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Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 7 — Mar. 26, 2012
  • pp: 8015–8023
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Optically tunable compensation of nonlinear signal distortion in optical fiber by end-span optical phase conjugation

Mark D. Pelusi and Benjamin J. Eggleton  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 7, pp. 8015-8023 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.008015


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Abstract

We demonstrate a nonlinear signal processing approach for compensating nonlinear distortion caused by the Kerr effect in optical fiber transmission. The concept relies on propagating the signal through a separate all-optical module outside the link to apply tunable nonlinear distortion and phase-conjugation in series. We show this uniquely enables tunable regeneration of phase-encoded 40 Gb/s signals of different data-formats and number of WDM channels, to allow significantly higher transmission powers through single and multi-span fiber links. An improvement in the receiver power penalty by 3~4 dB for a bit-error-rate (BER) of ≈10−5 is achieved.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

Advances in optical fiber communications led by the expansion of wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) of signals modulated onto many tens or hundreds of unique wavelengths of light have achieved data capacities of several Tb/s [1

1. D. J. Richardson, “Applied physics. Filling the light pipe,” Science 330(6002), 327–328 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. But with the available spectrum for transmission over fiber exhausted, the race to higher capacity to meet the ever increasing demand has turned towards encoding more information within the limited spectrum by multi-logic level modulation of both the amplitude and phase of the optical field [2

2. K. Roberts, D. Beckett, D. Boertjes, J. Berthold, and C. Laperle, “100G and beyond with digital coherent signal processing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 62–69 (2010). [CrossRef]

5

5. X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Chen, P. J. Winzer, Y. Pan, B. Zhu, T. F. Taunay, M. Fishteyn, M. F. Yan, J. M. Fini, E. M. Monberg, and F. V. Dimarcello, “1.12-Tb/s 32-QAM-OFDM superchannel with 8.6-b/s/Hz intrachannel spectral efficiency and space-division multiplexing with 60-b/s/Hz aggregate spectral efficiency,” In Proceedings of the 37th European Conference on Optical Communication, paper Th.13.B.1 (ECOC 2011, Geneva) (2011).

], beyond conventional binary amplitude modulation. This solution comes at a price however. Information theory proves that encoding more logic levels at the same modulation rate requires a higher optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) after transmission through a noisy channel to avoid a loss of information due to bit-errors [6

6. C. E. Shannon, “A mathematical theory of communication,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 27, 379–423 (1948).

]. This can be achieved by boosting the signal power, but that increases its susceptibility to nonlinear distortion from the Kerr effect of optical fiber [7

7. A. D. Ellis, J. Zhao, and D. Cotter, “Approaching the non-linear Shannon limit,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 423–433 (2010). [CrossRef]

], which produces a linear change in the refractive index with optical field intensity [8

8. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic, 2001).

]. This gives rise to self phase modulation (SPM), whereby the time varying power of the signal modulates its phase and frequency [8

8. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic, 2001).

]. For signal transmission in a dispersive fiber, the Kerr effect leads to nonlinear mixing between the fields of neighboring bits, that have temporally dispersed and overlap [9

9. A. Chowdhury, G. Raybon, R.-J. Essiambre, J. H. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, J. Leuthold, C. R. Doerr, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Compensation of intrachannel nonlinearities in 40-Gb/s pseudolinear systems using optical-phase conjugation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 172–177 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. For WDM systems, the Kerr effect also causes cross phase modulation (XPM) and four wave mixing (FWM) between neighboring channels [8

8. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic, 2001).

]. These distortions cap the maximum data capacity and transmission distance in optical fiber.

A promising solution to this problem is digital signal processing (DSP) [2

2. K. Roberts, D. Beckett, D. Boertjes, J. Berthold, and C. Laperle, “100G and beyond with digital coherent signal processing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 62–69 (2010). [CrossRef]

,4

4. X. Zhou, J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, Y. Shao, T. Wang, L. Nelson, P. Magill, M. Birk, P. I. Borel, D. W. Peckham, R. Lingle Jr, and B. Zhu, “64-Tb/s, 8 b/s/Hz, PDM-36QAM transmission over 320 km using both pre- and post transmission digital signal processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(4), 571–577 (2011). [CrossRef]

,10

10. G. Li, “Recent advances in coherent optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 279–307 (2009). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/aop/abstract.cfm?URI=aop-1-2-279.

13

13. W. Yan, Z. Tao, L. Dou, L. Li, S. Oda, T. Tanimura, T. Hoshida, and J. C. Rasmussen, “Low complexity digital perturbation back-propagation,” in Proceedings of 37th European Conference on Optical Communication, paper Tu.3.A.2, (ECOC 2011, Geneva) (2011).

]. This operates on the electrical rather than optical signal to compute an algorithm that cancels the distortion. However, practical limits on the circuit size and power consumption [11

11. E. Yamazaki, A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, and Y. Miyamoto, “Mitigation of nonlinearities in optical transmission systems,” in Proceedings of the Optical fiber communication conference, paper OThF1 (OFC/NFOEC 2010, San Diego) (Optical Society of America, 2011).

,12

12. J. C. Geyer, C. R. Fludger, T. Duthel, C. Schulien, and B. Schmauss, “Simple automatic nonlinear compensation with low complexity for implementation in coherent receivers,” in Proceedings of 36th European Conference on Optical Communication, paper P3.02, (ECOC 2010, Torino).

] limit the number of computation steps, at the expense of signal regeneration performance. While advanced algorithms can relax this compromise [13

13. W. Yan, Z. Tao, L. Dou, L. Li, S. Oda, T. Tanimura, T. Hoshida, and J. C. Rasmussen, “Low complexity digital perturbation back-propagation,” in Proceedings of 37th European Conference on Optical Communication, paper Tu.3.A.2, (ECOC 2011, Geneva) (2011).

], every channel in a WDM system still requires its own circuit (or a pair for a polarization diversity receiver implementation [4

4. X. Zhou, J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, Y. Shao, T. Wang, L. Nelson, P. Magill, M. Birk, P. I. Borel, D. W. Peckham, R. Lingle Jr, and B. Zhu, “64-Tb/s, 8 b/s/Hz, PDM-36QAM transmission over 320 km using both pre- and post transmission digital signal processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(4), 571–577 (2011). [CrossRef]

]).

Nonlinear optics offers a potentially simpler yet powerful approach that can suppress the nonlinear distortion all-optically by propagating the signal through a nonlinear medium. Phase sensitive amplification using FWM with a CW pump that is phase locked to the signal has demonstrated impressive regeneration of phase encoded signals [14

14. R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundstrom, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 690–695 (2010). [CrossRef]

], although only for individual WDM channels. Simultaneous compensation of nonlinear distortion for WDM signals on the other hand, has been demonstrated using optical phase conjugation (OPC) [9

9. A. Chowdhury, G. Raybon, R.-J. Essiambre, J. H. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, J. Leuthold, C. R. Doerr, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Compensation of intrachannel nonlinearities in 40-Gb/s pseudolinear systems using optical-phase conjugation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 172–177 (2005). [CrossRef]

,15

15. S. Watanabe, S. Kaneko, and T. Chikama, “Long-haul fiber transmission using optical phase conjugation,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 2(2), 169–178 (1996). [CrossRef]

17

17. P. Minzioni, V. Pusino, I. Cristiani, L. Marazzi, M. Martinelli, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and V. Degiorgio, “Optical phase conjugation in phase-modulated transmission systems: experimental comparison of different nonlinearity-compensation methods,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18119–18124 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. This also uses FWM (or an equivalent process [18

18. M. H. Chou, I. Brener, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, and S. B. Christman, “1.5-μm-band wavelength conversion based on cascaded second-order nonlinearity in LiNbO3 waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(6), 653–655 (1999). [CrossRef]

]) with a CW pump but without the need for phase locking. In that scheme, the new field produced at a new wavelength by FWM has an amplitude, Ai (t)∝ As*(t), where As is the time (t) varying signal field amplitude, and the asterisk denotes phase-conjugation of the complex field vector from As = x + jy, to As* = x − jy. This operation allows OPC for different signal bit-rates, data formats [9

9. A. Chowdhury, G. Raybon, R.-J. Essiambre, J. H. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, J. Leuthold, C. R. Doerr, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Compensation of intrachannel nonlinearities in 40-Gb/s pseudolinear systems using optical-phase conjugation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 172–177 (2005). [CrossRef]

,16

16. S. L. Jansen, D. van den Borne, P. M. Krummrich, S. Spälter, G.-D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Long-haul DWDM transmission systems employing optical phase conjugation,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 505–520 (2006). [CrossRef]

,17

17. P. Minzioni, V. Pusino, I. Cristiani, L. Marazzi, M. Martinelli, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and V. Degiorgio, “Optical phase conjugation in phase-modulated transmission systems: experimental comparison of different nonlinearity-compensation methods,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18119–18124 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and multiple WDM channels (exceeding one hundred [19

19. J. Yamawaku, H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Sato, A. Takada, T. Morioka, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, and M. Asobe, “Simultaneous 25 GHz-spaced DWDM wavelength conversion of 1.03 Tbit/s (103×10 Gbit/s) signals in PPLN waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 39(15), 1144–1145 (2003). [CrossRef]

]).

2. Principle

The flexibility of the TD-OPC module in contrast to traditional OPC is the ability to arbitrarily tailor the TD stage by tuning the input optical power, PNL, and choosing a waveguide of particular length, LNL, nonlinearity coefficient, γNL and dispersion, so that the locus of the field vector intersects the phase rotation induced by the nonlinear distortion of the link. Figure 1 illustrates how dispersion symmetry can be satisfied for a single TD stage in the TD-OPC. It uses a fiber of the same type as that in the fiber link, and of length comparable to each span’s nonlinear region, which in Fig. 1 is approximated to Leff, with an average power Peff. Note, the negative Peff in the TD-OPC represents the reversal of the sign of nonlinear phase distortion due to OPC. In the fiber link, every span is post dispersion-compensated (with dispersion compensating fiber (DCF) for example) to assure the signal dispersion in the TD-stage is symmetric with respect to that in the nonlinear region of each fiber span.

By this approach, TD-OPC enables the accumulated nonlinear phase distortion from the cascaded nonlinear regions for multiple fiber spans to be replicated in a single TD-stage by simply tuning PNL depending on both the signal input power to the link, Pin, and the number of spans. This enables the scalability of the scheme to multi-span fiber links. Unlike in conventional OPC, the power profile versus distance can therefore be highly asymmetric as shown in Fig. 1.

3. Experiment

3.1 Transmitter(Tx) & Receiver (Rx)

The Rx for all experiments incorporated an EDFA as a pre-amplifier, followed by a 43 GHz DPSK demodulator, 0.55 nm bandwidth tunable bandpass optical filter (BPF) and 40 Gb/s photo-receiver. The input optical power to the photo-receiver, Prx, was monitored via the 1% port of a 99:1 coupler connected at its input. Although a balanced photo-detector was not used in this work, it was not essential for evaluating the BER improvement by TD-OPC.

3.2 Fiber link

Signal transmission was initially investigated for a single span fiber link of length 177 km assembled from an arbitrary mix of 78 km of standard single mode fiber (SMF) (with dispersion of 16.5 ps/nm.km at 1550 nm wavelength), and 99 km of a similar fiber with slightly larger dispersion of 20 ps/nm.km at 1550 nm. Notably, such long L was not essential for the technique, and a shorter more typical 50-80 km length could have been used without significantly changing the results since L » Leff (i.e. ≈22 km). Rather, it served to highlight the capability for using higher Pin enabled by nonlinearity compensation to overcome higher span loss and maintain the minimum output OSNR requirement. In this case, the span loss was 37 dB. However, for all fiber link configurations considered in this paper, every span was followed by a variable optical attenuator (VOA) that fixed the span loss to 39 dB to ensure a consistent output OSNR at the Rx for a given Pin. The higher Pin in turn enabled a larger nonlinear distortion to be produced with a small number of spans. This could equivalently be produced for a larger number of spans with lower Pin. The link dispersion was optimally post-compensated using DCF after boosting the signal to an optimum power of 1~3 mW per channel to minimize the signal BER at the Rx. Signal transmission through a dual-span fiber link was also investigated by simply splitting the 177 km span in two of length 91 and 86 km. The DCF at the link output was also divided, allowing a spool with dispersion of −1653 ps/nm to be inserted after the second span. Observing the output signal waveform from the Rx on an oscilloscope confirmed that the residual dispersion for the first span with the remaining DCF was close to zero.

The signal Pin for each span was set by an EDFA that was followed by a BPF to remove amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise, and a 99:1 coupler for monitoring Pin at the 1% port. For WDM signals, both Pin and PNL per channel were calculated from the total input power divided by the number of channels. Also, the input channel powers were adjusted so that their output powers after transmission differed by within ± 0.1 dB, as observed on an optical spectrum analyzer with resolution bandwidth (RBW) of 0.5 nm. For the dual span link, an equal input power reading was set for both spans, but because of the slight coupling differences for the 99:1 couplers, the second span Pin was 33% higher than for the first. Thus, the average Pin of both spans was used for reference.

3.3 TD-OPC module

The TD stage for nonlinear signal distortion used SMF with LNL = 17.6 km (comparable to the link’s Leff ≈22 km). Optimizing the choice of LNL and the other physical parameters of the TD stage allows signal regeneration to be maximized. In this experiment, this was achieved by tuning PNL using a low noise EDFA followed by a high power EDFA preceding the SMF.

The OPC stage shown in Fig. 2(a) used FWM of the signal with a CW laser as the pump in a 100 m long highly nonlinear optical fiber (HNLF) with γ = 21 W−1km−1, and zero dispersion wavelength of 1551 nm. While this used χ(3) nonlinearity, the OPC operation can equivalently be performed using the χ(2) nonlinearity in different media [9

9. A. Chowdhury, G. Raybon, R.-J. Essiambre, J. H. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, J. Leuthold, C. R. Doerr, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Compensation of intrachannel nonlinearities in 40-Gb/s pseudolinear systems using optical-phase conjugation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 172–177 (2005). [CrossRef]

,18

18. M. H. Chou, I. Brener, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, and S. B. Christman, “1.5-μm-band wavelength conversion based on cascaded second-order nonlinearity in LiNbO3 waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(6), 653–655 (1999). [CrossRef]

,19

19. J. Yamawaku, H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Sato, A. Takada, T. Morioka, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, and M. Asobe, “Simultaneous 25 GHz-spaced DWDM wavelength conversion of 1.03 Tbit/s (103×10 Gbit/s) signals in PPLN waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 39(15), 1144–1145 (2003). [CrossRef]

], and in either case, using a compact chip scale device [9

9. A. Chowdhury, G. Raybon, R.-J. Essiambre, J. H. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, J. Leuthold, C. R. Doerr, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Compensation of intrachannel nonlinearities in 40-Gb/s pseudolinear systems using optical-phase conjugation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 172–177 (2005). [CrossRef]

,16

16. S. L. Jansen, D. van den Borne, P. M. Krummrich, S. Spälter, G.-D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Long-haul DWDM transmission systems employing optical phase conjugation,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 505–520 (2006). [CrossRef]

21

21. M. D. Pelusi, F. Luan, D.-Y. Choi, S. J. Madden, D. A. P. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Optical phase conjugation by an As2S3 glass planar waveguide for dispersion-free transmission of WDM-DPSK signals over fiber,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26686–26694 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. For all experiments, the CW laser wavelength was fixed at 1555.36 nm, and the Tx laser center set to 1551.7 nm so that the phase conjugated signal formed at ITU Ch. 23 (1558.98 nm) and therefore matched the no-OPC case. The polarization of the signal and CW laser were optimized by polarization controllers (PC) to maximize the power of the converted signal, which was extracted by a cascade of two tunable BPFs of bandwidth 4 and 3 nm, and one notch fiber Bragg grating filter to reject the CW pump. The CW pump power into the HNLF was fixed at 130 mW for all experiments, while the total signal power was ≈15 mW. The output signal power from the TD-OPC module was 30~50 μW.

3.4 Pre-dispersion module

4. Results and discussion

The effect of applying only normal dispersion to the signal in place of TD-OPC was also investigated by substituting the TD-OPC module with the pre-GVD module described in Section 3.4. However, Fig. 3(a) shows its use only degraded the output BER, which confirmed that signal regeneration achieved with the TD-OPC module was not due to simply applying pre-GVD to the signal.

Regeneration of both channels of a 2 × 40 Gb/s RZ-DPSK signal with 200 GHz channel spacing was also demonstrated for transmission through a dual span fiber link. Calculation of the equivalent Q-factor from the output BER at fixed Prx, revealed a significant Q-factor improvement (ΔQ) of close to 2 dB for both channels. Table 1

Table 1. Q-factor Improvement by TD-OPC for Different Data Formats, Number of Channels and Fiber Spans

table-icon
View This Table
summarizes the regeneration achieved in the various experiments from calculation of the equivalent Q-factor and corresponding ΔQ when comparing TD-OPC to either pre-dispersion or no TD-OPC cases. It shows ΔQ of 1.3 to 2.7 dB, which is comparable to that reported for DSP [13

13. W. Yan, Z. Tao, L. Dou, L. Li, S. Oda, T. Tanimura, T. Hoshida, and J. C. Rasmussen, “Low complexity digital perturbation back-propagation,” in Proceedings of 37th European Conference on Optical Communication, paper Tu.3.A.2, (ECOC 2011, Geneva) (2011).

].

5. Conclusions

Acknowledgments

M.D. Pelusi was supported by the Australian Research Council (ARC) Future Fellowship program. B.J. Eggleton was supported by the ARC Federation Fellowship program. This research was also supported by the ARC Centre of Excellence for Ultrahigh bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (project number CE110001018).

References and links

1.

D. J. Richardson, “Applied physics. Filling the light pipe,” Science 330(6002), 327–328 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

K. Roberts, D. Beckett, D. Boertjes, J. Berthold, and C. Laperle, “100G and beyond with digital coherent signal processing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 62–69 (2010). [CrossRef]

3.

M.-F. Huang, D. Qian, and E. Ip, “50.53-Gb/s PDM-1024 QAM-OFDM transmission using pilot-based phase noise mitigation,” In Proceedings of the 16th OptoeElectronics and Communications Conference pp. 752–753 (OECC 2011, Taiwan) (2011).

4.

X. Zhou, J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, Y. Shao, T. Wang, L. Nelson, P. Magill, M. Birk, P. I. Borel, D. W. Peckham, R. Lingle Jr, and B. Zhu, “64-Tb/s, 8 b/s/Hz, PDM-36QAM transmission over 320 km using both pre- and post transmission digital signal processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(4), 571–577 (2011). [CrossRef]

5.

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Chen, P. J. Winzer, Y. Pan, B. Zhu, T. F. Taunay, M. Fishteyn, M. F. Yan, J. M. Fini, E. M. Monberg, and F. V. Dimarcello, “1.12-Tb/s 32-QAM-OFDM superchannel with 8.6-b/s/Hz intrachannel spectral efficiency and space-division multiplexing with 60-b/s/Hz aggregate spectral efficiency,” In Proceedings of the 37th European Conference on Optical Communication, paper Th.13.B.1 (ECOC 2011, Geneva) (2011).

6.

C. E. Shannon, “A mathematical theory of communication,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 27, 379–423 (1948).

7.

A. D. Ellis, J. Zhao, and D. Cotter, “Approaching the non-linear Shannon limit,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 423–433 (2010). [CrossRef]

8.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic, 2001).

9.

A. Chowdhury, G. Raybon, R.-J. Essiambre, J. H. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, J. Leuthold, C. R. Doerr, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Compensation of intrachannel nonlinearities in 40-Gb/s pseudolinear systems using optical-phase conjugation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 172–177 (2005). [CrossRef]

10.

G. Li, “Recent advances in coherent optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 279–307 (2009). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/aop/abstract.cfm?URI=aop-1-2-279.

11.

E. Yamazaki, A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, and Y. Miyamoto, “Mitigation of nonlinearities in optical transmission systems,” in Proceedings of the Optical fiber communication conference, paper OThF1 (OFC/NFOEC 2010, San Diego) (Optical Society of America, 2011).

12.

J. C. Geyer, C. R. Fludger, T. Duthel, C. Schulien, and B. Schmauss, “Simple automatic nonlinear compensation with low complexity for implementation in coherent receivers,” in Proceedings of 36th European Conference on Optical Communication, paper P3.02, (ECOC 2010, Torino).

13.

W. Yan, Z. Tao, L. Dou, L. Li, S. Oda, T. Tanimura, T. Hoshida, and J. C. Rasmussen, “Low complexity digital perturbation back-propagation,” in Proceedings of 37th European Conference on Optical Communication, paper Tu.3.A.2, (ECOC 2011, Geneva) (2011).

14.

R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundstrom, M. Sjödin, P. A. Andrekson, R. Weerasuriya, S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrøm, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 690–695 (2010). [CrossRef]

15.

S. Watanabe, S. Kaneko, and T. Chikama, “Long-haul fiber transmission using optical phase conjugation,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 2(2), 169–178 (1996). [CrossRef]

16.

S. L. Jansen, D. van den Borne, P. M. Krummrich, S. Spälter, G.-D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Long-haul DWDM transmission systems employing optical phase conjugation,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 505–520 (2006). [CrossRef]

17.

P. Minzioni, V. Pusino, I. Cristiani, L. Marazzi, M. Martinelli, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and V. Degiorgio, “Optical phase conjugation in phase-modulated transmission systems: experimental comparison of different nonlinearity-compensation methods,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18119–18124 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

M. H. Chou, I. Brener, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, and S. B. Christman, “1.5-μm-band wavelength conversion based on cascaded second-order nonlinearity in LiNbO3 waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(6), 653–655 (1999). [CrossRef]

19.

J. Yamawaku, H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Sato, A. Takada, T. Morioka, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, and M. Asobe, “Simultaneous 25 GHz-spaced DWDM wavelength conversion of 1.03 Tbit/s (103×10 Gbit/s) signals in PPLN waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 39(15), 1144–1145 (2003). [CrossRef]

20.

S. Ayotte, H. Rong, S. Xu, O. Cohen, and M. J. Paniccia, “Multichannel dispersion compensation using a silicon waveguide-based optical phase conjugator,” Opt. Lett. 32(16), 2393–2395 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

M. D. Pelusi, F. Luan, D.-Y. Choi, S. J. Madden, D. A. P. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Optical phase conjugation by an As2S3 glass planar waveguide for dispersion-free transmission of WDM-DPSK signals over fiber,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26686–26694 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

X. Li, F. Zhang, Z. Chen, and A. Xu, “Suppression of XPM and XPM-induced nonlinear phase noise for RZ-DPSK signals in 40 Gbit/s WDM transmission systems with optimum dispersion mapping,” Opt. Express 15(26), 18247–18252 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

F. Zhang, C. A. Bunge, K. Petermann, and A. Richter, “Optimum dispersion mapping of single-channel 40 Gbit/s return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying transmission systems,” Opt. Express 14(15), 6613–6618 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(060.2330) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics communications
(060.4370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Nonlinear optics, fibers
(070.4340) Fourier optics and signal processing : Nonlinear optical signal processing
(190.5040) Nonlinear optics : Phase conjugation
(230.4320) Optical devices : Nonlinear optical devices
(250.4745) Optoelectronics : Optical processing devices

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: December 14, 2011
Revised Manuscript: February 29, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: March 16, 2012
Published: March 22, 2012

Citation
Mark D. Pelusi and Benjamin J. Eggleton, "Optically tunable compensation of nonlinear signal distortion in optical fiber by end-span optical phase conjugation," Opt. Express 20, 8015-8023 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-7-8015


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References

  1. D. J. Richardson, “Applied physics. Filling the light pipe,” Science 330(6002), 327–328 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. Roberts, D. Beckett, D. Boertjes, J. Berthold, C. Laperle, “100G and beyond with digital coherent signal processing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 62–69 (2010). [CrossRef]
  3. M.-F. Huang, D. Qian, and E. Ip, “50.53-Gb/s PDM-1024 QAM-OFDM transmission using pilot-based phase noise mitigation,” In Proceedings of the 16th OptoeElectronics and Communications Conference pp. 752–753 (OECC 2011, Taiwan) (2011).
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