## Extreme nonlinearities in InAs/InP nanowire gain media: the two-photon induced laser |

Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 6, pp. 5987-5992 (2012)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.005987

Acrobat PDF (1355 KB)

### Abstract

We demonstrate a novel laser oscillation scheme in an InAs / InP wire-like quantum dash gain medium. A short optical pulse excites carriers by two photon absorption which relax to the energy levels providing gain thereby enabling laser oscillations. The nonlinear dynamic interaction is analyzed and quantified using multi-color pump-probe measurements and shows a highly efficient nonlinear two photon excitation process which is larger by more than an order of magnitude compared to common quantum well and bulk gain media. The dynamic response of the nonlinearly induced laser line is characterized by spectrally resolved temporal response measurements, while changes incurring upon propagation in the stimulating short pulse itself are characterized by frequency resolved optical gating (FROG).

© 2012 OSA

## 1. Introduction

1. P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, “Generation of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **7**(4), 118–119 (1961). [CrossRef]

2. A. Hayat, P. Ginzburg, and M. Orenstein, “Observation of two-photon emission from semiconductors,” Nat. Photonics **2**(4), 238–241 (2008). [CrossRef]

5. W. Wenseleers, F. Stellacci, T. Meyer-Friedrichsen, T. Mangel, C. A. Bauer, S. J. K. Pond, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Five orders-of-magnitude enhancement of two-photon absorption for dyes on silver nanoparticle fractal clusters,” J. Phys. Chem. B **106**(27), 6853–6863 (2002). [CrossRef]

6. A. Capua, G. Eisenstein, and J. P. Reithmaier, “A nearly instantaneous gain response in quantum dash based optical amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. **97**(13), 131108 (2010). [CrossRef]

12. A. Capua, S. O’Duill, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Somers, and A. Forchel, “Cross talk free multi channel processing of 10 Gbit/s data via four wave mixing in a 1550 nm InAs/InP quantum dash amplifier,” Opt. Express **16**(23), 19072–19077 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13. P. Day, K. Nguyen, and R. Pachter, “Calculation of one- and two-Photon absorption spectra of thiolated gold nanoclusters using time-dependent density functional theory,” J. Chem. Theory Comput. **6**(9), 2809–2821 (2010). [CrossRef]

14. S. A. Khan, D. Senapati, T. Senapati, P. Bonifassi, Z. Fan, A. K. Singh, A. Neeley, G. Hill, and P. C. Ray, “Size dependent nonlinear optical properties of silver quantum clusters,” Chem. Phys. Lett. **512**(1-3), 92–95 (2011). [CrossRef]

15. H. Dery, E. Benisty, A. Epstein, R. Alizon, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, R. Schwertberger, D. Gold, J. P. Reithmaier, and A. Forchel, “On the nature of quantum dash structures,” J. Appl. Phys. **95**(11), 6103–6111 (2004). [CrossRef]

6. A. Capua, G. Eisenstein, and J. P. Reithmaier, “A nearly instantaneous gain response in quantum dash based optical amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. **97**(13), 131108 (2010). [CrossRef]

2. A. Hayat, P. Ginzburg, and M. Orenstein, “Observation of two-photon emission from semiconductors,” Nat. Photonics **2**(4), 238–241 (2008). [CrossRef]

## 2. Experimental results

16. A. Capua, G. Eisenstein, and J. P. Reithmaier, “Ultrafast cross saturation dynamics in inhomogeneously broadened InAs/InP quantum dash optical amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. **98**(10), 101108 (2011). [CrossRef]

16. A. Capua, G. Eisenstein, and J. P. Reithmaier, “Ultrafast cross saturation dynamics in inhomogeneously broadened InAs/InP quantum dash optical amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. **98**(10), 101108 (2011). [CrossRef]

6. A. Capua, G. Eisenstein, and J. P. Reithmaier, “A nearly instantaneous gain response in quantum dash based optical amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. **97**(13), 131108 (2010). [CrossRef]

17. H. Ju, A. V. Uskov, R. Nötzel, Z. Li, J. Molina Vázquez, D. Lenstra, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, “Effects of two-photon absorption on carrier dynamics in quantum-dot optical amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B **82**(4), 615–620 (2006). [CrossRef]

17. H. Ju, A. V. Uskov, R. Nötzel, Z. Li, J. Molina Vázquez, D. Lenstra, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, “Effects of two-photon absorption on carrier dynamics in quantum-dot optical amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B **82**(4), 615–620 (2006). [CrossRef]

*S*is the photon density, Γ

*and Γ*

_{L}*are the transverse modal linear and nonlinear confinement factors,*

_{NL}*g*is an effective gain coefficient which considers the inhomogeneous broadening and

*β*is the nonlinear TPA coefficient. Equation (2) describes qualitatively the parameters which determine

*β*where the summation occurs over the intermediate virtual states,

*k*, having energies

*E*.

_{k}*E*and

_{1}*E*are the energies of the two-photons while

_{2}*μ*,

*ê*, and Γ

*are the dipole moment of the initial to virtual and virtual to final states transitions, the field polarization and the decay rate, respectively.*

_{k}*Γ*and

_{NL}*Γ*(calculated from geometrical considerations), a fit of Eq. (1) resulted in an extremely large TPA coefficient of 540 cm/GW, which is more than an order of magnitude larger than in conventional bulk and QWell semiconductor optical amplifiers testifying to the potential of the QDash gain media for nonlinear applications. The large coefficient stems mainly from a large surface area with a significant index contrast typical of the dense assembly of InAs dashes (wires) which are embedded within AlGaInAs. That index contrast induces large potential distortions which enhance, in turn, the dipole moment

_{L}*μ*in Eq. (2). Moreover, in addition to the large TPA coefficient, the small nonlinear confinement factor extends the effective nonlinear interaction length thereby enhancing the two-photon excitation into the barrier.

**97**(13), 131108 (2010). [CrossRef]

16. A. Capua, G. Eisenstein, and J. P. Reithmaier, “Ultrafast cross saturation dynamics in inhomogeneously broadened InAs/InP quantum dash optical amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. **98**(10), 101108 (2011). [CrossRef]

18. H. Dery and G. Eisenstein, “Self-consistent rate equations of self assembly quantum wire lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. **40**(10), 1398–1409 (2004). [CrossRef]

19. M. Kessler and E. P. Ippen, “Subpicosecond spectra gain dynamics in AlGaAs laser diodes,” Electron. Lett. **24**(17), 1102–1104 (1988). [CrossRef]

21. A. Capua, A. Saal, O. Karni, G. Eisenstein, J. P. Reithmaier, and K. Yvind, “Complex characterization of short-pulse propagation through InAs/InP quantum-dash optical amplifiers: from the quasi-linear to the two-photon-dominated regime,” Opt. Express **20**(1), 347–353 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

**97**(13), 131108 (2010). [CrossRef]

18. H. Dery and G. Eisenstein, “Self-consistent rate equations of self assembly quantum wire lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. **40**(10), 1398–1409 (2004). [CrossRef]

22. D. Hadass, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, A. Somers, S. Deubert, W. Kaiser, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, D. Finzi, and Y. Maimon, “Time-resolved chirp in an InAs/InP quantum-dash optical amplifier operating with 10Gbit/s data,” Appl. Phys. Lett. **87**(2), 021104 (2005). [CrossRef]

## 3. Summary

## Acknowledgments

## References and links

1. | P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, “Generation of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

2. | A. Hayat, P. Ginzburg, and M. Orenstein, “Observation of two-photon emission from semiconductors,” Nat. Photonics |

3. | J. Costello, “Extreme-ultraviolet sources: higher harmonics with plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics |

4. | F. Wang, R. Deng, J. Wang, Q. Wang, Y. Han, H. Zhu, X. Chen, and X. Liu, “Tuning upconversion through energy migration in core-shell nanoparticles,” Nat. Mater. |

5. | W. Wenseleers, F. Stellacci, T. Meyer-Friedrichsen, T. Mangel, C. A. Bauer, S. J. K. Pond, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Five orders-of-magnitude enhancement of two-photon absorption for dyes on silver nanoparticle fractal clusters,” J. Phys. Chem. B |

6. | A. Capua, G. Eisenstein, and J. P. Reithmaier, “A nearly instantaneous gain response in quantum dash based optical amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. |

7. | C. F. Zhang, Z. W. Dong, G. J. You, R. Y. Zhu, S. X. Qian, H. Deng, H. Cheng, and J. C. Wang, “Femtosecond pulse excited two-photon photoluminescence and second harmonic generation in ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. |

8. | C. Zhang, F. Zhang, T. Xia, N. Kumar, J. I. Hahm, J. Liu, Z. L. Wang, and J. Xu, “Low-threshold two-photon pumped ZnO nanowire lasers,” Opt. Express |

9. | S. Dayal and C. Burda, “Semiconductor quantum dots as two-photon sensitizers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. |

10. | S. Schneider, P. Borri, W. Langbein, U. Woggon, J. Förstner, A. Knorr, R. L. Sellin, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, “Self-induced transparency in InGaAs quantum dot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. |

11. | P. Aivaliotis, E. A. Zibik, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, M. Hopkinson, and N. Q. Vinh, “Two photon absorption in quantum dot-in-a-well infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. |

12. | A. Capua, S. O’Duill, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Somers, and A. Forchel, “Cross talk free multi channel processing of 10 Gbit/s data via four wave mixing in a 1550 nm InAs/InP quantum dash amplifier,” Opt. Express |

13. | P. Day, K. Nguyen, and R. Pachter, “Calculation of one- and two-Photon absorption spectra of thiolated gold nanoclusters using time-dependent density functional theory,” J. Chem. Theory Comput. |

14. | S. A. Khan, D. Senapati, T. Senapati, P. Bonifassi, Z. Fan, A. K. Singh, A. Neeley, G. Hill, and P. C. Ray, “Size dependent nonlinear optical properties of silver quantum clusters,” Chem. Phys. Lett. |

15. | H. Dery, E. Benisty, A. Epstein, R. Alizon, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, R. Schwertberger, D. Gold, J. P. Reithmaier, and A. Forchel, “On the nature of quantum dash structures,” J. Appl. Phys. |

16. | A. Capua, G. Eisenstein, and J. P. Reithmaier, “Ultrafast cross saturation dynamics in inhomogeneously broadened InAs/InP quantum dash optical amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. |

17. | H. Ju, A. V. Uskov, R. Nötzel, Z. Li, J. Molina Vázquez, D. Lenstra, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, “Effects of two-photon absorption on carrier dynamics in quantum-dot optical amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B |

18. | H. Dery and G. Eisenstein, “Self-consistent rate equations of self assembly quantum wire lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. |

19. | M. Kessler and E. P. Ippen, “Subpicosecond spectra gain dynamics in AlGaAs laser diodes,” Electron. Lett. |

20. | R. Trebino, |

21. | A. Capua, A. Saal, O. Karni, G. Eisenstein, J. P. Reithmaier, and K. Yvind, “Complex characterization of short-pulse propagation through InAs/InP quantum-dash optical amplifiers: from the quasi-linear to the two-photon-dominated regime,” Opt. Express |

22. | D. Hadass, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, A. Somers, S. Deubert, W. Kaiser, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, D. Finzi, and Y. Maimon, “Time-resolved chirp in an InAs/InP quantum-dash optical amplifier operating with 10Gbit/s data,” Appl. Phys. Lett. |

**OCIS Codes**

(140.5960) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers

(250.5980) Optoelectronics : Semiconductor optical amplifiers

(320.0320) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast optics

(320.2250) Ultrafast optics : Femtosecond phenomena

(250.4390) Optoelectronics : Nonlinear optics, integrated optics

(250.5590) Optoelectronics : Quantum-well, -wire and -dot devices

**ToC Category:**

Lasers and Laser Optics

**History**

Original Manuscript: January 10, 2012

Revised Manuscript: February 9, 2012

Manuscript Accepted: February 9, 2012

Published: February 27, 2012

**Citation**

Amir Capua, Ouri Karni, Gadi Eisenstein, Johann Peter Reithmaier, and Kresten Yvind, "Extreme nonlinearities in InAs/InP nanowire gain media: the two-photon induced laser," Opt. Express **20**, 5987-5992 (2012)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-6-5987

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### References

- P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, “Generation of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.7(4), 118–119 (1961). [CrossRef]
- A. Hayat, P. Ginzburg, and M. Orenstein, “Observation of two-photon emission from semiconductors,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 238–241 (2008). [CrossRef]
- J. Costello, “Extreme-ultraviolet sources: higher harmonics with plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics5(11), 646–647 (2011). [CrossRef]
- F. Wang, R. Deng, J. Wang, Q. Wang, Y. Han, H. Zhu, X. Chen, and X. Liu, “Tuning upconversion through energy migration in core-shell nanoparticles,” Nat. Mater.10(12), 968–973 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- W. Wenseleers, F. Stellacci, T. Meyer-Friedrichsen, T. Mangel, C. A. Bauer, S. J. K. Pond, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Five orders-of-magnitude enhancement of two-photon absorption for dyes on silver nanoparticle fractal clusters,” J. Phys. Chem. B106(27), 6853–6863 (2002). [CrossRef]
- A. Capua, G. Eisenstein, and J. P. Reithmaier, “A nearly instantaneous gain response in quantum dash based optical amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(13), 131108 (2010). [CrossRef]
- C. F. Zhang, Z. W. Dong, G. J. You, R. Y. Zhu, S. X. Qian, H. Deng, H. Cheng, and J. C. Wang, “Femtosecond pulse excited two-photon photoluminescence and second harmonic generation in ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(4), 042117 (2006). [CrossRef]
- C. Zhang, F. Zhang, T. Xia, N. Kumar, J. I. Hahm, J. Liu, Z. L. Wang, and J. Xu, “Low-threshold two-photon pumped ZnO nanowire lasers,” Opt. Express17(10), 7893–7900 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- S. Dayal and C. Burda, “Semiconductor quantum dots as two-photon sensitizers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.130(10), 2890–2891 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- S. Schneider, P. Borri, W. Langbein, U. Woggon, J. Förstner, A. Knorr, R. L. Sellin, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, “Self-induced transparency in InGaAs quantum dot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(18), 3668–3670 (2003). [CrossRef]
- P. Aivaliotis, E. A. Zibik, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, M. Hopkinson, and N. Q. Vinh, “Two photon absorption in quantum dot-in-a-well infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(2), 023501 (2008). [CrossRef]
- A. Capua, S. O’Duill, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Somers, and A. Forchel, “Cross talk free multi channel processing of 10 Gbit/s data via four wave mixing in a 1550 nm InAs/InP quantum dash amplifier,” Opt. Express16(23), 19072–19077 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- P. Day, K. Nguyen, and R. Pachter, “Calculation of one- and two-Photon absorption spectra of thiolated gold nanoclusters using time-dependent density functional theory,” J. Chem. Theory Comput.6(9), 2809–2821 (2010). [CrossRef]
- S. A. Khan, D. Senapati, T. Senapati, P. Bonifassi, Z. Fan, A. K. Singh, A. Neeley, G. Hill, and P. C. Ray, “Size dependent nonlinear optical properties of silver quantum clusters,” Chem. Phys. Lett.512(1-3), 92–95 (2011). [CrossRef]
- H. Dery, E. Benisty, A. Epstein, R. Alizon, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, R. Schwertberger, D. Gold, J. P. Reithmaier, and A. Forchel, “On the nature of quantum dash structures,” J. Appl. Phys.95(11), 6103–6111 (2004). [CrossRef]
- A. Capua, G. Eisenstein, and J. P. Reithmaier, “Ultrafast cross saturation dynamics in inhomogeneously broadened InAs/InP quantum dash optical amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(10), 101108 (2011). [CrossRef]
- H. Ju, A. V. Uskov, R. Nötzel, Z. Li, J. Molina Vázquez, D. Lenstra, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, “Effects of two-photon absorption on carrier dynamics in quantum-dot optical amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B82(4), 615–620 (2006). [CrossRef]
- H. Dery and G. Eisenstein, “Self-consistent rate equations of self assembly quantum wire lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.40(10), 1398–1409 (2004). [CrossRef]
- M. Kessler and E. P. Ippen, “Subpicosecond spectra gain dynamics in AlGaAs laser diodes,” Electron. Lett.24(17), 1102–1104 (1988). [CrossRef]
- R. Trebino, Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating: The Measurement Of Ultrashort Laser Pulses (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002), Chap. 16.
- A. Capua, A. Saal, O. Karni, G. Eisenstein, J. P. Reithmaier, and K. Yvind, “Complex characterization of short-pulse propagation through InAs/InP quantum-dash optical amplifiers: from the quasi-linear to the two-photon-dominated regime,” Opt. Express20(1), 347–353 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- D. Hadass, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, A. Somers, S. Deubert, W. Kaiser, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, D. Finzi, and Y. Maimon, “Time-resolved chirp in an InAs/InP quantum-dash optical amplifier operating with 10Gbit/s data,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(2), 021104 (2005). [CrossRef]

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