OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 7 — Mar. 26, 2012
  • pp: 6927–6931
« Show journal navigation

Reflective three-dimensional displays using the cholesteric liquid crystal with an inner patterned retarder

Kwang-Soo Bae, Uiyeong Cha, Yeon-Kyu Moon, Jeong Wook Heo, You-Jin Lee, Jae-Hoon Kim, and Chang-Jae Yu  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 7, pp. 6927-6931 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.006927


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1378 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We propose a reflective three-dimensional (3D) display using a cholesteric liquid crystal (ChLC) with an inner patterned retarder producing half-wave retardation. The inner patterned retarder, fabricated by selective ultra-violet exposure to the aligned reactive mesogen, divides the circularly polarized light reflected from the ChLC layer into two orthogonal circular polarizations. These reflected orthogonal polarizations construct stereoscopic 3D images without any optical components such as a polarizer and backlight unit.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

In this work, we proposed a reflective 3D display based on the cholesteric liquid crystal (ChLC) display with an embedded patterned retarder. Since the ChLC display using the polarization-selective reflection is operated in a reflective mode without a polarizer, the patterned retarder can be embedded within the LCD panel. The inner patterned retarder was fabricated by the selective ultra-violet (UV) exposure to liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) through an amplitude photo-mask. Here, the patterned LCP layer changes orthogonally the polarization state of the reflected light from the ChLC cell [2

2. D. Matsunaga, T. Tamaki, H. Akiyama, and K. Ichimura, “Photofabrication of micro-patterned polarizing elements for stereoscopic sisplays,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(20), 1477–1480 (2002). [CrossRef]

, 9

9. G. Myhre and S. Pau, “Imaging capability of patterned liquid crystals,” Appl. Opt. 48(32), 6152–6158 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. We could obtain stereoscopic 3D images through dividing the reflected light into two orthogonal polarizations. In addition, this reflective 3D display does not require a color filter and backlight unit since the reflective ChLC mode is used [10

10. N. Tamaoki, “Cholesteric liquid crystals for color information technology,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 13(15), 1135–1147 (2001). [CrossRef]

12

12. H. Shirvani-Mahdavi, E. Mohajerani, and S.-T. Wu, “Circularly polarized high-efficiency cholesteric liquid crystal lasers with a tunable nematic phase retarder,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5021–5027 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/viewmedia.cfm?URI=oe-18-5-5021&seq=0. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The reflective 3D display proposed here is expected to create novel 3D displays with low power consumption due to their memory characteristics in the conventional ChLC modes and the reflective configuration without backlight unit.

2. Operating principle and experiments

Figure 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the ChLC device with the inner patterned retarder for the reflective 3D display.
shows a schematic diagram of our reflective 3D display based on the ChLC panel with an inner patterned retarder. The incident light was selectively reflected from the ChLC layer with the same circular polarization as the handedness of the cholesteric helix and the same Bragg wavelength determined by the helical pitch of the ChLC [13

13. F. Mosini and N. V. Tabiryan, “Cholesteric liquid crystal resonators and systems with addressable colors,” Proc. of International Symposium on Electronic Image Device Engineering, Display Systems. SPIE1982, 28–33, Munich, FRG (1993).

]. In the patterned region, the polarization state of the reflected light is orthogonally changed by the half-wave retarder. On the other hand, the polarization state still remains unchanged in the non-patterned region. These orthogonal polarization states reflected from the ChLC panel with the inner patterned retarder generate the stereoscopic 3D images in the reflective configuration.

To fabricate the reflective 3D display proposed here, the alignment layer of RN1199 (Nissan Chemical) was coated on top of the indium-tin-oxide (ITO) evaporated substrates and rubbed unidirectionally to promote planar alignment. For the inner patterned retarder, the reactive mesogen (RM) of RMS03-013C (E. Merck) was coated on the rubbed ITO substrate. The RM is uniformly aligned along the rubbing direction like the LC. The ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices of RMS03-013C are 1.680 and 1.543, respectively. The thickness of the RM film was 2.3 μm corresponding to the half-wave retardation. Finally, the patterned LCP retarder was fabricated by the selective polymerization of the RM with UV exposure through an amplitude mask with striped shapes and the removal of the RM residue from the non-exposed regions with RM solvent of propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate [14

14. R. Harding, I. Gardiner, H.-J. Yoon, T. Perrett, O. Parri, and K. Skjonnemand, “Reactive liquid crystal materials for optically anisotropic patterned retarders,” in Lithography Asia 2008, Proc. SPIE 7140, 71402J1–8, Taipei, Taiwan (2008).

]. Here, both width and interval of the stripes were 200 μm.

The nematic LC of MLC6875 (75.8 wt.%, E. Merck) and the chiral dopant of R811 (24.2 wt.%, E. Merck) were used for the ChLC mixture with the right-handed helical structure. The ChLC mixture was stirred in an isotropic phase for 24 h to mix the chiral dopant into the nematic LC completely. After assembling the LCP-patterned substrate and the RN1199-coated substrate without any patterns, the ChLC mixture was injected into the assembled substrates by capillary action in the isotropic phase. The cell thickness was maintained using glass spacers of 10 μm.

The polarizing optical microscope (Nikon, E600W POL) and the surface profiler (Tencor Instruments, Alpha-Step 500) were used to take microscopic textures and characterize the patterns, respectively. All measurements were carried out at room temperature.

3. Results and discussion

The ChLC layer forms the helical structure with right-handedness under no external electric filed due to the planar alignment of both substrates as shown in Fig. 1. The patterned retarder generating two orthogonal circular polarizations was formed on the inner surface of the front substrate to convert the polarization states of the light reflected from the ChLC layer.

Figure 2
Fig. 2 (a) Polarization microscopic textures of the patterned retarder under crossed polarizers and parallel polarizers. Letters “A” and “P” denote the directions of the analyzer and polarizer, respectively. (b) The surface morphology and the phase retardation of the corresponding patterned retarder.
shows microscopic textures and the surface profile of the pattered retarder fabricated with the RM. Here, the optic axis of the patterned retarder was rotated by 45° with respect to the direction of the striped patterns and one of crossed polarizers. The optic axis is easily controlled by the rubbing direction of the alignment layer. It should be noted that the direction of the optic axis is insignificant in the half-wave retarder for the ChLC 3D display because the orthogonal switching of the circular polarization is independent of the optic axis of the half-wave retarder. Under crossed polarizers, the patterned regions exhibit bright states due to the orthogonal change of the linear polarization of the incident light and the non-patterned regions show dark states since maintenance of the incident polarization as shown in Fig. 2(a). On the other hand, transmittance is switched between two regions under parallel polarizers. Figure 2(b) shows the surface morphology and the corresponding phase retardation of the patterned retarder where both width and interval of the stripes are 200 μm. As shown in Fig. 2(b), the height of the stripes is measured to be about 2.3 μm, which matches half-wave (π) retardation since the birefringence of the RMS03-013C is 0.137.

Figure 3
Fig. 3 Microscopic textures of our ChLC device under (a) left-handed circular polarizer and (b) right-handed circular polarizer.
shows microscopic textures of the ChLC device with inner patterned retarder shown in Fig. 2 under two orthogonal circular polarizers. In the non-patterned regions, the right-handed circular (RHC) polarization of the reflected light still remains unchanged and thus the reflected light is blocked by the left-handed circular (LHC) polarizer. Note that the incomplete dark states shown here result from the subtle difference between the wavelength, satisfying a condition of the half-wave retarder and the wavelength of the reflection corresponding to a helical pitch of the ChLC. In the patterned regions, the RHC polarization is converted to the LHC polarization passing through the half-wave retarder. Finally, the bright state was obtained in the patterned regions under LHC polarizer as shown in Fig. 3(a). As a result, the dark stripes and the reddish stripes in Fig. 3(a) represent the non-patterned regions and the patterned regions, respectively. Similarly, under the RHC polarizer as shown in Fig. 3(b), the dark stripes and the reddish stripes depict the patterned regions and the non-patterned regions, respectively. Wearing eyeglasses with the orthogonal circular polarizations, the left and right images were divided by the patterned retarder and the 3D images were constructed.

Figure 4
Fig. 4 Prototype images of our reflective 3D ChLC cell in a stereoscopic type using the circularly polarized eyeglasses: images under (a) left-handed circular polarizer and (b) left-handed circular polarizer.
shows a 2-inch prototype of the reflective 3D display with the inner patterned retarder. To demonstrate two different images for left and right eyes, we directly patterned the LCP retarder by using the UV exposure to the RM layer through the photo-mask. Therefore, the inverted images were observed under the LHC polarizer and the RHC polarizer. The maximum reflectance and the contrast ratio were measured to be about 32% and 15:1, respectively. In the real display mode, the LCP retarders are formed at one of two subpixels in each pixel. The images for left and right eyes are constructed from each subpixel in a whole panel. Operating the ChLC, their memory characteristics could be useful for low power consumption.

4. Conclusion

In this work, we proposed the reflective stereoscopic 3D display based on the ChLC panel with inner patterned retarder acting as the half-wave retarder. The inner patterned retarder was fabricated by the selective UV exposure to the RM through an amplitude photo-mask. Since the ChLC mode with the polarization-selective reflectance, no polarizer is required and thus the inner patterned retarder is applicable in the stereoscopic 3D display. In addition, the ChLC mode with the wavelength-selective reflectance gives rise to elimination of the color filter and the backlight unit. Also, a multi-pitch stabilized ChLC mode [15

15. K.-S. Bae, Y.-J. Jang, Y.-K. Moon, S.-G. Kang, U. Cha, C.-J. Yu, J. E. Jang, J. E. Jung, and J.-H. Kim, “Multicolor cholesteric liquid crystal display in a single-layered configuration using a multi-pitch stabilizations,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(8), 084103 (2010). [CrossRef]

] would be adoptable to produce a full color ChLC display under a single panel configuration in this stereoscopic 3D display. This reflective 3D display proposed here is expected to create the novel 3D displays with low power consumption.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant (No. 20110016968) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology of Korean government (MEST) and Samsung Electronics Co, Ltd.

References and links

1.

S. Pastoor and M. Wopking, “3-D displays: a review of current technologies,” Displays 17(2), 100–110 (1997). [CrossRef]

2.

D. Matsunaga, T. Tamaki, H. Akiyama, and K. Ichimura, “Photofabrication of micro-patterned polarizing elements for stereoscopic sisplays,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(20), 1477–1480 (2002). [CrossRef]

3.

J.-C. Liou, K. Lee, and F.-G. Tseng, “LED scanning backlight stereoscopic display with shutter glasses,” in Digest of Technical Papers of the 8th International Meeting on Information Display (IMID, Ilsan, Korea, 2008), 710–713.

4.

J.-C. Liou, K. Lee, F.-G. Tseng, J.-F. Huang, W.-T. Yen, and W.-L. Hsu, “Shutter glasses stereo LCD with a dynamic backlight,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Applications XX, Photonics West, Proc. SPIE-IS&T Electronic Imaging 7237, 72370X1–8, San Jose, Calif. (2009).

5.

Y.-J. Wu, Y.-S. Jeng, P.-C. Yeh, C.-J. Hu, and W.-M. Huang, “Stereoscopic 3D display using patterned retarder,” in The Society of Information Display 2008 International Symposium, Digest of Tech. Papers (SID, LA, USA, 2008), 260–263.

6.

H. Hong, D. Lee, J. Jang, and M. Lim, “Analysis of dependence of user position and eyeglass on the performance of stereoscopic 3D of patterned retarder method,” in Digest of Technical Papers of the 9th International Meeting on Information Display (IMID, Ilsan, Korea, 2009), 1010–1013.

7.

P. Boher, T. Leroux, T. Bignon, and V. Collomb-Patton, “Multispectral polarization analysis of circular polarizer stereoscopic 3D display,” in Proceedings of Liquid Crystal Science and Technologies on International Display Workshop (IDW, Miyazaki, Japan, 2009), 1151–1154.

8.

J. C. Kirsch, B. K. Jones, J. L. Johnson, and D. A. Gregory, “Real-time, full-resolution liquid crystal-based stereoscopic display,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XIV, Photonics West, Proc. SPIE-IS&T Electronic Imaging 6490, 64901B1–7, San Jose, Calif. (2007).

9.

G. Myhre and S. Pau, “Imaging capability of patterned liquid crystals,” Appl. Opt. 48(32), 6152–6158 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

N. Tamaoki, “Cholesteric liquid crystals for color information technology,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 13(15), 1135–1147 (2001). [CrossRef]

11.

D. W. Berreman and T. J. Scheffer, “Bragg reflection of light from single-domain cholesteric liquid-crystal films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 25(9), 577–581 (1970). [CrossRef]

12.

H. Shirvani-Mahdavi, E. Mohajerani, and S.-T. Wu, “Circularly polarized high-efficiency cholesteric liquid crystal lasers with a tunable nematic phase retarder,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5021–5027 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/viewmedia.cfm?URI=oe-18-5-5021&seq=0. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

F. Mosini and N. V. Tabiryan, “Cholesteric liquid crystal resonators and systems with addressable colors,” Proc. of International Symposium on Electronic Image Device Engineering, Display Systems. SPIE1982, 28–33, Munich, FRG (1993).

14.

R. Harding, I. Gardiner, H.-J. Yoon, T. Perrett, O. Parri, and K. Skjonnemand, “Reactive liquid crystal materials for optically anisotropic patterned retarders,” in Lithography Asia 2008, Proc. SPIE 7140, 71402J1–8, Taipei, Taiwan (2008).

15.

K.-S. Bae, Y.-J. Jang, Y.-K. Moon, S.-G. Kang, U. Cha, C.-J. Yu, J. E. Jang, J. E. Jung, and J.-H. Kim, “Multicolor cholesteric liquid crystal display in a single-layered configuration using a multi-pitch stabilizations,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(8), 084103 (2010). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(120.2040) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Displays
(230.3720) Optical devices : Liquid-crystal devices

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

History
Original Manuscript: February 3, 2012
Revised Manuscript: March 2, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: March 6, 2012
Published: March 12, 2012

Citation
Kwang-Soo Bae, Uiyeong Cha, Yeon-Kyu Moon, Jeong Wook Heo, You-Jin Lee, Jae-Hoon Kim, and Chang-Jae Yu, "Reflective three-dimensional displays using the cholesteric liquid crystal with an inner patterned retarder," Opt. Express 20, 6927-6931 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-7-6927


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. S. Pastoor and M. Wopking, “3-D displays: a review of current technologies,” Displays17(2), 100–110 (1997). [CrossRef]
  2. D. Matsunaga, T. Tamaki, H. Akiyama, and K. Ichimura, “Photofabrication of micro-patterned polarizing elements for stereoscopic sisplays,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)14(20), 1477–1480 (2002). [CrossRef]
  3. J.-C. Liou, K. Lee, and F.-G. Tseng, “LED scanning backlight stereoscopic display with shutter glasses,” in Digest of Technical Papers of the 8th International Meeting on Information Display (IMID, Ilsan, Korea, 2008), 710–713.
  4. J.-C. Liou, K. Lee, F.-G. Tseng, J.-F. Huang, W.-T. Yen, and W.-L. Hsu, “Shutter glasses stereo LCD with a dynamic backlight,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Applications XX, Photonics West, Proc. SPIE-IS&T Electronic Imaging 7237, 72370X1–8, San Jose, Calif. (2009).
  5. Y.-J. Wu, Y.-S. Jeng, P.-C. Yeh, C.-J. Hu, and W.-M. Huang, “Stereoscopic 3D display using patterned retarder,” in The Society of Information Display 2008 International Symposium, Digest of Tech. Papers (SID, LA, USA, 2008), 260–263.
  6. H. Hong, D. Lee, J. Jang, and M. Lim, “Analysis of dependence of user position and eyeglass on the performance of stereoscopic 3D of patterned retarder method,” in Digest of Technical Papers of the 9th International Meeting on Information Display (IMID, Ilsan, Korea, 2009), 1010–1013.
  7. P. Boher, T. Leroux, T. Bignon, and V. Collomb-Patton, “Multispectral polarization analysis of circular polarizer stereoscopic 3D display,” in Proceedings of Liquid Crystal Science and Technologies on International Display Workshop (IDW, Miyazaki, Japan, 2009), 1151–1154.
  8. J. C. Kirsch, B. K. Jones, J. L. Johnson, and D. A. Gregory, “Real-time, full-resolution liquid crystal-based stereoscopic display,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XIV, Photonics West, Proc. SPIE-IS&T Electronic Imaging 6490, 64901B1–7, San Jose, Calif. (2007).
  9. G. Myhre and S. Pau, “Imaging capability of patterned liquid crystals,” Appl. Opt.48(32), 6152–6158 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. N. Tamaoki, “Cholesteric liquid crystals for color information technology,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)13(15), 1135–1147 (2001). [CrossRef]
  11. D. W. Berreman and T. J. Scheffer, “Bragg reflection of light from single-domain cholesteric liquid-crystal films,” Phys. Rev. Lett.25(9), 577–581 (1970). [CrossRef]
  12. H. Shirvani-Mahdavi, E. Mohajerani, and S.-T. Wu, “Circularly polarized high-efficiency cholesteric liquid crystal lasers with a tunable nematic phase retarder,” Opt. Express18(5), 5021–5027 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/viewmedia.cfm?URI=oe-18-5-5021&seq=0 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. F. Mosini and N. V. Tabiryan, “Cholesteric liquid crystal resonators and systems with addressable colors,” Proc. of International Symposium on Electronic Image Device Engineering, Display Systems. SPIE1982, 28–33, Munich, FRG (1993).
  14. R. Harding, I. Gardiner, H.-J. Yoon, T. Perrett, O. Parri, and K. Skjonnemand, “Reactive liquid crystal materials for optically anisotropic patterned retarders,” in Lithography Asia 2008, Proc. SPIE 7140, 71402J1–8, Taipei, Taiwan (2008).
  15. K.-S. Bae, Y.-J. Jang, Y.-K. Moon, S.-G. Kang, U. Cha, C.-J. Yu, J. E. Jang, J. E. Jung, and J.-H. Kim, “Multicolor cholesteric liquid crystal display in a single-layered configuration using a multi-pitch stabilizations,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(8), 084103 (2010). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
 
Fig. 4
 

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited