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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 5 — Feb. 27, 2012
  • pp: 5335–5342
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Cavity-assisted emission of polarization-entangled photons from biexcitons in quantum dots with fine-structure splitting

Stefan Schumacher, Jens Förstner, Artur Zrenner, Matthias Florian, Christopher Gies, Paul Gartner, and Frank Jahnke  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 5, pp. 5335-5342 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.005335


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Abstract

We study the quantum properties and statistics of photons emitted by a quantum-dot biexciton inside a cavity. In the biexciton-exciton cascade, fine-structure splitting between exciton levels degrades polarization-entanglement for the emitted pair of photons. However, here we show that the polarization-entanglement can be preserved in such a system through simultaneous emission of two degenerate photons into cavity modes tuned to half the biexciton energy. Based on detailed theoretical calculations for realistic quantum-dot and cavity parameters, we quantify the degree of achievable entanglement.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

One of the key aspects on our way into the age of quantum-information is the identification of efficient sources of entangled photons [1

1. K. Edamatsu, “Entangled photons: generation, observation, and characterization,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 7175–7187 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. Prototypical in this area are parametric sources based on nonlinear media such as lithium niobate [2

2. K.-I. Yoshino, T. Aoki, and A. Furusawa, “Generation of continuous-wave broadband entangled beams using periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041111 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. Of central importance for technological applications, however, is the deterministic emission with high brightness and the possibility of electrical pumping - this is where semiconductors come into play. Recently, entangled-photon sources through direct two-photon emission across the bandgap have been demonstrated [3

3. A. Hayat, P. Ginzburg, and M. Orenstein, “Observation of two-photon emission from semiconductors,” Nat. Photonics 2, 238–241 (2008). [CrossRef]

], and semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have been utilized as deterministic quantum emitters for single photons [4

4. S. Strauf, N. G. Stoltz, M. T. Rakher, L. Coldren, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, “High-frequency single photon source with polarization control,” Nat. Photonics 1, 704–708 (2007). [CrossRef]

,5

5. M. Mehta, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, A. Zrenner, and C. Meier, “An intentionally positioned (In,Ga)As quantum dot in a micron sized light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 143101 (2010). [CrossRef]

] and for lasing at the single-photon level [6

6. J. Wiersig, C. Gies, F. Jahnke, M. Assmann, T. Berstermann, M. Bayer, C. Kistner, S. Reitzenstein, C. Schneider, S. Hofling, A. Forchel, C. Kruse, J. Kalden, and D. Hommel, “Direct observation of correlations between individual photon emission events of a microcavity laser,” Nature 460, 245–249 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,7

7. S. Strauf and F. Jahnke, “Single quantum dot nanolaser,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 607–633 (2011).

]. Looking at the emission from QD biexcitons, it is only natural to also consider QDs as deterministic single quantum emitters of entangled photon pairs [8

8. O. Benson, C. Santori, M. Pelton, and Y. Yamamoto, “Regulated and entangled photons from a single quantum dot,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2513–2516 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 9

9. A. Dousse, J. Suffczynski, A. Beveratos, O. Krebs, A. Lemaitre, I. Sagnes, J. Bloch, P. Voisin, and P. Senellart, “Ultrabright source of entangled photon pairs,” Nature 466, 217–220 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, exciton fine-structure splitting has been shown to destroy polarization-entanglement [10

10. R. Hafenbrak, S. M. Ulrich, P. Michler, L. Wang, A. Rastelli, and O. G. Schmidt, “Triggered polarization-entangled photon pairs from a single quantum dot up to 30 k,” New J. Phys. 9, 315 (2007). [CrossRef]

13

13. A. Carmele and A. Knorr, “Analytical solution of the quantum-state tomography of the biexciton cascade in semiconductor quantum dots: pure dephasing does not affect entanglement,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 075328 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. Great effort has been undertaken to reduce this exciton fine-structure splitting by improving structural properties [14

14. A. Mohan, M. Felici, P. Gallo, B. Dwir, A. Rudra, J. Faist, and E. Kapon, “Polarization-entangled photons produced with high-symmetry site-controlled quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 4, 302–306 (2010). [CrossRef]

] and growth conditions [15

15. E. Stock, T. Warming, I. Ostapenko, S. Rodt, A. Schliwa, J. A. Töfflinger, A. Lochmann, A. I. Toropov, S. A. Moshchenko, D. V. Dmitriev, V. A. Haisler, and D. Bimberg, “Single-photon emission from InGaAs quantum dots grown on (111) GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 093112 (2010). [CrossRef]

], by exploration of QDs in alternative materials [16

16. L. He, M. Gong, C.-F. Li, G.-C. Guo, and A. Zunger, “Highly reduced fine-structure splitting in InAs/InP quantum dots offering an efficient on-demand entangled 1.55 – μm photon emitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 157405 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], or by applying external electric [17

17. B. D. Gerardot, S. Seidl, P. A. Dalgarno, R. J. Warburton, D. Granados, J. M. Garcia, K. Kowalik, O. Krebs, K. Karrai, A. Badolato, and P. M. Petroff, “Manipulating exciton fine structure in quantum dots with a lateral electric field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041101 (2007). [CrossRef]

], magnetic [18

18. R. M. Stevenson, R. J. Young, P. Atkinson, K. Cooper, D. A. Ritchie, and A. J. Shields, “A semiconductor source of triggered entangled photon pairs,” Nature 439, 179–182 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], or strain fields [19

19. S. Seidl, M. Kroner, A. Högele, K. Karrai, R. J. Warburton, A. Badolato, and P. M. Petroff, “Effect of uniaxial stress on excitons in a self-assembled quantum dot,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 203113 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. In this Letter we explore an alternative route. We demonstrate that for a QD inside a high-quality cavity, a direct two-photon emission process from the biexciton can be used to render the polarization-entanglement of emitted photons virtually independent of fine-structure splitting. This would allow presently available high-quality QD structures to be used as single deterministic sources of polarization-entangled photon pairs.

2. Theory & methods

We investigate the generation of polarization-entangled photon pairs by two-photon emission from QD biexcitons. To this end, we study a single QD coupled to a high-quality optical cavity as illustrated in Fig. 1 (details of the theoretical model are given below). Electronic QD configurations considered are ground-state, the two lowest excitons with fine-structure splitting, and the biexciton. Two degenerate cavity modes are assumed to be tuned close to half the biexciton energy. A pure dephasing of electronic coherences and a finite lifetime of photons inside the cavity are taken into account. We initialize the system in the biexciton configuration with no photons inside the cavity and follow the biexciton decay until two photons have been emitted from the cavity and the system has fully returned to its ground-state. Generally, the biexciton can decay through different competing channels: (i) the biexciton-exciton cascade by subsequently emitting two photons with H- or V-polarization, or (ii) by simultaneous emission of two photons in a direct two-photon emission process. In the biexciton-exciton cascade decay, an exciton fine-structure splitting big enough to be spectrally resolved, reveals the “which-path” information and polarization-entanglement of the emitted photon pair is lost [10

10. R. Hafenbrak, S. M. Ulrich, P. Michler, L. Wang, A. Rastelli, and O. G. Schmidt, “Triggered polarization-entangled photon pairs from a single quantum dot up to 30 k,” New J. Phys. 9, 315 (2007). [CrossRef]

,11

11. F. Troiani, J. I. Perea, and C. Tejedor, “Cavity-assisted generation of entangled photon pairs by a quantum-dot cascade decay,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 235310 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. The two-photon emission from the QD biexciton to the ground state is a resonant higher-order process, via an intermediate virtual state for which energy matching is not required. When the cavity modes are tuned to half the biexciton energy, the direct two-photon emission can be enhanced by being resonant, as opposed to the cascaded emission which is then detuned. For sufficiently high cavity quality, the Purcell-enhancement of the resonant transition increases the preference of the two-photon emission [20

20. E. del Valle, A. Gonzalez-Tudela, E. Cancellieri, F. P. Laussy, and C. Tejedor, “Generation of a two-photon state from a quantum dot in a microcavity,” New J. Phys. 13, 113014 (2011). [CrossRef]

22

22. Y. Ota, S. Iwamoto, N. Kumagai, and Y. Arakawa, “Spontaneous two-photon emission from a single quantum dot,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 233602 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], such that it is the dominant process to occur in the light emission from the QD biexciton (preferred over the cascade-decay, which for finite biexciton binding energy is far off-resonant from the cavity modes, and thus suppressed).

Fig. 1 Sketch of the quantum-dot cavity system. The optical transitions in a single QD are coupled to two orthogonal modes of a high-quality optical cavity with frequencies ωi. Electronic QD configurations considered are ground-state with energy EG, the two lowest exciton levels with possible fine-structure splitting with energies EH and EV, and the biexciton with energy EB. The cavity modes are tuned close to half the biexciton energy, h̄ωV = h̄ωH ≈ (EBEG)/2. The effects of pure dephasing of electronic coherences and the finite lifetime of photons inside the cavity are taken into account.

The Hamiltonian of the QD biexciton-exciton system interacting with the quantized cavity field is given by
𝒣=EG|GG|+EB|BB|+EH|XHXH|+EV|XVXV|+i=H,V(h¯ωibibi[g(|GXi|bi+|XiB|bi)+h.c.]).
(1)
The first line describes the electronic system with the free energies of the electronic ground state, EG, of the excitons, EH, EV, respectively, and of the biexciton, EB, in the respective electronic configurations |G〉, |XH〉, |XV〉 and |B〉. The second line represents the free part of the photon field in the two orthogonal cavity modes at frequencies ωi with photon creation and annihilation operators, bi and bi, respectively. The excitation and de-excitation of the electronic system through photon absorption or emission takes place with coupling strength g. The coupled biexciton-exciton-photon dynamics obey the following equation of motion for the system density operator ρs in Lindblad [23

23. G. Lindblad, “On the generators of quantum dynamical semigroups,” Commun. Math. Phys. 48, 119–130 (1976). [CrossRef]

] form:
tρs=ih¯[𝒣,ρs]+𝒧cavity(ρs)+𝒧pure(ρs).
(2)
In addition to the system part explicitly described by the Hamiltonian, Eq. (1), we have included a finite lifetime h̄/κ of the photons inside the cavity through 𝒧cavity(ρs)=κ2i=H,V(2biρsbibibiρsρsbibi), and a phenomenological pure dephasing 𝒧pure(ρs)=12χ,χ,χχγχχpure|χχ|ρs|χχ| of coherences between electronic configurations, with χ, χ′ ∈ {G,XH, XV, B} [11

11. F. Troiani, J. I. Perea, and C. Tejedor, “Cavity-assisted generation of entangled photon pairs by a quantum-dot cascade decay,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 235310 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. For the results shown below we used the same value γχχpure=γ=h¯/200ps13μeV for all the electronic coherences, which is a realistic value for pure dephasing of the excitonic coherences at low temperature [24

24. A. Laucht, N. Hauke, J. M. Villas-Boas, F. Hofbauer, M. Kaniber, G. Böhm, and J. J. Finley, “Dephasing of exciton polaritons in photoexcited InGaAs quantum dots in GaAs nanocavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 087405 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. We have checked, however, that a slightly different choice of the pure dephasing model following Ref. [25

25. G. Pfanner, M. Seliger, and U. Hohenester, “Entangled photon sources based on semiconductor quantum dots: the role of pure dephasing,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 195410 (2008).

] does not qualitatively change our results. We calculate the system dynamics by directly solving the von-Neumann equation, Eq. (2), in time for the initial condition that the electronic system is in the biexciton configuration and the cavity modes are empty. We note that all the different dynamically competing emission and absorption processes are fully included in this non-perturbative approach.

To analyze the dynamics of the emission of the two photons from the QD biexciton inside the cavity and determine the quantum properties and statistics of the emitted light, we calculate the second-order photon correlation function
Gij,kl(2)(t,τ)=bi(t)bj(t+τ)bk(t+τ)bl(t)=tr{ρsbi(t)bj(t+τ)bk(t+τ)bl(t)},
(3)
for photons in the two orthogonal and degenerate cavity modes H and V. Using the quantum-regression theorem [26

26. H. J. Carmichael, Statistical Methods in Quantum Optics 1: Master Equations and Fokker-Planck Equations (Springer, 2002), 2nd ed.

], the full two-time dependence of Gij,kl(2)(t,τ) is evaluated. The only non-vanishing elements are the diagonal elements Gii,ii(2)(t,τ) and the off-diagonal elements Gii,jj(2)(t,τ) with ij [11

11. F. Troiani, J. I. Perea, and C. Tejedor, “Cavity-assisted generation of entangled photon pairs by a quantum-dot cascade decay,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 235310 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. The diagonal elements contain information about the statistics of the emitted light [6

6. J. Wiersig, C. Gies, F. Jahnke, M. Assmann, T. Berstermann, M. Bayer, C. Kistner, S. Reitzenstein, C. Schneider, S. Hofling, A. Forchel, C. Kruse, J. Kalden, and D. Hommel, “Direct observation of correlations between individual photon emission events of a microcavity laser,” Nature 460, 245–249 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], whereas the off-diagonal elements, characterize the polarization entanglement of emitted photons [27

27. R. Horodecki, P. Horodecki, M. Horodecki, and K. Horodecki, “Quantum entanglement,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 865–942 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. By taking the double time-average of Gii,jj(2)(t,τ) we obtain the two-photon density matrix ρi,j, with i, j = H,V, which is needed for the quantum-state tomography of the emitted photon pair (ρ is normalized such that tr{ρ} = 1). All calculations in this work are performed for typical parameters of present high-quality QD-cavity systems. For the biexciton binding energy we use EBXX=1meV, the coupling strength of electronic transitions to the photon modes is g = /10 ps−1 ≈ 66μeV. The cavity modes are tuned to half the biexciton energy ωi ≈ (EBEG)/2 and a finite fine-structure splitting δ (varied from −40 to +40μeV) between exciton levels is included. We note that even for the highest cavity quality studied, no pronounced Rabi-flopping occurs at the ground-state to exciton and exciton to biexciton transitions, as those are far off-resonant from the cavity modes.

3. Results & discussion

In Fig. 2 we analyze the degree of polarization-entanglement of the emitted photons. As a direct measure of entanglement in the HV-bipartite system, we use the concurrence C = 2|ρH,V| (defined as in Ref. [11

11. F. Troiani, J. I. Perea, and C. Tejedor, “Cavity-assisted generation of entangled photon pairs by a quantum-dot cascade decay,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 235310 (2006). [CrossRef]

] with GHV,HV(2)(t,τ)=0 due to the absence of pumping). Results are shown for cavities of different quality by changing the value g/κ(κ is the loss rate of photons from the cavity). Cavity quality-factors Q are given in each panel for wavelength λ = 880 nm, corresponding to InGaAs systems. Note that the cavity is tuned to the two-photon resonance of the biexciton transition unless otherwise noted and, hence, it is detuned from the single-photon biexciton and exciton transitions.

Fig. 2 Dependence of polarization-entanglement on the fine-structure splitting δ for different-quality cavities. The concurrence C is shown ( oe-20-5-5335-i001.jpg), which in the system studied is given by C = 2|ρH,V|. Cavity modes are tuned to half the biexciton energy, h̄ωi = (EBEG)/2. Results shown are for (a) κ/h̄ = 5 ps−1, (b) κ/h̄ = 0.25 ps−1, and (c) κ/h̄ = 0.1 ps−1 using EBXX=1meV. In panel (b), the concurrence is also shown for increased biexciton binding energy EBXX=3meV ( oe-20-5-5335-i002). Clearly visible is that the higher the cavity quality and the larger the biexciton binding energy, the less sensitive the concurrence (and thus the polarization entanglement) is to the fine-structure splitting.

For a higher cavity quality, shown in Fig. 2(b), the dependence of the concurrence on the fine-structure splitting is less prominent. In this case the narrower cavity line reduces the coupling to the detuned biexciton-exciton-cascade and favors the direct higher-order two-photon transition through Purcell enhancement. While the different competing processes discussed above are fully included in our (non-perturbative) treatment of the system dynamics, here their relative importance can be deduced from the dependence of the concurrence on the fine-structure splitting.

Finally, in Fig. 2(c) we consider a high-quality cavity with a Q-factor typical for present technology. Our results reveal dominant two-photon emission leading to a concurrence that is virtually independent of the fine-structure splitting and takes an almost constant value of about 80%. This main result of our paper demonstrates that polarization-entanglement can be preserved in systems with finite (and even large) fine-structure splitting via an alternative process through appropriate mode engineering in high-quality cavities.

In Fig. 2(b) we also show the result for a QD with larger biexciton binding energy of 3 meV (see the dotted line). In this case the single-photon biexciton and exciton transitions are further detuned from the cavity resonance and even for the medium-quality cavity the degradation of entanglement with increasing fine-structure splitting gets further reduced. This underscores the potential of systems with higher biexciton binding energy, such as the CdSe system studied in Ref. [28

28. T. Flissikowski, A. Betke, I. A. Akimov, and F. Henneberger, “Two-photon coherent control of a single quantum dot,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 227401 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], to further optimize the presented new scheme.

Fig. 3 Sensitivity to detuning from two-photon resonance condition. The concurrence C is shown for different detuning of the cavity modes from the two-photon resonance condition for the high-quality cavity. Red: h̄ωi = (EB – EG)/2 [same as in Fig. 2(c)]. Blue: h̄ωi = (EBEG)/2 – 0.05 meV. Black: h̄ωi = (EBEG)/2 – 0.25 meV.

Figure 4 displays the statistics of photons emitted for intermediate cavity quality, g/κ = 0.4, for different detuning of the cavity resonance from half the biexciton energy. For ωi = (EBEG)/2 a strongly increased probability for simultaneous emission of both photons at τ ≈ 0 is clearly visible (“bunching”), whereas for ωi = (EBEG)/2 – 0.25 meV and ωi = (EBEG)/2 – 0.5 meV it is more likely to have the two photons emitted with a certain time-delay. This is evidence for step-wise decay through the biexciton-exciton cascade. Spectral features of the emitted photons under similar conditions are discussed in detail in Ref. [20

20. E. del Valle, A. Gonzalez-Tudela, E. Cancellieri, F. P. Laussy, and C. Tejedor, “Generation of a two-photon state from a quantum dot in a microcavity,” New J. Phys. 13, 113014 (2011). [CrossRef]

].

Fig. 4 Statistics of the emitted photons. Second-order photon correlation function GVV,VV(2)(t,τ) averaged over all emission times t. Results are for g/κ = 0.4 (medium-quality cavity) and δ = 0.0; each set of data is normalized to its maximum. Strong photon “bunching” is visible for the cavity modes tuned to half the biexciton energy, h̄ωi = (EBEG)/2, (black, solid line). Clear “anti-bunching” is observed when the cavity modes are further detuned from the two-photon resonance condition for h̄ωi = (EBEG)/2 – 0.25 meV (red, dashed line) and h̄ωi = (EBEG)/2 – 0.5 meV (blue, dotted line), respectively.

4. Conclusions

For a realistic high-quality QD cavity system, we have theoretically investigated the generation of polarization-entangled photon pairs by direct two-photon emission from QD biexcitons. Our results demonstrate for two cavity modes with orthogonal polarization tuned to half the biexciton energy, that the simultaneous emission of two identical photons (direct two-photon process) can be dominant over the biexciton-exciton cascaded decay. Calculating the second-order photon correlation function, we show that in this case the polarization-entanglement between emitted photons can be made largely insensitive to exciton fine-structure splitting. This alternative scheme has the potential of a new route in using presently available high-quality QDs as single deterministic quantum emitters for polarization-entangled photon pairs without the need to minimize the exciton fine-structure splitting.

Acknowledgments

We acknowledge financial support from BMBF (grants 01BQ1037 and 01BQ1040) and DFG, and a grant for computing time at PC2 Paderborn Center for Parallel Computing.

References and links

1.

K. Edamatsu, “Entangled photons: generation, observation, and characterization,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 7175–7187 (2007). [CrossRef]

2.

K.-I. Yoshino, T. Aoki, and A. Furusawa, “Generation of continuous-wave broadband entangled beams using periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041111 (2007). [CrossRef]

3.

A. Hayat, P. Ginzburg, and M. Orenstein, “Observation of two-photon emission from semiconductors,” Nat. Photonics 2, 238–241 (2008). [CrossRef]

4.

S. Strauf, N. G. Stoltz, M. T. Rakher, L. Coldren, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, “High-frequency single photon source with polarization control,” Nat. Photonics 1, 704–708 (2007). [CrossRef]

5.

M. Mehta, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, A. Zrenner, and C. Meier, “An intentionally positioned (In,Ga)As quantum dot in a micron sized light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 143101 (2010). [CrossRef]

6.

J. Wiersig, C. Gies, F. Jahnke, M. Assmann, T. Berstermann, M. Bayer, C. Kistner, S. Reitzenstein, C. Schneider, S. Hofling, A. Forchel, C. Kruse, J. Kalden, and D. Hommel, “Direct observation of correlations between individual photon emission events of a microcavity laser,” Nature 460, 245–249 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

S. Strauf and F. Jahnke, “Single quantum dot nanolaser,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 607–633 (2011).

8.

O. Benson, C. Santori, M. Pelton, and Y. Yamamoto, “Regulated and entangled photons from a single quantum dot,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2513–2516 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

A. Dousse, J. Suffczynski, A. Beveratos, O. Krebs, A. Lemaitre, I. Sagnes, J. Bloch, P. Voisin, and P. Senellart, “Ultrabright source of entangled photon pairs,” Nature 466, 217–220 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

R. Hafenbrak, S. M. Ulrich, P. Michler, L. Wang, A. Rastelli, and O. G. Schmidt, “Triggered polarization-entangled photon pairs from a single quantum dot up to 30 k,” New J. Phys. 9, 315 (2007). [CrossRef]

11.

F. Troiani, J. I. Perea, and C. Tejedor, “Cavity-assisted generation of entangled photon pairs by a quantum-dot cascade decay,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 235310 (2006). [CrossRef]

12.

A. Carmele, F. Milde, M.-R. Dachner, M. B. Harouni, R. Roknizadeh, M. Richter, and A. Knorr, “Formation dynamics of an entangled photon pair: a temperature-dependent analysis,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 195319 (2010).

13.

A. Carmele and A. Knorr, “Analytical solution of the quantum-state tomography of the biexciton cascade in semiconductor quantum dots: pure dephasing does not affect entanglement,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 075328 (2011). [CrossRef]

14.

A. Mohan, M. Felici, P. Gallo, B. Dwir, A. Rudra, J. Faist, and E. Kapon, “Polarization-entangled photons produced with high-symmetry site-controlled quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 4, 302–306 (2010). [CrossRef]

15.

E. Stock, T. Warming, I. Ostapenko, S. Rodt, A. Schliwa, J. A. Töfflinger, A. Lochmann, A. I. Toropov, S. A. Moshchenko, D. V. Dmitriev, V. A. Haisler, and D. Bimberg, “Single-photon emission from InGaAs quantum dots grown on (111) GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 093112 (2010). [CrossRef]

16.

L. He, M. Gong, C.-F. Li, G.-C. Guo, and A. Zunger, “Highly reduced fine-structure splitting in InAs/InP quantum dots offering an efficient on-demand entangled 1.55 – μm photon emitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 157405 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

B. D. Gerardot, S. Seidl, P. A. Dalgarno, R. J. Warburton, D. Granados, J. M. Garcia, K. Kowalik, O. Krebs, K. Karrai, A. Badolato, and P. M. Petroff, “Manipulating exciton fine structure in quantum dots with a lateral electric field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041101 (2007). [CrossRef]

18.

R. M. Stevenson, R. J. Young, P. Atkinson, K. Cooper, D. A. Ritchie, and A. J. Shields, “A semiconductor source of triggered entangled photon pairs,” Nature 439, 179–182 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

S. Seidl, M. Kroner, A. Högele, K. Karrai, R. J. Warburton, A. Badolato, and P. M. Petroff, “Effect of uniaxial stress on excitons in a self-assembled quantum dot,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 203113 (2006). [CrossRef]

20.

E. del Valle, A. Gonzalez-Tudela, E. Cancellieri, F. P. Laussy, and C. Tejedor, “Generation of a two-photon state from a quantum dot in a microcavity,” New J. Phys. 13, 113014 (2011). [CrossRef]

21.

U. Hohenester, T. Volz, M. Winger, and A. Imamoglu, “Cavity-assisted two-photon decay of biexcitons,” OECS12 Conference Proceedings, page 110 (2011).

22.

Y. Ota, S. Iwamoto, N. Kumagai, and Y. Arakawa, “Spontaneous two-photon emission from a single quantum dot,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 233602 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

G. Lindblad, “On the generators of quantum dynamical semigroups,” Commun. Math. Phys. 48, 119–130 (1976). [CrossRef]

24.

A. Laucht, N. Hauke, J. M. Villas-Boas, F. Hofbauer, M. Kaniber, G. Böhm, and J. J. Finley, “Dephasing of exciton polaritons in photoexcited InGaAs quantum dots in GaAs nanocavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 087405 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

G. Pfanner, M. Seliger, and U. Hohenester, “Entangled photon sources based on semiconductor quantum dots: the role of pure dephasing,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 195410 (2008).

26.

H. J. Carmichael, Statistical Methods in Quantum Optics 1: Master Equations and Fokker-Planck Equations (Springer, 2002), 2nd ed.

27.

R. Horodecki, P. Horodecki, M. Horodecki, and K. Horodecki, “Quantum entanglement,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 865–942 (2009). [CrossRef]

28.

T. Flissikowski, A. Betke, I. A. Akimov, and F. Henneberger, “Two-photon coherent control of a single quantum dot,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 227401 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(270.0270) Quantum optics : Quantum optics
(270.5565) Quantum optics : Quantum communications
(250.5590) Optoelectronics : Quantum-well, -wire and -dot devices

ToC Category:
Quantum Optics

History
Original Manuscript: January 13, 2012
Revised Manuscript: February 13, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: February 13, 2012
Published: February 17, 2012

Citation
Stefan Schumacher, Jens Förstner, Artur Zrenner, Matthias Florian, Christopher Gies, Paul Gartner, and Frank Jahnke, "Cavity-assisted emission of polarization-entangled photons from biexcitons in quantum dots with fine-structure splitting," Opt. Express 20, 5335-5342 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-5-5335


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