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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 5 — Feb. 27, 2012
  • pp: 5460–5469
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All-optical diffractive/transmissive switch based on coupled cycloidal diffractive waveplates

Svetlana V. Serak, Rafael S. Hakobyan, Sarik R. Nersisyan, Nelson V. Tabiryan, Timothy J. White, Timothy J. Bunning, Diane M. Steeves, and Brian R. Kimball  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 5, pp. 5460-5469 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.005460


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Abstract

Pairs of cycloidal diffractive waveplates can be used to doubly diffract or collinearly propagate laser radiation of the appropriate wavelength. The use of a dynamic phase retarder placed in between the pair can be utilized to switch between the two optical states. We present results from the implementation of an azo-based retarder whose optical properties can be modulated using light itself. We show fast and efficient switching between the two states for both CW and single nanosecond laser pulses of green radiation. Contrasts greater than 100:1 were achieved. The temporal response as a function of light intensity is presented and the optical switching is shown to be polarization independent.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

A wide variety of highly efficient, powerful, and compact light sources are widely and cheaply available at wavelengths ranging from the UV into the infrared [1

1. S. Kitsinelis, Light sources: technologies and applications (Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL, 2011).

3

3. M. O’Neill and S. M. Kelly, “Ordered materials for organic electronics and photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(5), 566–584 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. This explosion has primarily been enabled by the development and employment of novel materials [4

4. T. Smeeton and C. Humphreys, “Perspectives on electronic and optoelectronic materials,” in Springer handbook of electronic and photonic materials, S. O. Kasap and P. Capper, eds. (Springer, New York, NY, 2006).

]. The advances in source materials subsequently motivate the need for a variety of higher performance optical components to enable the integration of the sources into even more compact and efficient optical architectures [5

5. S. Ossicini, L. Pavesi, and F. Priolo, Light emitting silicon for microphotonics (Springer, Berlin, 2003).

]. However, fundamental limitations and technological difficulties continue to hinder modernization of optical components to match the achievements in source development. Major conventional mechanisms for changing the propagation of light beams include the use of lenses, prisms, etc [6

6. A. Al-Azzawi, Photonics: principles and practices (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2007).

, 7

7. B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of photonics (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2007).

]. and the modulation of the refractive index through the use of gratings [8

8. A. Urbas, J. Klosterman, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, O. Tsutsumi, T. Ikeda, and T. Bunning, “Optically switchable bragg reflectors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(16), 1453–1456 (2004). [CrossRef]

13

13. A. Urbas, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, H. Yu, J. H. Li, and T. Bunning, “Optically switchable liquid crystal photonic structures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(42), 13580–13581 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Optics used in microscopy [14

14. M. J. Booth, “Adaptive optics in microscopy,” Philos. Transact. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 365(1861), 2829–2843 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 15

15. J. Squier and M. Muller, “High resolution nonlinear microscopy: A review of sources and methods for achieving optimal imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(7), 2855–2867 (2001). [CrossRef]

], communications [16

16. M. C. Wu, O. Solgaard, and J. E. Ford, “Optical MEMS for lightwave communication,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4433–4454 (2006). [CrossRef]

], material processing, displays [17

17. D. K. Yang and S. T. Wu, Fundamentals of liquid crystal devices (John Wiley, West Sussex, England, 2006).

19

19. S. T. Wu and D. K. Yang, Reflective liquid crystal displays (Wiley, West Sussex, England, 2001).

], optical filtering [20

20. T. J. White, M. E. McConney, and T. J. Bunning, “Dynamic color in stimuli-responsive cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(44), 9832–9847 (2010). [CrossRef]

], chemical and biochemical sensing [21

21. D. Brennan, J. Justice, B. Corbett, T. McCarthy, and P. Galvin, “Emerging optofluidic technologies for point-of-care genetic analysis systems: a review,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 395(3), 621–636 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and other photonics applications [22

22. G. Sinclair, P. Jordan, J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, and J. Cooper, “Defining the trapping limits of holographical optical tweezers,” J. Mod. Opt. 51(3), 409–414 (2004). [CrossRef]

] are still either bulky, aberrational, inefficient, slow and/or narrowband [6

6. A. Al-Azzawi, Photonics: principles and practices (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2007).

, 7

7. B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of photonics (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2007).

, 23

23. W. R. Jamroz, R. V. Kruzelecky, and E. I. Haddad, Applied microphotonics (CRC Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL, 2006).

, 24

24. W. T. Welford, Aberrations of optical systems (Taylor and Francis, New York, NY, 1986).

]. Improvements in the fundamental material form and novel methodologies to impart dynamic processes holds promise to improve on these limitations. The recent growth of metamaterials holds promise to overcome some of these limitations particularly those involving lasers and large area beams [25

25. W. Cai and V. Shalaev, Optical metamaterials (Springer, New York, NY, 2010).

, 26

26. O. D. Lavrentovich, “Liquid crystals, photonic crystals, metamaterials, and transformation optics,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(13), 5143–5144 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Many photonics applications such as non-mechanical beam steering, information display and optical processing, holography, optical phase reversal, and optical switching require dynamic electro-optical or all-optical control of light propagation. Fundamental material problems and limitations continue to make it difficult to mature dynamic optical technologies. Liquid crystalline materials (LCs) have proven promising in both electro-optical and all-optical systems due to their large electro-optical and nonlinear optical constants, the ease of customizing LC material properties, large possible changes in their optical states, and efficient control of the orientational ordering with low-voltage electric fields and low-power optical beams [3

3. M. O’Neill and S. M. Kelly, “Ordered materials for organic electronics and photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(5), 566–584 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 27

27. Y. Yu and T. Ikeda, “Alignment modulation of azobenzene-containing liquid crystal systems by photochemical reactions,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. 5(3), 247–265 (2004). [CrossRef]

].

We recently demonstrated a new generation optical system based on the modulation of the optical axis orientation (as opposed to refractive index or thickness) in thin films of liquid crystalline cycloidal gratings, so-called diffractive waveplates, which may play a role in overcoming some of these drawbacks in electro- and nonlinear-optical LC materials [28

28. S. R. Nersisyan, N. V. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “The promise of diffractive waveplates,” Opt. Photon. News 21(3), 40–45 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. A “universally polarizing optical controller” allowed the switching of a system between transmissive and reflective states by employing an electrically controlled LC phase retarder between a pair of cycloidal diffractive waveplates (CDWs) [29

29. N. V. Tabiryan, S. R. Nersisyan, T. J. White, T. J. Bunning, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Transparent thin film polarizing and optical control systems,” AIP Advances 1(2), 022153 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. The work presented here explores an all-optical modification of the above concept. By replacing the LC phase retarder with an azobenzene nematic liquid crystal (NLC) cell at the half-wave condition, irradiation can be used to switch between a diffractive and a transmissive state. We explore the photoresponse of two separate mixtures upon irradiation with CW or nanosecond pulsed 532 nm lasers.

2. Results and discussion

The system under study makes use of the unique diffractive properties of CDWs and their pairs summarized in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Diffractive properties of CDWs: (a) a single CDW splits unpolarized light into two beams, one right- and one left-circularly polarized; (b) CDW of an opposite sign changes the diffraction sign of the right- and left-polarized beams; (c) a CDW pair with parallel arrangement restores collinear propagation without introducing appreciable lateral shift due to thinness of adjacent CDWs; (d) pairing CDWs of opposite signs splits an unpolarized laser beam into orthogonal circularly polarized beams doubling the angle between them. Black and white arrows correspond to right- and left-circular polarized beams, respectively
. A single CDW diffracts an unpolarized or linearly polarized incident beam into right- and left-circular polarized beams into the ± 1st diffraction orders depending on the sign of the CDW. Since CDWs present structures with linear rotation of the optical axis orientation in the plane of the waveplate, α = qx, a 180 degree rotation around the normal to the waveplate reverses the sign of modulation to α = −qx. As shown previously, a pair of CDWs in parallel alignment results in collinear propagating beams (Fig. 1(c)). The small lateral shift induced can be minimized by reducing the thickness of the components to reduce the distance between the CDWs [30

30. S. R. Nersisyan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Polarization insensitive imaging through polarization gratings,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1817–1830 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In an anti-parallel configuration, the diffraction angle can be doubled as shown in Fig. 1(d).

The schematic of the setup for the realization of optical switching between the “non-diffractive” state of collinear propagation and the state with doubled diffraction due to the influence of a laser beam is shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic illustration of nonlinear switching of laser beam using a pair of CDW with planarly aligned cell of a photoresponsive guest-host azo-NLC between them. (a) A planar aligned LC cell acting as a half-waveplate between anti-parallel CDWs reverses the handedness of the beams leading to overlapping collinear propagating output. (b) Photoinduced isothermal phase transition from the nematic to isotropic phase eliminates the birefringence of the azo NLC thereby disrupting the polarization converting ability of the azo NLC waveplate resulting in doubled diffraction angle between the beams. Black and white arrows correspond to right- and left-circular polarized beams, respectively.
.

A planarly aligned NLC cell composed of a guest-host mixture of an azobenzene dye in an NLC (azo-NLC) acts as a half-waveplate placed between anti-parallel CDW reversing the polarization handedness of the beams at the output of the 1st CDW. Parallel propagating beams are present at the output of the 2nd CDW. Upon illumination within the absorption window of the azobenzene dye, the guest-host NLC mixture transitions into the isotropic state at sufficient optical intensity due to the generation and accumulation of cis-isomers referred to as a photoinduced, isothermal (PHI) phase transition. Upon this photoinduced switching, the polarization conversion of the cell diminishes greatly thus restoring the diffractive state of the system.

Two mixtures were tested referred to here as NLC1 (composed of 10 wt.% of the CPND-8 homologue [1-(2-Chloro-4-N-octylpiperazinylphenyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)diazene] in 5CB) which has a nematic to isotropic clearing temperature of 39.5°C. NLC2 is a complex mixture of several azo dyes from the CPND series and exhibits a nematic to isotropic clearing temperature of 39.2°C. The azo NLCs were filled into cells made with substrates processed for planar orientation of the NLC. No spacers were used between substrates. The thickness of the gap was measured by comparing the optical density with cells of calibrated thickness. For both mixtures, cells of ~1.5 μm thickness corresponded to the half-wave retardation condition L = λ/2Δn, where λ (532 nm) is the wavelength of the laser beam and Δn (0.18) is the optical anisotropy of the azo mixtures. The transmission for a circular polarized laser beam was 37% for azo NLC1 and 28% for azo NLC2.

2.1. CW laser studies

The photos in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Schematic of the experimental setup: NDF, set of neutral density filters; BE, beam expander; D, diaphragm; (b) diffracted beams at the output of the CDW system without the azo NLC; (c) overlapping diffracted beams for anti-parallel CDW pair with azo NLC in half-wave retardation state; (d) diffracted beams for anti-parallel CDW pair with azo NLC in photoinduced isotropic state.
illustrate the optical switching of the system upon exposure to a CW laser beam. The experimental setup is illustrated in Fig. 4(a). A diode-pumped solid state laser (532 nm) beam was collimated and expanded to a 5 mm size. The power of the input (Pin), 0th (P0), −1st (P-1) and + 1st (P+1) diffracted orders was measured with power meters. The diffraction efficiencies are measured as the ratio of the diffracted beam power to the power of the beam at the input of the system.

A single CDW diffracted 83.8% of the input beam into ±1st orders [(P+1+P-1)/Pin] with 1.1% in the 0th order diffraction (P0/Pin) (transmitted beam) (Fig. 4(b)). No scattered light was observed. For a parallel CDW pair, the diffraction efficiency into ± 1st orders was 73%, with only 0.08% of light diffracted into the 0th order. Introducing the azo NLC1 in a half-wave configuration considerably reduced the diffraction into the ±1st orders to (P+1+P-1)/Pin = 2.6% while increasing the transmission to P0/Pin = 23% (Fig. 4(c)). The absorption of the azo NLC1 accounts for most of this reduction. Above a threshold irradiation intensity (discussed below) to drive the cell into the isotropic state, the diffracted beams are optically switched into the diffractive state, as evident in Fig. 4(d).

The temporal response of the systems are shown in Figs. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Temporal response of the optical switching of CDW/NLC1 system upon exposure to 532 nm irradiation of increasing power. (b) Summary of the dependence of response time on input beam power.
and 8
Fig. 8 (a) Temporal response of the optical switching of CDW/NLC2 system upon exposure to 532 nm irradiation of increasing power. (b) Summary of the dependence of response time on input beam power.
. Higher initial beam powers speeds up the optical switching, as expected for azobenzene-based LC material systems wherein the change in the optical properties is a result of accumulation of photoexcited isomers [6

6. A. Al-Azzawi, Photonics: principles and practices (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2007).

]. The leveling off at longer time scales indicates that the system exhibits both diffraction orders simultaneously. The response time was calculated by exponential fit of transmission dynamic data. The measured power necessary to achieve a 1 sec response time was measured at 8.5 mW (43.3 mW/cm2) for azo NLC1 and 4.7 mW (23.9 mW/cm2) for azo NLC2. Note that the material with higher photosensitivity (smaller threshold power) is also characterized by faster response. Indeed, the equilibrium concentration of cis isomers responsible for photosensitivity, and the rate of their generation, are both proportional to light intensity, quantum efficiency and the absorption constant of the material.

2.2. Pulsed laser studies

The performance of the above architecture was also examined using single shot laser pulses with linear polarization. A Nd:YAG laser operating in the frequency-doubled (λ = 532 nm) single-pulse regime was used as the pump source. The pulse duration measured at the level corresponding to half of the peak Δt1/2 was 8 ns. The laser beam size was 1.1 mm. The pulse energy at the input of the grating was obtained by measuring the energy reflected from the beam splitter, with the aid of an energy meter. A second energy meter measured the energy of the 0th diffraction order. The pulse energy was controlled with neutral density filters.

Figures 9
Fig. 9 (a) Output/input pulse energy dependence, and (b) transmission vs energy density for Azo NLC1. The curve in (a) corresponds to data fitting by the function Eout = EsatEin/(Eth + Ein).
and 10
Fig. 10 (a) Output/input pulse energy dependence, and (b) transmission vs energy density for azo NLC2 between CDWs for vertical and horizontal beam polarizations as well as for the cell between crossed polarizers making 45° angle with respect to the beam polarization.
plot the output versus input pulse energy dependence and the corresponding nonlinear transmission for both material systems. The nonlinear transmission in these curves is well fit with the function Eout = EsatEin/(Eth + Ein) where Ein, Eout and Esat are the input, output, and saturated pulse energy levels and Eth is the energy value characterizing the threshold for nonlinear transmission (2.3 mJ for azo NLC1 and 1.8 mJ for azo NLC2). The nonlinear behavior is very similar for vertical and horizontal beam polarizations. Clearly, the system is susceptible to a single laser pulse as evident by the substantial changes in the relative amounts of diffracted and transmitted radiation observed. Similar nonlinear transmission curves could be obtained with the NLC between crossed polarizers, however, at the expense of losing more than half of the light due to absorption in polarizers.

3. Theoretical analysis

While avoiding polarizers is key to reducing loss of light, the absorption of the azo NLC used in all-optical systems still compromises the transmission and switching contrast. To analyze the effects of absorption and absorption dichroism, let us consider a CDW confined between 0 ≤ zL with the optical axis n rotating in transverse direction x, n(x) = {cos(qx), sin(qx), 0}, where q = 2π/Λ and Λ is the modulation period. The Jones matrix of this optical component can be presented in the form M = M0 + M+1 + M-1, where

M0=[cos00cos],M±1=i2sinexp(±i2qx)[1±i±i1],
(1)

Φ = π(n|| - n)L/λ, n|| and n are the principal values of the refractive indices, and λ is the light wavelength in vacuum [39

39. T.-H. Lin and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Transflective spatial filter based on azo-dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011106 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. Thus, as is well known, there are, in general, only three waves propagating after the CDW. The 0th order beam disappears at half-wave phase retardation condition, Φ = π/2.

The Jones matrix of a birefringent and dichroic phase retarder film can be represented in the form [39

39. T.-H. Lin and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Transflective spatial filter based on azo-dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011106 (2005). [CrossRef]

]
R=exp(a1)exp(iφ1)[exp(a)exp(iφ)00exp(a)exp(iφ)],
(2)
where a1 = (n|| + n)d/2, φ1 = (n|| + n)d/2λ, a1 = (n|| - n)d/2, φ1 = (n|| + n)d/λ, d is the thickness of the film, and n||, n and a||, a are principal values of the refractive indices and absorption constants. The waves S obtained at the output of the CDW/NLC/CDW system under consideration are obtained by multiplying the Jones vector of the incident wave Ein by the matrix M+qRM-q, S = M+qRM-qEin. Assuming Ein to be linearly polarized at an angle with respect to the x-axis,
Ein=[cosβsinβ],
(3)
and considering further both CDWs meeting the half-wave phase retardation condition, Φ = π/2, we obtain that the system produces two pairs of right- and left-circular polarized beams, one of them diffracted at twice the diffraction angle:
S±1=12exp(±i2qx)exp(±iβ)exp(a_)exp(iφ_)[coshacosφ+isinhasinφ][1i] 
(4)
and the second pair propagating at 0th diffraction order (transmitted beams):

S0=12exp(±iβ)exp(a_)exp(iφ_)[sinhacosφ+icoshasinφ][1±i].
(5)

The total transmission of the system along the direction of the incident beam is thus equal to

T=e2a_(sinh2a+sin2φ).
(6)

Note that the transmission stays finite due to dichroism even at φ = 0: the circular polarized beams produced by the first CDW become elliptical at the output of the dichroic film, and each of them acquires right- and left-hand circular polarized components contributing both into diffracted as well as transmitted beams. At a fixed dichroism value, the switching contrast, however, is determined by the absorption dichroism only, C.R. = coth2a. There is no limitation though in our situation where the dichroism disappears at nematic-isotropic transition point.

4. Summary

In summary, a photosensitive azo NLC phase retarder was inserted between two cycloidal diffractive waveplates and utilized in a half-wave retardation condition. Under normal usage, the architecture enabled collinear propagation of both polarization states of incoming radiation. We demonstrate that upon green irradiation (both CW and single nanosecond pulse radiation) the transmission of the system could be all-optically switched to a doubly diffracting condition. Switchable contrast of more than 100:1 are reported. Very little scatter is observed and no polarization sensitivity is observed. Response times on the order of a 1 second can be obtained for < 10 mW CW beam. Nonlinear transmission takes place also for single nanosecond pulses at low energy density levels. Higher photosensitivity of the mixture resulted in faster response times. This concept can readily be extended to controlling birefringence with different types of materials, processes, and mechanisms.

References and links

1.

S. Kitsinelis, Light sources: technologies and applications (Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL, 2011).

2.

M. Csele, Fundamentals of light sources and lasers (John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ, 2004).

3.

M. O’Neill and S. M. Kelly, “Ordered materials for organic electronics and photonics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(5), 566–584 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

T. Smeeton and C. Humphreys, “Perspectives on electronic and optoelectronic materials,” in Springer handbook of electronic and photonic materials, S. O. Kasap and P. Capper, eds. (Springer, New York, NY, 2006).

5.

S. Ossicini, L. Pavesi, and F. Priolo, Light emitting silicon for microphotonics (Springer, Berlin, 2003).

6.

A. Al-Azzawi, Photonics: principles and practices (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2007).

7.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of photonics (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2007).

8.

A. Urbas, J. Klosterman, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, O. Tsutsumi, T. Ikeda, and T. Bunning, “Optically switchable bragg reflectors,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(16), 1453–1456 (2004). [CrossRef]

9.

R. T. Pogue, L. V. Natarajan, S. A. Siwecki, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, and T. J. Bunning, “Monomer functionality effects in the anisotropic phase separation of liquid crystals,” Polymer (Guildf.) 41(2), 733–741 (2000). [CrossRef]

10.

R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, S. Chandra, C. K. Shepherd, D. M. Brandelik, S. A. Siwecki, and T. J. Bunning, “Polarization and switching properties of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal gratings. II. Experimental investigations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(12), 3004–3012 (2002). [CrossRef]

11.

J. Klosterman, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. White, C. A. Guymon, and T. J. Bunning, “The influence of surfactant in reflective HPDLC gratings,” Polymer (Guildf.) 45(21), 7213–7218 (2004). [CrossRef]

12.

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, and R. L. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs),” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30(1), 83–115 (2000). [CrossRef]

13.

A. Urbas, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, H. Yu, J. H. Li, and T. Bunning, “Optically switchable liquid crystal photonic structures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(42), 13580–13581 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

M. J. Booth, “Adaptive optics in microscopy,” Philos. Transact. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 365(1861), 2829–2843 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

J. Squier and M. Muller, “High resolution nonlinear microscopy: A review of sources and methods for achieving optimal imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(7), 2855–2867 (2001). [CrossRef]

16.

M. C. Wu, O. Solgaard, and J. E. Ford, “Optical MEMS for lightwave communication,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4433–4454 (2006). [CrossRef]

17.

D. K. Yang and S. T. Wu, Fundamentals of liquid crystal devices (John Wiley, West Sussex, England, 2006).

18.

R. R. Hainich and O. Bimber, Displays: fundamentals & applications (Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL, 2011).

19.

S. T. Wu and D. K. Yang, Reflective liquid crystal displays (Wiley, West Sussex, England, 2001).

20.

T. J. White, M. E. McConney, and T. J. Bunning, “Dynamic color in stimuli-responsive cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(44), 9832–9847 (2010). [CrossRef]

21.

D. Brennan, J. Justice, B. Corbett, T. McCarthy, and P. Galvin, “Emerging optofluidic technologies for point-of-care genetic analysis systems: a review,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 395(3), 621–636 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

G. Sinclair, P. Jordan, J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, and J. Cooper, “Defining the trapping limits of holographical optical tweezers,” J. Mod. Opt. 51(3), 409–414 (2004). [CrossRef]

23.

W. R. Jamroz, R. V. Kruzelecky, and E. I. Haddad, Applied microphotonics (CRC Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL, 2006).

24.

W. T. Welford, Aberrations of optical systems (Taylor and Francis, New York, NY, 1986).

25.

W. Cai and V. Shalaev, Optical metamaterials (Springer, New York, NY, 2010).

26.

O. D. Lavrentovich, “Liquid crystals, photonic crystals, metamaterials, and transformation optics,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(13), 5143–5144 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

Y. Yu and T. Ikeda, “Alignment modulation of azobenzene-containing liquid crystal systems by photochemical reactions,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. 5(3), 247–265 (2004). [CrossRef]

28.

S. R. Nersisyan, N. V. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “The promise of diffractive waveplates,” Opt. Photon. News 21(3), 40–45 (2010). [CrossRef]

29.

N. V. Tabiryan, S. R. Nersisyan, T. J. White, T. J. Bunning, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Transparent thin film polarizing and optical control systems,” AIP Advances 1(2), 022153 (2011). [CrossRef]

30.

S. R. Nersisyan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Polarization insensitive imaging through polarization gratings,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1817–1830 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

31.

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32.

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33.

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Azobenzene liquid crystalline materials for efficient optical switching with pulsed and/or continuous wave laser beams,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8697–8704 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

34.

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Optically switchable, rapidly relaxing cholesteric liquid crystal reflectors,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9651–9657 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

35.

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36.

I. C. Khoo, M. Wood, M. Y. Shih, and P. Chen, “Extremely nonlinear photosensitive liquid crystals for image sensing and sensor protection,” Opt. Express 4(11), 432–442 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

37.

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shih, and A. Shishido, “Supra optical nonlinearities of potosensitive nematic liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Crys. A 364(1), 141–149 (2001). [CrossRef]

38.

L. Deng and H.-K. Liu, “Nonlinear optical limiting of the azo dye methyl-red doped nematic liquid crystalline films,” Opt. Eng. 42(10), 2936–2941 (2003). [CrossRef]

39.

T.-H. Lin and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Transflective spatial filter based on azo-dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011106 (2005). [CrossRef]

40.

L. Nikolova and S. Ramanujam, Polarization holography (Cambridge University Press, 2009).

OCIS Codes
(160.3710) Materials : Liquid crystals
(190.4400) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, materials
(230.3990) Optical devices : Micro-optical devices
(260.5130) Physical optics : Photochemistry

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

History
Original Manuscript: January 5, 2012
Revised Manuscript: February 13, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: February 13, 2012
Published: February 21, 2012

Citation
Svetlana V. Serak, Rafael S. Hakobyan, Sarik R. Nersisyan, Nelson V. Tabiryan, Timothy J. White, Timothy J. Bunning, Diane M. Steeves, and Brian R. Kimball, "All-optical diffractive/transmissive switch based on coupled cycloidal diffractive waveplates," Opt. Express 20, 5460-5469 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-5-5460


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