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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 6 — Mar. 12, 2012
  • pp: 6406–6411
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Dissipative soliton in actively mode-locked fiber laser

Ruixin Wang, Yitang Dai, Li Yan, Jian Wu, Kun Xu, Yan Li, and Jintong Lin  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 6, pp. 6406-6411 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.006406


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Abstract

A dissipative soliton in an all-normal-dispersion actively mode-locked ytterbium-doped fiber laser is reported for the first time. Pulses with 10-ps duration and edge-to-edge bandwidth of 9 nm are generated, and then extra-cavity compressed down to 560 fs due to the large chirp. Widely wavelength tuning between 1031 and 1080 nm is achieved by adjusting the driving frequency only. Our simulation shows that the proposed laser operates in the dissipative soliton shaping regime.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

High-energy short optical pulses are important for many applications, especially in data inquiring process (e.g. the bio-imaging, ultra-fast sampling) where higher energy results in stronger interaction between the optical field and material sample, and then a higher signal-to-noise ratio. Fiber femtosecond lasers are appealing alternatives to bulk solid-state lasers owing to their compact size, excellent stability, and no-alignment requirement. However, their applications have been limited by the low pulse energy, due to the soliton breaking under overlarge fiber nonlinearity. Recently the dissipative soliton was proposed to increase the pulse energy, which exists in the all-normal-dispersion (ANDi) cavities [1

1. A. Chong, J. Buckley, W. Renninger, and F. Wise, “All-normal-dispersion femtosecond fiber laser,” Opt. Express 14(21), 10095–10100 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,2

2. J. M. Soto-Crespo, N. Akhmediev, and G. Town, “Interrelation between various branches of stable solitons in dissipative systems-conjecture for stability criterion,” Opt. Commun. 199(1-4), 283–293 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. With the normal chirp induced by self-phase modulation, the high-energy pulse would be broadened monotonically in fiber by the normal dispersion, which decreases the peak power and prevents the wave breaking. Pulses with tens of nJ have been reported [3

3. A. Chong, W. H. Renninger, and F. W. Wise, “All-normal-dispersion femtosecond fiber laser with pulse energy above 20 nJ,” Opt. Lett. 32(16), 2408–2410 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5

5. K. Kieu, W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, “Sub-100 fs pulses at watt-level powers from a dissipative-soliton fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 34(5), 593–595 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Until now the dissipative solitons are only realized in passively mode-locked lasers. Extra operation is required if the pulse repetition rate should be synchronized to an external clock, which is typically a frequency comparison feedback followed by dynamically cavity length control. Such synchronization is often a must in data inquiring. Though active mode locking provides a much simpler operation, by modulating the cavity directly with the external clock, there are still two drawbacks in the reported schemes. Firstly, actively mode-locked lasers often have repetition rate of 10 GHz or larger, which is too high for many data inquiring processes (e.g. bio-imaging and optical sampling oscilloscope). Secondly, current actively mode-locked pulses have very limited energy (only a few pJ) [6

6. G. T. Harvey and L. F. Mollenauer, “Harmonically mode-locked fiber ring laser with an internal Fabry-Perot stabilizer for soliton transmission,” Opt. Lett. 18(2), 107–109 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8

8. C. M. Wu and N. K. Dutta, “High-repetition-rate optical pulse generation using a rational harmonic mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(2), 145–150 (2000). [CrossRef]

], partly due to the high rate and limited average power. So an actively mode-locked fiber laser with high pulse energy and appropriate rate is expected for many applications. Besides, wavelength tunability is also useful in, e.g., medical, biological and optical precision metrological fields, which is ordinarily achieved through mechanically tuning filters [9

9. L. J. Kong, X. S. Xiao, and C. X. Yang, “Tunable all-normal-dispersion Yb-doped mode-locked fiber lasers,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), JTuD70 (2009).

].

In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate for the first time the active mode locking accompanied by the high-energy dissipative soliton shaping. In an ANDi cavity oscillating at 1060 nm band, dissipative soliton is reported with repetition rate around 44.1 MHz. Synchronization with external clock is achieved without additional feedback due to the active mode locking. High pulse energy of 1.58 nJ is obtained through dissipative soliton shaping. The pulse has a 10-ps duration and edge-to-edge bandwidth of 9 nm, and is extra-cavity compressed down to 560 fs. Dissipative soliton shaping inside such actively mode-locked fiber laser is confirmed by simulation. A wide wavelength tunability is also studied, and pulses from 1031 nm to 1080 nm are obtained by simply adjusting the driving frequency. Such tunability is confirmed by theory.

2. Design and simulations

The structure illustrated in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Illustration of the fiber laser cavity elements used for the proposed model. IM: intensity modulator.
is employed to investigate the dissipative soliton generation in actively mode-locked fiber laser. The key elements of such a laser are a segment of Yb-doped fiber (YDF), a segment of single-mode fiber (SMF), and component that produces pulse-amplitude modulation. It is interesting to compare our laser design with former lasers: intensity modulator (IM) plays the similar role as saturable absorber in passively mode-locked laser; comparing with conventional actively mode-locked laser, a novel modulation format applied on the IM, which is driven by a modulation pattern containing one “1” among many “0”s instead. So the pattern period of IM is the same as the fundamental frequency of the cavity.

In our numerical model, pulse propagation within each component in Fig. 1 follows that described in [10

10. F. Ö. Ilday, J. R. Buckley, W. G. Clark, and F. W. Wise, “Self-similar evolution of parabolic pulses in a laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(21), 213902 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Simulation parameters: for YDF, the length is 1.5 m, group velocity dispersion (GVD) is −38.5 ps/nm/km, nonlinear coefficient (γ) is 4.928 W−1/km, small-signal gain (g0) is 2 m−1, 3 dB-bandwidth of its parabolic-frequency-dependent gain profile (Ωg) is 40 nm, and the gain saturation energy (Esat) is 1 nJ. For SMF, the length is 3 m and GVD is −48 ps/nm/km. The IM in our scheme has a fixed Gaussian modulation profile with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of about 33 ps. As an initial condition, white noise is used. With a standard split-step beam propagation method, the model is solved by iterating the initial field until the field becomes constant to ensure that a stable mode-locked pulse operation has been reached after a finite number of traversals of the cavity [10

10. F. Ö. Ilday, J. R. Buckley, W. G. Clark, and F. W. Wise, “Self-similar evolution of parabolic pulses in a laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(21), 213902 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

A stable solution is presented in Fig. 2(a)
Fig. 2 Numerical simulation results. (a) Temporal intensity profile with linear chirp, inset: optical spectrum of the pulse. (b) Evolution of pulse width (blue) and spectral bandwidth (black) through the laser cavity.
for the situation that small-signal gain (g0) is 2 m−1. The output pulse duration is 13.2 ps with large-normal-chirp and can be dechirped to 349 fs outside the laser. The corresponding 9.7-nm spectrum [Fig. 2(a) inset] has steep spectral edges and its profile approaches a rectangular shape, which, as well as the normal chirp, is typical characteristic of the dissipative soliton from the passive mode locking.

So far, the dissipative soliton shaping has only been demonstrated in passive mode locking, where the mode locking elements (e.g. nonlinear polarization rotation, NPR) provide power-dependent windowing on the passing optical pulse [9

9. L. J. Kong, X. S. Xiao, and C. X. Yang, “Tunable all-normal-dispersion Yb-doped mode-locked fiber lasers,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), JTuD70 (2009).

11

11. F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Dissipative solitons compounds in a fiber laser: Analogy with the ststes of the matter,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1-2), 107–114 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. Instead, in the proposed scheme, the IM is driven by a digital pattern containing “1” and “0”s. Our numerical study has proved that such fixed modulation acts the same role (as NPR) during the dissipative soliton shaping process, which is illustrated in Fig. 2(b): in this all-normal-dispersion cavity, the evolution of the dissipative soliton properties (e.g. the bandwidth) are monotonically changed along the fiber; the fixed windowing, narrowing the pulse duration as well as the bandwidth due to the large chirp, reverse the above changes and thus restore the pulse after traversal of the cavity [10

10. F. Ö. Ilday, J. R. Buckley, W. G. Clark, and F. W. Wise, “Self-similar evolution of parabolic pulses in a laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(21), 213902 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Obviously the above pulse shaping mechanism is totally different from soliton shaping in ordinary actively mode-locked lasers [6

6. G. T. Harvey and L. F. Mollenauer, “Harmonically mode-locked fiber ring laser with an internal Fabry-Perot stabilizer for soliton transmission,” Opt. Lett. 18(2), 107–109 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8

8. C. M. Wu and N. K. Dutta, “High-repetition-rate optical pulse generation using a rational harmonic mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(2), 145–150 (2000). [CrossRef]

].

3. Experimental results and discussion

Figure 3
Fig. 3 Experimental setup of the proposed active mode locking.
shows our experimental setup. A 1.5-m Yb-doped fiber (YDF, Nufern, SM-YSF-HI) with group velocity dispersion (GVD) of −38.5 ps/nm/km and absorption of 250 dBm @ 975 nm is used, which is forward pumped by a 974.3 nm laser diode through a 980/1060 nm wavelength division multiplexer (WDM). A LiNbO3 Mach-Zehnder intensity modulator (EOSpace, 10 GHz) is employed to realize the active mode locking. Due to the polarization dependence of the IM, a polarizer is used before the intensity modulator to make sure the IM works at the correct polarization state, and a polarization controller to optimize the polarization state. Finally, an isolator is employed to ensure unidirectional operation, and a 10:90 optical coupler to output the signal. Besides the YDF, other fibers (pigtails) are single mode fibers (SMFs) with GVD of −48 ps/nm/km and length of about 3 m. The total length of the cavity is about 4.5 m, corresponding to a fundamental frequency of about 44.1 MHz.

It is known that a dissipative soliton requires much higher pulse energy than the regular soliton due to the normal-dispersion-induced pulse broadening [15

15. W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, “Dissipative solitons in normal-dispersion fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 77(2), 023814 (2008). [CrossRef]

, 16

16. K. Kieu and F. W. Wise, “All-fiber normal-dispersion femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11453–11458 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. For the conventional active mode locking, which is always driven by a sinusoidal RF tone, the pulse repetition rate is as high as ~GHz. So the single pulse energy is quite low. In our active laser, the pattern generator has a data rate of 10.77 GHz, while there is only one “1” every m = 244 symbols, followed by 243 (m-1) “0”s. So the pulse sequence to drive the intensity modulator has a repetition rate of 44.1 MHz, the same as the fundamental frequency of the cavity. Correspondingly, only one single pulse exists during the cavity loop, and large pulse energy can be obtained under an average pump.

For example, with the pump power of 195 mW, the typical results for the output of the laser are shown in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Autocorrelation trace of output pulse (black) and Gaussian fit (red, dashed curve). (b) 100-MHz-span RF spectrum. (c) Optical spectrum of the output pulse. (d) Autocorrelation function of the dechirped output pulses (black line), and the Fourier-limited autocorrelation function calculated by a fast Fourier transform of the optical spectrum are shown (red, dashed curve).
. Figure 4(a) shows the autocorrelation trace of the pulse having a FWHM of 13.7 ps. The one-pulse-per-loop mode locking is confirmed by intensity auto-correlation and electronic spectrum analysis after high-speed photo detector. Figure 4(b) is the RF spectrum of the pulse, which shows a stable 44.1-MHz pulse train. The measured output power of the pulse is 7 mW, accordingly, single pulse energy after YDF is about 1.58 nJ, which is much higher than conventional actively mode-locked lasers (a few pJ [6

6. G. T. Harvey and L. F. Mollenauer, “Harmonically mode-locked fiber ring laser with an internal Fabry-Perot stabilizer for soliton transmission,” Opt. Lett. 18(2), 107–109 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8

8. C. M. Wu and N. K. Dutta, “High-repetition-rate optical pulse generation using a rational harmonic mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(2), 145–150 (2000). [CrossRef]

]). Such high pulse energy (m times of the conventional actively mode-locked lasers) will then support the dissipative soliton shaping. Under the same circumstance as Fig. 4(a), the measured optical spectrum of the output pulse is shown in Fig. 4(c). The spectrum is qualitatively similar to the simulated spectrum [Fig. 2(a) inset]. A striking feature is that the spectrum has steep spectral edges and its profile approaches a rectangular shape. The edge-to-edge width (20-dB bandwidth) is 9.0 nm, indicating that the pulse is strongly chirped. Simulation in Fig. 2(b) shows that under the active-modulation-based fixed windowing, dissipative soliton shaping still exists. As a result, the output shares the same typical characteristics as the dissipative soliton from the passive mode locking [4

4. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and Ph. Grelu, “Roadmap to ultra-short record high-energy pulses out of laser oscillators,” Phys. Lett. A 372(17), 3124–3128 (2008). [CrossRef]

].

The output pulse is externally dechirped using a grating pair (Thorlabs, 1200 lines/mm). The autocorrelation of dechirped pulse has a FWHM of 764 fs, which is shown in Fig. 4(d). Using the deconvolution factor of 1.364, which was calculated from the Fourier-limited pulse and autocorrelation widths, the pulse duration of the chirped and compressed pulses are 10 ps and 560 fs, respectively [17

17. D. Mortag, D. Wandt, U. Morgner, D. Kracht, and J. Neumann, “Sub-80-fs pulses from an all-fiber-integrated dissipative-soliton laser at 1 µm,” Opt. Express 19(2), 546–551 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Obviously, the compressed pulse width is narrower than that in former actively mode-locked lasers (a few ps [6

6. G. T. Harvey and L. F. Mollenauer, “Harmonically mode-locked fiber ring laser with an internal Fabry-Perot stabilizer for soliton transmission,” Opt. Lett. 18(2), 107–109 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8

8. C. M. Wu and N. K. Dutta, “High-repetition-rate optical pulse generation using a rational harmonic mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(2), 145–150 (2000). [CrossRef]

]). The dechirped pulse has a little tail on the trailing side due to the limited precision of our autocorrelator. The dechirped pulse duration is close to the transform limit (491 fs), which implies an approximately linear chirp on the generated pulse.

The tunability of the proposed actively mode-locked dissipative soliton laser is discussed. Firstly, as a characteristic of the passive dissipative soliton lasers, it has been demonstrated that the pump power increase will induce the output spectrum broadening [18

18. L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, and J. Wu, “Gain-guided soliton in a positive group-dispersion fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1788–1790 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 19

19. Z. X. Zhang and G. X. Dai, “All-normal-dispersion dissipative soliton ytterbium fiber laser without dispersion compensation and additional filter,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(6), 1023–1029 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. The same phenomenon is observed in our experiment, as shown in Fig. 5(a)
Fig. 5 (a) Variation of the active dissipative soliton spectrum with pump power. Inset: the output power and bandwidth variations. (b) Spectrum shifting by tuning the modulation frequency, Inset: wavelength variation along with repetition rate tuning (the mean rate is 44.14 MHz).
. When the pump power is tuned from 18.6 dBm to 22.4 dBm, the output power is changed from 0.2 dBm to 7.1 dBm, and the edge-to-edge bandwidth change of 3.3 nm is obtained. Note that the characteristic of steep spectral edges is kept during the pump increase, while a maximum spectral peak change of 5 dB is observed.

Secondly, due to the relatively large normal dispersion (estimated as −0.21 ps/nm) of the cavity, it takes different periods of time to travel the cavity loop once for pulses with different wavelengths. The pulse with the specific round-trip time that equals to the pattern period will be selected, since it suffers the minimum loss when passing the modulation window. As a result, the lasing wavelength could be tuned by simply adjusting the data rate of the pattern generator, which is faster than the usual mechanically tuning of the filters in passively mode-locked lasers [9

9. L. J. Kong, X. S. Xiao, and C. X. Yang, “Tunable all-normal-dispersion Yb-doped mode-locked fiber lasers,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), JTuD70 (2009).

]. In our experiment, when the pump power is kept unchanged (about 21.5 dBm), the center wavelength of the stable mode-locked pulses is tuned from 1031 nm to 1080 nm as the repetition rate is tuned from 44.129 to 44.149 MHz, resulting in a wavelength tuning rate of 2.45 nm/kHz, as shown in Fig. 5(b). According to [20

20. S. L. Pan, X. F. Zhao, W. K. Yu, and C. Y. Lou, “Dispersion-tuned multiwavelength actively mode-locked fiber laser using a hybrid gain medium,” Opt. Laser Technol. 40(6), 854–857 (2008). [CrossRef]

], wavelength tuning rate is given by:
δλ/δfrep=1/χfrep2
(1)
where χ is the total dispersion of the cavity, and frep is the output repetition rate. By Fig. 5(b) and the above equation, the total cavity dispersion is calculated as −0.21 ps/nm, which is consistent with the experiment. Note that when the center pulse wavelength shifts toward the long-wavelength side to 1080 nm, noise increases at the blue side, which comes from the non-uniform gain profile of the YDF. Besides the driving frequency, the cavity length adjusting can also result in the aimed wavelength tuning due to the large dispersion [21

21. S. L. Pan and C. Y. Lou, “Multiwavelength pulse generation using an actively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring laser based on distributed dispersion cavity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(4), 604–606 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. Such property provides us a simple way for short pulse wavelength tuning.

The normal dispersion of the cavity contributes to the mode locking stabilization too: variation of the cavity length from environmental changes (temperature, vibration, etc.) is compensated by the slight and self-adapting change of the wavelength [20

20. S. L. Pan, X. F. Zhao, W. K. Yu, and C. Y. Lou, “Dispersion-tuned multiwavelength actively mode-locked fiber laser using a hybrid gain medium,” Opt. Laser Technol. 40(6), 854–857 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. We experimentally observe continuous mode locking for hours without any stabilization mechanism. Besides, polarization fluctuation can be prevented by using polarization-maintaining components.

4. Conclusion

In conclusion, we experimentally demonstrated the generation of dissipative soliton in an actively mode-locked ANDi fiber laser, with the specific characteristic of steep spectral edges or rectangular-like spectrum. The strongly-chirped output pulse was 10 ps, which was dechirped to 560 fs by a grating pair outside the cavity. Dissipative soliton with edge-to-edge bandwidth of about 9 nm and wavelength tuning from 1031 to 1080 nm was realized by adjusting the modulation rate. Due to the simple synchronization to external clock and large pulse energy, many applications would benefit from the novel laser.

Acknowledgment

This work was supported in part by National 973 Program (2012CB315705), NSFC Programs (61107058, 61120106001), 863 Program (2011AA010306), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.

References and links

1.

A. Chong, J. Buckley, W. Renninger, and F. Wise, “All-normal-dispersion femtosecond fiber laser,” Opt. Express 14(21), 10095–10100 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

J. M. Soto-Crespo, N. Akhmediev, and G. Town, “Interrelation between various branches of stable solitons in dissipative systems-conjecture for stability criterion,” Opt. Commun. 199(1-4), 283–293 (2001). [CrossRef]

3.

A. Chong, W. H. Renninger, and F. W. Wise, “All-normal-dispersion femtosecond fiber laser with pulse energy above 20 nJ,” Opt. Lett. 32(16), 2408–2410 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and Ph. Grelu, “Roadmap to ultra-short record high-energy pulses out of laser oscillators,” Phys. Lett. A 372(17), 3124–3128 (2008). [CrossRef]

5.

K. Kieu, W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, “Sub-100 fs pulses at watt-level powers from a dissipative-soliton fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 34(5), 593–595 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

G. T. Harvey and L. F. Mollenauer, “Harmonically mode-locked fiber ring laser with an internal Fabry-Perot stabilizer for soliton transmission,” Opt. Lett. 18(2), 107–109 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

T. F. Carruthers and I. N. Duling III, “10-GHz, 1.3-ps erbium fiber laser employing soliton pulse shortening,” Opt. Lett. 21(23), 1927–1929 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

C. M. Wu and N. K. Dutta, “High-repetition-rate optical pulse generation using a rational harmonic mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(2), 145–150 (2000). [CrossRef]

9.

L. J. Kong, X. S. Xiao, and C. X. Yang, “Tunable all-normal-dispersion Yb-doped mode-locked fiber lasers,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), JTuD70 (2009).

10.

F. Ö. Ilday, J. R. Buckley, W. G. Clark, and F. W. Wise, “Self-similar evolution of parabolic pulses in a laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(21), 213902 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Dissipative solitons compounds in a fiber laser: Analogy with the ststes of the matter,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1-2), 107–114 (2010). [CrossRef]

12.

A. Chong, W. H. Renninger, and F. W. Wise, “Properties of normal-dispersion femtosecond fiber lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(2), 140–148 (2008). [CrossRef]

13.

M. A. Abdelalim, Y. Logvin, D. A. Khalil, and H. Anis, “Properties and stability limits of an optimized mode-locked Yb-doped femtosecond fiber laser,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2264–2279 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(7), 1049–1056 (1997). [CrossRef]

15.

W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, “Dissipative solitons in normal-dispersion fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 77(2), 023814 (2008). [CrossRef]

16.

K. Kieu and F. W. Wise, “All-fiber normal-dispersion femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11453–11458 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

D. Mortag, D. Wandt, U. Morgner, D. Kracht, and J. Neumann, “Sub-80-fs pulses from an all-fiber-integrated dissipative-soliton laser at 1 µm,” Opt. Express 19(2), 546–551 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, and J. Wu, “Gain-guided soliton in a positive group-dispersion fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1788–1790 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

Z. X. Zhang and G. X. Dai, “All-normal-dispersion dissipative soliton ytterbium fiber laser without dispersion compensation and additional filter,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(6), 1023–1029 (2011). [CrossRef]

20.

S. L. Pan, X. F. Zhao, W. K. Yu, and C. Y. Lou, “Dispersion-tuned multiwavelength actively mode-locked fiber laser using a hybrid gain medium,” Opt. Laser Technol. 40(6), 854–857 (2008). [CrossRef]

21.

S. L. Pan and C. Y. Lou, “Multiwavelength pulse generation using an actively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring laser based on distributed dispersion cavity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(4), 604–606 (2006). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.3510) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, fiber
(140.3538) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, pulsed
(140.3615) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, ytterbium

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: January 4, 2012
Revised Manuscript: February 26, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: February 27, 2012
Published: March 5, 2012

Citation
Ruixin Wang, Yitang Dai, Li Yan, Jian Wu, Kun Xu, Yan Li, and Jintong Lin, "Dissipative soliton in actively mode-locked fiber laser," Opt. Express 20, 6406-6411 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-6-6406


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References

  1. A. Chong, J. Buckley, W. Renninger, and F. Wise, “All-normal-dispersion femtosecond fiber laser,” Opt. Express14(21), 10095–10100 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. M. Soto-Crespo, N. Akhmediev, and G. Town, “Interrelation between various branches of stable solitons in dissipative systems-conjecture for stability criterion,” Opt. Commun.199(1-4), 283–293 (2001). [CrossRef]
  3. A. Chong, W. H. Renninger, and F. W. Wise, “All-normal-dispersion femtosecond fiber laser with pulse energy above 20 nJ,” Opt. Lett.32(16), 2408–2410 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and Ph. Grelu, “Roadmap to ultra-short record high-energy pulses out of laser oscillators,” Phys. Lett. A372(17), 3124–3128 (2008). [CrossRef]
  5. K. Kieu, W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, “Sub-100 fs pulses at watt-level powers from a dissipative-soliton fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.34(5), 593–595 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. T. Harvey and L. F. Mollenauer, “Harmonically mode-locked fiber ring laser with an internal Fabry-Perot stabilizer for soliton transmission,” Opt. Lett.18(2), 107–109 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. F. Carruthers and I. N. Duling, “10-GHz, 1.3-ps erbium fiber laser employing soliton pulse shortening,” Opt. Lett.21(23), 1927–1929 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. M. Wu and N. K. Dutta, “High-repetition-rate optical pulse generation using a rational harmonic mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.36(2), 145–150 (2000). [CrossRef]
  9. L. J. Kong, X. S. Xiao, and C. X. Yang, “Tunable all-normal-dispersion Yb-doped mode-locked fiber lasers,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), JTuD70 (2009).
  10. F. Ö. Ilday, J. R. Buckley, W. G. Clark, and F. W. Wise, “Self-similar evolution of parabolic pulses in a laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92(21), 213902 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Dissipative solitons compounds in a fiber laser: Analogy with the ststes of the matter,” Appl. Phys. B99(1-2), 107–114 (2010). [CrossRef]
  12. A. Chong, W. H. Renninger, and F. W. Wise, “Properties of normal-dispersion femtosecond fiber lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B25(2), 140–148 (2008). [CrossRef]
  13. M. A. Abdelalim, Y. Logvin, D. A. Khalil, and H. Anis, “Properties and stability limits of an optimized mode-locked Yb-doped femtosecond fiber laser,” Opt. Express17(4), 2264–2279 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.33(7), 1049–1056 (1997). [CrossRef]
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