## Referenced passive spectroscopy using dual frequency combs |

Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 7, pp. 7375-7387 (2012)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.007375

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### Abstract

A referenced passive spectroscopy scheme using infrared frequency combs is presented. We perform a noise analysis and compare the results with a classical Fourier transform spectrometer. Experimental results are shown and great agreement with theory is obtained.

© 2012 OSA

## 1. Introduction

3. J.-D. Deschênes, P. Giaccarri, and J. Genest, “Optical referencing technique with CW lasers as intermediate oscillators for continuous full delay range frequency comb interferometry,” Opt. Express **18**(22), 23358–23370 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

## 2. Description of the method

*Laser 1*and

*Laser 2*represent the two mode-locked lasers used to sample the source to be measured, called

*Source*here. The blocks labeled

*BPD*represent balanced photodiodes.

*Ref*represents the referencing setup, where two fiber Bragg gratings are used to measure and correct for the sampling delay and phase offset perturbations, as fully described in [6

6. P. Giaccari, J.-D. Deschênes, P. Saucier, J. Genest, and P. Tremblay, “Active Fourier-transform spectroscopy combining the direct RF beating of two fiber-based mode-locked lasers with a novel referencing method,” Opt. Express **16**(6), 4347–4365 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*f*is the optical carrier frequency, common to both sampling pulses and the sampled source. In Eq. (1),

_{c}_{1}or E

_{2}) sample the source. This signal is contained in the amplitude of the photodetector impulse response corresponding to each pulse pair. The peak values of the detected pulses thus contain the information on

*Ref*in Fig. 1 represents the referencing system that is used to correct the measurements. The referencing algorithm used in this paper is the one presented in [6

6. P. Giaccari, J.-D. Deschênes, P. Saucier, J. Genest, and P. Tremblay, “Active Fourier-transform spectroscopy combining the direct RF beating of two fiber-based mode-locked lasers with a novel referencing method,” Opt. Express **16**(6), 4347–4365 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

## 3. Noise analysis

_{,}when it is modeled as a white frequency noise source.

^{0.5}NEP, a typical photodetector noise value. To perform equally, the baseband optical sampling approach should sample at around 60 GHz, a quite high figure. These values assume a single shot SNR of unity, which is very close to reality, as will be shown in the results section. From a measurement time perspective, in those conditions, it would take 600 times as long as the FTS to obtain the same SNR with the optical sampling method with a 100 MHz sampling rate.

^{0.5}.

^{0.5}NEP, the power conditions are then

## 4. Measurement results

6. P. Giaccari, J.-D. Deschênes, P. Saucier, J. Genest, and P. Tremblay, “Active Fourier-transform spectroscopy combining the direct RF beating of two fiber-based mode-locked lasers with a novel referencing method,” Opt. Express **16**(6), 4347–4365 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3. J.-D. Deschênes, P. Giaccarri, and J. Genest, “Optical referencing technique with CW lasers as intermediate oscillators for continuous full delay range frequency comb interferometry,” Opt. Express **18**(22), 23358–23370 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

### 4.1 Stable laser source

### 4.2 Broadband source filtered by HCN cell

## 7. Conclusion

## Appendix: Single shot SNR for a white frequency noise source

## Acknowledgments

## References and links

1. | I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent multiheterodyne spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. |

2. | J. Mandon, G. Guelachvili, and N. Picqué, “Fourier transform spectroscopy with a laser frequency comb,” Nat. Photonics |

3. | J.-D. Deschênes, P. Giaccarri, and J. Genest, “Optical referencing technique with CW lasers as intermediate oscillators for continuous full delay range frequency comb interferometry,” Opt. Express |

4. | F. R. Giorgetta, I. Coddington, E. Baumann, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Dual frequency comb sampling of a quasi-thermal incoherent light source,” in |

5. | I. R. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Frequency comb spectroscopy,” in |

6. | P. Giaccari, J.-D. Deschênes, P. Saucier, J. Genest, and P. Tremblay, “Active Fourier-transform spectroscopy combining the direct RF beating of two fiber-based mode-locked lasers with a novel referencing method,” Opt. Express |

7. | D. Derickson, “Noise sources in optical measurement” in |

8. | J. W. Brault, “Fourier transform spectrometry,” in |

9. | K. Petermann, |

**OCIS Codes**

(120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry

(300.6340) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, infrared

**ToC Category:**

Spectroscopy

**History**

Original Manuscript: January 20, 2012

Revised Manuscript: March 2, 2012

Manuscript Accepted: March 9, 2012

Published: March 15, 2012

**Citation**

Sylvain Boudreau and Jérôme Genest, "Referenced passive spectroscopy using dual frequency combs," Opt. Express **20**, 7375-7387 (2012)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-7-7375

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### References

- I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, “Coherent multiheterodyne spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. 100, 13902 (2008).
- J. Mandon, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, “Fourier transform spectroscopy with a laser frequency comb,” Nat. Photonics 3(2), 99–102 (2009). [CrossRef]
- J.-D. Deschênes, P. Giaccarri, J. Genest, “Optical referencing technique with CW lasers as intermediate oscillators for continuous full delay range frequency comb interferometry,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23358–23370 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- F. R. Giorgetta, I. Coddington, E. Baumann, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Dual frequency comb sampling of a quasi-thermal incoherent light source,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2010).
- I. R. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Frequency comb spectroscopy,” in Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (2009).
- P. Giaccari, J.-D. Deschênes, P. Saucier, J. Genest, P. Tremblay, “Active Fourier-transform spectroscopy combining the direct RF beating of two fiber-based mode-locked lasers with a novel referencing method,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4347–4365 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- D. Derickson, “Noise sources in optical measurement” in Fiber Optic Test and Measurement (Prentice Hall PTR, 1998), pp. 597–613.
- J. W. Brault, “Fourier transform spectrometry,” in Saas-Fee Advanced Course 15: High Resolution in Astronomy (1985), Vol. 1, pp. 1–61.
- K. Petermann, Laser Diode Modulation and Noise (Springer, 1991).

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