. (3) [6

6. K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, T. Hasegawa, and E. Sasaoka, “Chromatic dispersion control in photonic crystal fibers: application to ultra-flattened dispersion,” Opt. Express 11(8), 843–852 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 8

8. F. Begum, Y. Namihira, T. Kinjo, and S. Kaijage, “Supercontinuum generation in square photonic crystal fiber with nearly zero ultra-flattened chromatic dispersion and fabrication tolerance analysis,” Opt. Commun. 284(4), 965–970 (2011). [CrossRef]

, 9

9. F. Begum, Y. Namihira, S. M. A. Razzak, S. F. Kaijage, N. H. Hai, K. Miyagi, H. Higa, and N. Zou, “Flattened chromatic dispersion in square photonic crystal fibers with low confinement losses,” Opt. Rev. 16(2), 54–58 (2009). [CrossRef]

]:

Aeff=(|Et|2dxdy)2|Et|4dxdy.
(3)

For practical purposes, the designed SLPCFs are supposed to be spliced to SSMF, which causes the splice loss Lsplice that can be estimated by evaluating mode field overlap between two spliced fibers as below [24

24. B. Kuhlmey, G. Renversez, and D. Maystre, “Chromatic dispersion and losses of microstructured optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 42(4), 634–639 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

],
Lsplice=10log|(EpEsdxdy|Ep|2dxdy|Es|2dxdy)|2,
(4)
in the unit of dB, where Εp and Es are the transverse electric field of the fundamental mode of a given PCF and SSMF respectively. On the other hand, in all the PCFs, the holey region does not extend to infinity but is bounded by the outer silica cladding, which inevitably results in a confinement loss Lc. From the imaginary part of neff of the guided mode Lc is obtained in the unit of dB/m as below [6

6. K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, T. Hasegawa, and E. Sasaoka, “Chromatic dispersion control in photonic crystal fibers: application to ultra-flattened dispersion,” Opt. Express 11(8), 843–852 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 8

8. F. Begum, Y. Namihira, T. Kinjo, and S. Kaijage, “Supercontinuum generation in square photonic crystal fiber with nearly zero ultra-flattened chromatic dispersion and fabrication tolerance analysis,” Opt. Commun. 284(4), 965–970 (2011). [CrossRef]

, 9

9. F. Begum, Y. Namihira, S. M. A. Razzak, S. F. Kaijage, N. H. Hai, K. Miyagi, H. Higa, and N. Zou, “Flattened chromatic dispersion in square photonic crystal fibers with low confinement losses,” Opt. Rev. 16(2), 54–58 (2009). [CrossRef]

, 25

25. F. Poli, M. Foroni, M. Bottacini, M. Fuochi, N. Burani, L. Rosa, A. Cucinotta, and S. Selleri, “Single-mode regime of square-lattice photonic crystal fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(8), 1655–1661 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]:

Lc=(20/ln10)k0Im[neff].
(5)

3.2 Ultra-flattened dispersion near zero

When the HRDs are absent Δ = 0%, the chromatic dispersion decreased monotonically in the spectral range of interest, with the zero dispersion wavelength near 1.4μm. Adopting the high-index HRD that forms a graded-index profile to the first HRD layer (ΔL1), the chromatic dispersion increased over the spectral range, and especially the amount of increment was significantly larger in the longer wavelength. By enlarging the graded-index region up to the second HRD layer (ΔL2), we could improve the flatness of the chromatic dispersion because the amount of dispersion decrement in the shorter wavelength was larger than that in the longer wavelength. Lastly, at the third HRD layer (ΔL3), we applied the lower refractive index ring defects to make the index trench which shifts the overall dispersion value toward zero. It is also noteworthy that the amount of the dispersion change and its spectral dependence reduced with adding HRDs at the outer air-hole layer.

3.3 Dispersion compensation over standard single mode fiber

As another dispersion management application, we optimized the structural parameters of the proposed SLPCFs to realize wide band dispersion compensation over a SSMF. To compensate the dispersion of an SSMF DSSMF completely at a wavelength, the dispersion of a PCF DPCF should satisfy the below condition [7

7. F. Poli, A. Cucinotta, M. Fuochi, S. Selleri, and L. Vincetti, “Characterization of microstructured optical fibers for wideband dispersion compensation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20(10), 1958–1962 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]:
DSSMFLSSMF+DPCFLPCF=0,
(6)
where LSSMF and LPCF are the lengths of the SSMF and PCF respectively. In order to compensate the dispersion over a wide spectral range, the dispersion slope as well as the dispersion should be optimized. The compensation ratio CR(λ) is an indicator for evaluating the level of dispersion compensation including both the dispersion magnitude and its slope, and is defined as below:
CR(λ)=|DSSMF(λ)LSSMFDPCF(λ)LPCF|
(7)
where DSSMF(λ) and DPCF(λ) are the fibers’ dispersion parameters at a wavelength [7

7. F. Poli, A. Cucinotta, M. Fuochi, S. Selleri, and L. Vincetti, “Characterization of microstructured optical fibers for wideband dispersion compensation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20(10), 1958–1962 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The ideal dispersion compensation is achieved when CR(λ) = 1. As a reference SSMF, we considered Corning® SMF-28TM that has the anomalous dispersion of +17.38ps/nm/km and the positive dispersion slope, + 5.85 × 10−2ps/nm2/km at λ = 1.55μm [26

26. Corning SMF-28 CPC6 Single-Mode Optical Fibre Product information (Corning, Ithaca, N.Y., 1998).

].

To achieve a normal dispersion in the optical communication bands, the hole-to-hole pitch Λ should be adjusted to be comparable to or smaller than the wavelength of the light so that the waveguide dispersion dominates over the material dispersion [9

9. F. Begum, Y. Namihira, S. M. A. Razzak, S. F. Kaijage, N. H. Hai, K. Miyagi, H. Higa, and N. Zou, “Flattened chromatic dispersion in square photonic crystal fibers with low confinement losses,” Opt. Rev. 16(2), 54–58 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Moreover, it was reported that air hole fraction needs to satisfy d/Λ>0.5 to obtain the negative dispersion slope in the C band [9

9. F. Begum, Y. Namihira, S. M. A. Razzak, S. F. Kaijage, N. H. Hai, K. Miyagi, H. Higa, and N. Zou, “Flattened chromatic dispersion in square photonic crystal fibers with low confinement losses,” Opt. Rev. 16(2), 54–58 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Our SLPCF has Λ = 1.0μm and d/Λ = 0.6 to ensure both the negative dispersion and negative dispersion slope.

In contrast to dispersion flattened SLPCF (Fig. 2), we applied the low-index F-doped HRDs in the first layer (ΔL1) to form an index trench which decrease the dispersion and let the CR toward the ideal value, 1 over the whole spectral range. Further broadening of the index trench region up to the second HRD layer (ΔL2) drastically improved CR in λ<1.55μm, but not in λ<1.55μm. This limitation in shorter wavelength could be overcome by adding a high index GeO2-doped HRD in the third layer (ΔL3), while it also resulted in the larger negative dispersion. The effective index profile of the proposed SLPCF for the dispersion compensation is consistent with a W-type index profile realized in DCFs with solid core and clad [5

5. L. Gruner-Nielsen, S. N. Knudsen, B. Edvold, T. Veng, D. Magnussen, C. C. Larsen, and H. Damsgaard, “Dispersion compensating fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 6(2), 164–180 (2000). [CrossRef]

].

With the optimal HRD parameters of SLPCF (ΔL1 = −2.0%, ΔL2 = −2.0%, and ΔL3 = +2.0%), we could achieve a large negative dispersion of −352.3ps/nm/km at λ = 1.55μm, and a near unity CR of 0.96 to 1.0 in the spectral range from 1.485 to 1.700μm that includes entire C, L, U band and a part of S band extending over 250nm-bandwidth. Also, its dispersion value at a targeted wavelength, λ = 1.55μm, is −352.3ps/nm/km so that the necessary length of SLPCF is 0.0493 times shorter than that of SSMF, i.e. LPCF/LSSMF = 0.0493. For example, the optimal dispersion compensating SLPCF with a length of 4.93km can compensate 100km-long SSMF, and the net dispersion for the SLPCF + SSMF would be within 0 to −0.8ps/nm/km over λ = 1.485~1.700μm. Furthermore, proposed SLPCF shows the single-mode condition with Veff<1.58 within this targeted spectral range. The third air-hole layer with the GeO2-doped ring structures (ΔL3 = + 2.0%) forms the concentric outer core, but its guided mode exists below the effective cladding index.

3.4 Effective mode area and optical loss analysis

As shown in Fig. 4(a) and 4(b), we have calculated two types of splice loss: 1) direct butt-coupling splice between SLPCF with air holes intact and SSMF, 2) splice between SLPCF with adiabatically collapsed air holes and SSM. For the direct butt-coupling splice, we assumed the holes of SLPCF were maintained as in Fig. 1(a). The dispersion flattened SLPCF assumed to have a direct butt coupling splice loss of 0.67dB at λ = 1.55μm, which is significantly lower than the previously reported structure [9

9. F. Begum, Y. Namihira, S. M. A. Razzak, S. F. Kaijage, N. H. Hai, K. Miyagi, H. Higa, and N. Zou, “Flattened chromatic dispersion in square photonic crystal fibers with low confinement losses,” Opt. Rev. 16(2), 54–58 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. The dispersion compensating SLPCF would have a rather high splice loss of 4.78dB at λ = 1.55μm because of the mode field diameter mismatch.

One of salient and differentiating features of the proposed SLPCF is that we can reduce the splice loss furthermore by adiabatically collapsing GeO2/F-doped HRDs, which still sustain a good optical guidance even in the case of complete air hole closure. The numerically achieved splice loss for SLPCFs with adiabatically collapsed air holes is plotted in a dotted line in Fig. 4(a) and 4(b). In these cases, the estimated splice loss substantially reduced to 0.15dB and 1.34dB at λ = 1.55μm for the ultra-flattened dispersion and dispersion compensation respectively. When the air-holes are completely collapsed in prior SLPCFs, the collapsed cross-section becomes plain pure silica as shown on the top of Fig. 4(c), where the core guidance is no longer present. In contrast, the proposed SLPCF with GeO2/F-doped HRDs can provide the core-guiding capability even at the fully collapsed region as well as in the adiabatically collapsed region. As a result, we could obtain splice losses at least an order of magnitude lower than 12.8dB-loss in the prior PCF [12

12. S. Kim, Y. Jung, K. Oh, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, and J. Kirchhof, “Defect and lattice structure for air-silica index-guiding holey fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 164–166 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

In a PCF with either a small air hole fraction d/Λ or a sub-wavelength pitch Λ, it is known that the confinement loss inevitably increases [27

27. V. Finazzi, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, “The role of confinement loss in highly nonlinear silica holey fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(9), 1246–1248 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. The proposed ultra-flattened dispersion near-zero SLPCF having d/Λ corresponds to the former case, and dispersion compensation SLPCF having Λ = 1.0μm corresponds to the latter case so that they all suffer from a relatively high confinement loss for the structure with six air hole layers as shown in Fig. 1(a). However, this obstacle can be overcome by either increasing the number of air-hole layers or inserting few air-hole layers with larger diameter just outside the proposed structure [6

6. K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, T. Hasegawa, and E. Sasaoka, “Chromatic dispersion control in photonic crystal fibers: application to ultra-flattened dispersion,” Opt. Express 11(8), 843–852 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 24

24. B. Kuhlmey, G. Renversez, and D. Maystre, “Chromatic dispersion and losses of microstructured optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 42(4), 634–639 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 27

27. V. Finazzi, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, “The role of confinement loss in highly nonlinear silica holey fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(9), 1246–1248 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. Adding a layer of large air hole can be realized by selectively controlling the capillary pressure as in prior reports [28

28. L. Dong, B. K. Thomas, and L. Fu, “Highly nonlinear silica suspended core fibers,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16423–16430 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 29

29. J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, T. Tunnermann, R. Iliew, F. Lederer, J. Broeng, G. Vienne, A. Petersson, and C. Jakobsen, “High-power air-clad large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber laser,” Opt. Express 11(7), 818–823 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. For example, by inserting a larger air-hole layer (d/Λ = 0.95) outside the 6th air-hole layers of the ultra-flattened zero dispersion SLPCF, the confinement loss was estimated (Eq. (3)) to be 8.97 × 10−7dB/m at λ = 1.55μm. For dispersion compensating SLPCF, we could achieve the confinement loss of 3.14 × 10−4dB/m at λ = 1.55μm by inserting two larger air-hole layers, which is similar to the level of Rayleigh scattering loss (~0.15dB/km at λ = 1.5μm [30

30. K. Saito, M. Yamaguchi, H. Kakiuchida, A. J. Ikushima, K. Ohsono, and Y. Kurosawa, “Limit of the Rayleigh scattering loss in silica fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(25), 5175–5177 (2003). [CrossRef]

]). In both cases, the insertion of few larger air-hole layers hardly affects the dispersion value: as a reference, 0.015ps/nm/km-variation in dispersion for the ultra-flattened zero dispersion SLPCF and 0.0025-variation in compensation ratio for the dispersion compensating SLPCF. Moreover, the first cladding mode of both cases has more than 500 times larger loss level than the fundamental mode.

3.4 Tolerance to the variation in the index differences of HRDs

Even if the MCVD process has been already matured, it would be useful in an experimental point of view to consider impacts of deviation in the index differences from the optimum values over the optical properties of the proposed SLPCF. It is known that the numerical apertures (NA) of commercialized optical fibers made by the MCVD process can have a maximum tolerance of 10% [31

31. CorActive Passive Fibers for Component & Laser Delivery Applications Product information (CorActive High-Tech, Inc., Québec, Canada, 2010–2011)

], which results in 4~5% of tolerance in Δ. Here, we discuss impacts of deviation in the HRD’s relative index differences of the ring δΔLi up to ± 5% (Fig. 5(a)
Fig. 5 Impacts of deviation in (a), (b) the relative index differences δΔLi of HRD, (c), (d) in the air hole fraction δ(d/Λ), and (e), (f) the combined deviation in δΔLi and δ(d/Λ) on chromatic dispersion of ultra-flattened zero dispersion SLPCF and dispersion compensation ratio of the dispersion compensating SLPCF respectively.
and 5(b)) and deviation in the air-hole fraction δ(d/Λ) up to ± 2% (Fig. 5(c) and 5(d)). Also, we further considered the combined effect of deviation in the air-hole fraction, δ(d/Λ) = ± 1% along with δΔLi = ± 2% (Fig. 5(e) and 5(f)).

In the case of dispersion compensation SLPCF, the compensation ratio was maintained within a range of 0.952<CR<1.002 over the spectral range from 1.485 to 1.700μm against δΔLi (Fig. 5(b)). The relative length for a compensating module (LPCF/LSSMF) did not exceed 0.502. As described in Fig. 5(d) and 5(f), the optimized dispersion compensating SLPCF successfully maintained CR within 0.951<CR<1.003 even if assuming the deviation in structural parameter δ(d/Λ) = ± 2% or the combined effect of δ(d/Λ) = ± 1% and δΔLi = ± 2%, which proved the robustness of the proposed SLPCFs against structural parameters deviations caused by fabrication imperfection.

4. Conclusion

A new hollow ring defect doped with either GeO2 or F was introduced in a uniform square lattice photonic crystal in order to provide a flexible and efficient design platform to manage the chromatic dispersion over a wide spectral range. Due to unique ring structure, the proposed defect could vary the effective index locally flexibly while maintaining the uniform hole parameters over the whole cross-section. The proposed structure provided an effective solution alternative to prior techniques requiring meticulous control of the hole size and pitch. Near zero chromatic dispersion of 0 ± 0.39ps/nm/km was achieved over a 530nm-wide spectral range, 1.36 to 1.89μm, covering the entire E, S, C, L, and U communication bands. Highly efficient dispersion compensation with respect to standard single mode fiber was also obtained with a compensation ratio close to the ideal value of 1, 0.96 to 1.00 over a 220nm-wide spectral range covering the C, L, and U band. The proposed SLPCFs provided intrinsically low splice loss since the GeO2 or F doped-ring structures maintained very good beam guidance along the core region even in the case when all the holes were completely collapsed during splicing. Low splice loss of 0.15dB and 1.34dB at λ = 1.55μm were predicted for the ultra-flattened dispersion and dispersion compensation respectively. The proposed structure also showed an excellent robustness in the chromatic dispersion characteristics against variations in the structural parameters, which can enhance actual fiber fabrication feasibility.

Acknowledgment

This work was supported in part by the Brain Korea 21 Project, in part by the NRF grant funded by the MEST (Nos. 2010-0018442, 2009-00479 EC-FP7/2007-2013 219299 GOSPEL, R15-2004-024-00000-0, F01-2009-000-10200-0, and 2009-00541), in part by the ITEP (Nos. 2009-8-0809 and 2010-8-1415), and in part by the ADD (Nos. 2010-8-1806).

References and links

1.

F. M. Madani and K. Kikuchi, “Design theory of long-distance WDM dispersion-managed transmission system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(8), 1326–1335 (1999). [CrossRef]

2.

M. Bass and E. W. V. Stryland, Fiber Optics Handbook: Fiber, Devices, and Systems for Optical Communications (McGraw-Hill, 2002), Chap. 13.

3.

S. Yin, K. Chung, H. Liu, P. Kurtz, and K. Reichard, “A new design for non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber (NZ-DSF) with a large effective area over 100μm2 and low bending and splice loss,” Opt. Commun. 177(1-6), 225–232 (2000). [CrossRef]

4.

R. Lundin, “Dispersion flattening in a W fiber,” Appl. Opt. 33(6), 1011–1014 (1994). [PubMed]

5.

L. Gruner-Nielsen, S. N. Knudsen, B. Edvold, T. Veng, D. Magnussen, C. C. Larsen, and H. Damsgaard, “Dispersion compensating fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 6(2), 164–180 (2000). [CrossRef]

6.

K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, T. Hasegawa, and E. Sasaoka, “Chromatic dispersion control in photonic crystal fibers: application to ultra-flattened dispersion,” Opt. Express 11(8), 843–852 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

F. Poli, A. Cucinotta, M. Fuochi, S. Selleri, and L. Vincetti, “Characterization of microstructured optical fibers for wideband dispersion compensation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20(10), 1958–1962 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

F. Begum, Y. Namihira, T. Kinjo, and S. Kaijage, “Supercontinuum generation in square photonic crystal fiber with nearly zero ultra-flattened chromatic dispersion and fabrication tolerance analysis,” Opt. Commun. 284(4), 965–970 (2011). [CrossRef]

9.

F. Begum, Y. Namihira, S. M. A. Razzak, S. F. Kaijage, N. H. Hai, K. Miyagi, H. Higa, and N. Zou, “Flattened chromatic dispersion in square photonic crystal fibers with low confinement losses,” Opt. Rev. 16(2), 54–58 (2009). [CrossRef]

10.

G. Renversez, B. Kuhlmey, and R. McPhedran, “Dispersion management with microstructured optical fibers: ultraflattened chromatic dispersion with low losses,” Opt. Lett. 28(12), 989–991 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

F. Gérôme, J.-L. Auguste, and J.-M. Blondy, “Design of dispersion-compensating fibers based on a dual-concentric-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 29(23), 2725–2727 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

S. Kim, Y. Jung, K. Oh, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, and J. Kirchhof, “Defect and lattice structure for air-silica index-guiding holey fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 164–166 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

J. Park, S. Lee, S. Kim, and K. Oh, “Enhancement of chemical sensing capability in a photonic crystal fiber with a hollow high index ring defect at the center,” Opt. Express 19(3), 1921–1929 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

T. Grujic, B. T. Kuhlmey, A. Argyros, S. Coen, and C. M. de Sterke, “Solid-core fiber with ultra-wide bandwidth transmission window due to inhibited coupling,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25556–25566 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

K. Oh, S. Choi, Y. Jung, and J. W. Lee, “Novel hollow optical fibers and their applications in photonic devices for optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(2), 524–532 (2005). [CrossRef]

16.

S. Lee, J. Park, Y. Jeong, H. Jung, and K. Oh, “Guided wave analysis of hollow optical fiber for mode coupling device applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(22), 4919–4926 (2009). [CrossRef]

17.

VitroCom, Square Tubing in Borosilicate and Clear Fused Quartz glasses, http://www.vitrocom.com/categories/view/25/Square_Tubing

18.

A. Bouk, A. Cucinotta, F. Poli, and S. Selleri, “Dispersion properties of square-lattice photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 12(5), 941–946 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: application to photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 927–933 (2002). [CrossRef]

20.

I. H. Malitson, “Interspecimen comparison of the refractive index of fused silica,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55(10), 1205–1209 (1965). [CrossRef]

21.

J. W. Fleming, “Dispersion in GeO2-SiO2 glasses,” Appl. Opt. 23(24), 4486–4493 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

J. W. Fleming and D. L. Wood, “Refractive index dispersion and related properties in fluorine doped silica,” Appl. Opt. 22(19), 3102–3104 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, J. Ju, and H. L. Ho, “Loss analysis of single-mode fiber/photonic-crystal fiber splice,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 40(5), 378–380 (2004). [CrossRef]

24.

B. Kuhlmey, G. Renversez, and D. Maystre, “Chromatic dispersion and losses of microstructured optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 42(4), 634–639 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

F. Poli, M. Foroni, M. Bottacini, M. Fuochi, N. Burani, L. Rosa, A. Cucinotta, and S. Selleri, “Single-mode regime of square-lattice photonic crystal fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(8), 1655–1661 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

Corning SMF-28 CPC6 Single-Mode Optical Fibre Product information (Corning, Ithaca, N.Y., 1998).

27.

V. Finazzi, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, “The role of confinement loss in highly nonlinear silica holey fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(9), 1246–1248 (2003). [CrossRef]

28.

L. Dong, B. K. Thomas, and L. Fu, “Highly nonlinear silica suspended core fibers,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16423–16430 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

29.

J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, T. Tunnermann, R. Iliew, F. Lederer, J. Broeng, G. Vienne, A. Petersson, and C. Jakobsen, “High-power air-clad large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber laser,” Opt. Express 11(7), 818–823 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

30.

K. Saito, M. Yamaguchi, H. Kakiuchida, A. J. Ikushima, K. Ohsono, and Y. Kurosawa, “Limit of the Rayleigh scattering loss in silica fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(25), 5175–5177 (2003). [CrossRef]

31.

CorActive Passive Fibers for Component & Laser Delivery Applications Product information (CorActive High-Tech, Inc., Québec, Canada, 2010–2011)

OCIS Codes
(060.2270) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber characterization
(060.2330) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics communications
(260.2030) Physical optics : Dispersion
(060.5295) Fiber optics and optical communications : Photonic crystal fibers

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: December 22, 2011
Revised Manuscript: February 5, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: February 13, 2012
Published: February 17, 2012

Citation
Jiyoung Park, Sejin Lee, Sungrae Lee, So Eun Kim, and Kyunghwan Oh, "Dispersion control in square lattice photonic crystal fiber using hollow ring defects," Opt. Express 20, 5281-5290 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-5-5281


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References

  1. F. M. Madani and K. Kikuchi, “Design theory of long-distance WDM dispersion-managed transmission system,” J. Lightwave Technol.17(8), 1326–1335 (1999). [CrossRef]
  2. M. Bass and E. W. V. Stryland, Fiber Optics Handbook: Fiber, Devices, and Systems for Optical Communications (McGraw-Hill, 2002), Chap. 13.
  3. S. Yin, K. Chung, H. Liu, P. Kurtz, and K. Reichard, “A new design for non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber (NZ-DSF) with a large effective area over 100μm2 and low bending and splice loss,” Opt. Commun.177(1-6), 225–232 (2000). [CrossRef]
  4. R. Lundin, “Dispersion flattening in a W fiber,” Appl. Opt.33(6), 1011–1014 (1994). [PubMed]
  5. L. Gruner-Nielsen, S. N. Knudsen, B. Edvold, T. Veng, D. Magnussen, C. C. Larsen, and H. Damsgaard, “Dispersion compensating fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol.6(2), 164–180 (2000). [CrossRef]
  6. K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, T. Hasegawa, and E. Sasaoka, “Chromatic dispersion control in photonic crystal fibers: application to ultra-flattened dispersion,” Opt. Express11(8), 843–852 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. F. Poli, A. Cucinotta, M. Fuochi, S. Selleri, and L. Vincetti, “Characterization of microstructured optical fibers for wideband dispersion compensation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A20(10), 1958–1962 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. F. Begum, Y. Namihira, T. Kinjo, and S. Kaijage, “Supercontinuum generation in square photonic crystal fiber with nearly zero ultra-flattened chromatic dispersion and fabrication tolerance analysis,” Opt. Commun.284(4), 965–970 (2011). [CrossRef]
  9. F. Begum, Y. Namihira, S. M. A. Razzak, S. F. Kaijage, N. H. Hai, K. Miyagi, H. Higa, and N. Zou, “Flattened chromatic dispersion in square photonic crystal fibers with low confinement losses,” Opt. Rev.16(2), 54–58 (2009). [CrossRef]
  10. G. Renversez, B. Kuhlmey, and R. McPhedran, “Dispersion management with microstructured optical fibers: ultraflattened chromatic dispersion with low losses,” Opt. Lett.28(12), 989–991 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. F. Gérôme, J.-L. Auguste, and J.-M. Blondy, “Design of dispersion-compensating fibers based on a dual-concentric-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett.29(23), 2725–2727 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. Kim, Y. Jung, K. Oh, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, and J. Kirchhof, “Defect and lattice structure for air-silica index-guiding holey fibers,” Opt. Lett.31(2), 164–166 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. Park, S. Lee, S. Kim, and K. Oh, “Enhancement of chemical sensing capability in a photonic crystal fiber with a hollow high index ring defect at the center,” Opt. Express19(3), 1921–1929 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. T. Grujic, B. T. Kuhlmey, A. Argyros, S. Coen, and C. M. de Sterke, “Solid-core fiber with ultra-wide bandwidth transmission window due to inhibited coupling,” Opt. Express18(25), 25556–25566 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. K. Oh, S. Choi, Y. Jung, and J. W. Lee, “Novel hollow optical fibers and their applications in photonic devices for optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol.23(2), 524–532 (2005). [CrossRef]
  16. S. Lee, J. Park, Y. Jeong, H. Jung, and K. Oh, “Guided wave analysis of hollow optical fiber for mode coupling device applications,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(22), 4919–4926 (2009). [CrossRef]
  17. VitroCom, Square Tubing in Borosilicate and Clear Fused Quartz glasses, http://www.vitrocom.com/categories/view/25/Square_Tubing
  18. A. Bouk, A. Cucinotta, F. Poli, and S. Selleri, “Dispersion properties of square-lattice photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express12(5), 941–946 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: application to photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(7), 927–933 (2002). [CrossRef]
  20. I. H. Malitson, “Interspecimen comparison of the refractive index of fused silica,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.55(10), 1205–1209 (1965). [CrossRef]
  21. J. W. Fleming, “Dispersion in GeO2-SiO2 glasses,” Appl. Opt.23(24), 4486–4493 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. W. Fleming and D. L. Wood, “Refractive index dispersion and related properties in fluorine doped silica,” Appl. Opt.22(19), 3102–3104 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, J. Ju, and H. L. Ho, “Loss analysis of single-mode fiber/photonic-crystal fiber splice,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.40(5), 378–380 (2004). [CrossRef]
  24. B. Kuhlmey, G. Renversez, and D. Maystre, “Chromatic dispersion and losses of microstructured optical fibers,” Appl. Opt.42(4), 634–639 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. F. Poli, M. Foroni, M. Bottacini, M. Fuochi, N. Burani, L. Rosa, A. Cucinotta, and S. Selleri, “Single-mode regime of square-lattice photonic crystal fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A22(8), 1655–1661 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. Corning SMF-28 CPC6 Single-Mode Optical Fibre Product information (Corning, Ithaca, N.Y., 1998).
  27. V. Finazzi, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, “The role of confinement loss in highly nonlinear silica holey fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(9), 1246–1248 (2003). [CrossRef]
  28. L. Dong, B. K. Thomas, and L. Fu, “Highly nonlinear silica suspended core fibers,” Opt. Express16(21), 16423–16430 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, T. Tunnermann, R. Iliew, F. Lederer, J. Broeng, G. Vienne, A. Petersson, and C. Jakobsen, “High-power air-clad large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber laser,” Opt. Express11(7), 818–823 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. K. Saito, M. Yamaguchi, H. Kakiuchida, A. J. Ikushima, K. Ohsono, and Y. Kurosawa, “Limit of the Rayleigh scattering loss in silica fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(25), 5175–5177 (2003). [CrossRef]
  31. CorActive Passive Fibers for Component & Laser Delivery Applications Product information (CorActive High-Tech, Inc., Québec, Canada, 2010–2011)

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