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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 8 — Apr. 9, 2012
  • pp: 8457–8465
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Radiation hardening techniques for Er/Yb doped optical fibers and amplifiers for space application

Sylvain Girard, Marilena Vivona, Arnaud Laurent, Benoît Cadier, Claude Marcandella, Thierry Robin, Emmanuel Pinsard, Aziz Boukenter, and Youcef Ouerdane  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 8, pp. 8457-8465 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.008457


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Abstract

We investigated the efficiencies of two different approaches to increase the radiation hardness of optical amplifiers through development of improved rare-earth (RE) doped optical fibers. We demonstrated the efficiency of codoping with Cerium the core of Erbium/Ytterbium doped optical fibers to improve their radiation tolerance. We compared the γ-rays induced degradation of two amplifiers with comparable pre-irradiation characteristics (~19 dB gain for an input power of ~10 dBm): first one is made with the standard core composition whereas the second one is Ce codoped. The radiation tolerance of the Ce-codoped fiber based amplifier is strongly enhanced. Its output gain decrease is limited to ~1.5 dB after a dose of ~900 Gy, independently of the pump power used, which authorizes the use of such fiber-based systems for challenging space missions associated with high total doses. We also showed that the responses of the two amplifiers with or without Ce-codoping can be further improved by another technique: the pre-loading of these fibers with hydrogen. In this case, the gain degradation is limited to 0.4 dB for the amplifier designed with the standard composition fiber whereas 0.2 dB are reported for the one made with Ce-codoped fiber after a cumulated dose of ~900 Gy. The mechanisms explaining the positive influences of these two treatments are discussed.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

Fewer studies have been devoted to the characterization of the YbEr fiber in an active configuration, even less as part of fiber-based amplifiers. The response of actively-pumped RE-doped optical fibers and amplifiers have been discussed in [7

7. T. S. Rose, D. Gunn, and G. C. Valley, “Gamma and proton radiation effects in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers: active and passive measurements,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19(12), 1918–1923 (2001). [CrossRef]

10

10. M. Alam, J. Abramczyk, P. Madasamy, W. Torruellas, and A. Sanchez, “Fiber amplifier performance in gamma radiation environment,” OSA/Optical Fiber Conference 2007, paper OMF4.

]. For example M. Alam et al. [10

10. M. Alam, J. Abramczyk, P. Madasamy, W. Torruellas, and A. Sanchez, “Fiber amplifier performance in gamma radiation environment,” OSA/Optical Fiber Conference 2007, paper OMF4.

] reported an important degradation of an Yb/Er amplifier output power with cumulated dose, they showed a complete darkening of their amplifier (extinction of the amplified signal) after a 200 Gy dose at a dose rate of 0.2 Gy/s or 400 Gy (0.1 Gy/s). Jin Ma et al. [11

11. J. Ma, M. Li, L. Tan, Y. Zhou, S. Yu, and Q. Ran, “Experimental investigation of radiation effect on erbium-ytterbium co-doped fiber amplifier for space optical communication in low-dose radiation environment,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15571–15577 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-18-15571. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] also measured the complete darkening of the output power of their Yb/Er amplifier after a 500 Gy dose (0.4 Gy/s).

2. Experimental procedure

2.1. Tested optical fibers and amplifiers

The goal of this paper is to demonstrate that enhancing the radiation tolerance of fiber amplifiers is possible by improving the response of the rare-earth doped fibers. To achieve this, we optimized the composition of their host matrix to reduce the Radiation Induced Attenuation (RIA) levels at both the pump and emission wavelengths and evaluate the resulting improvement of corresponding fiber amplifiers.

To assess our technique, we designed two prototype RE-doped fibers with different core compositions including the same concentrations of Er3+ and/or Yb3+ ions. These fibers have been developed by the fiber manufacturer iXFiber SAS with bare fiber geometry and with an octagonal double-clad (DC) which is designed for easier injection of the high power laser pump into their RE-doped phosphosilicate cores. This DC is made of comparable pure-silica glass for both fibers. The structure of these fibers is illustrated in the inset of Fig. 1(a)
Fig. 1 (a) Dependence of the amplifier output power versus the diode pump power for the amplifier A#1 based on fiber #1 (Yb/Er/P) and for A#2 based on fiber #2 (Yb/Er/P/Ce). Typical picture of RE-fibers cross section is illustrated in the inset. (b) Experimental procedure for the testing of fiber amplifiers under gamma-ray irradiation.
. Both are coated with double acrylate layers.

To improve our knowledge of radiation-induced mechanisms in this class of optical fibers, we also tested another DC optical fiber #3 that has been designed without Er3+ and Yb3+ ions in its core but has the same Ce-codoped phosphosilicate matrix than fiber #2. We also characterized a version of this fiber pre-treated with H2: fiber #3H.

Based on the same length of these two active fibers and their H2-treated counterparts, four amplifiers with comparable performances before irradiation were designed and fully characterized. The structure of these amplifiers is illustrated in Fig. 1(b). For each amplifier, we used the fixed length of 12 m of the RE-doped optical fiber to facilitate the comparison between the amplifier radiation responses. These fibers are pumped with a 915 nm multimode pump diode in a backward pumping scheme allowing an efficient amplification of the 1545 nm signal from a DFB diode.

The A#1 amplifier has been build with fiber #1 which corresponds to the standard composition, amplifier A#2 with the Ce-codoped fiber #2. Typically, the tested amplifiers exhibited a 19 dB gain with a 10 dBm input power. The output power at 1545 nm was limited to less than 1 W for these experiments but this amplifier design can easily extract up to 10 W with sufficient pump and input power available. Figure 1(a) presents the dependence of the amplifier output power versus the 915 nm diode pump power for the A#1 and A#2 amplifiers. The two amplifiers exhibit the same performances before irradiation allowing us to directly estimate the hardening effect of the Ce-codoping. Two versions of the amplifiers A#1H and A#2H have also been realized with the H2-treated samples of fibers #1 and #2. These amplifiers present optical characteristics close to those of the amplifiers made with the untreated optical fibers.

2.2. Irradiation tests

The gamma irradiations were performed at the CEA 60Co source and at room temperature. We used the experimental setup illustrated in Fig. 1(b) to characterize the gamma-irradiation effect on the global performances of the amplifiers. Only the RE-fibers were exposed to the 1.2 MeV photons whereas the rest of the amplifier systems is deported to a radiation-free instrumentation zone with two pigtails of 30 m of single clad fibers (SCF) and double clad undoped fibers (DCF). The tested fibers have been irradiated during different runs at a dose rate of 0.003 Gy/s for total integrated doses (TID) ranging between 400 Gy and 900 Gy.

With this test bench, we were able to characterize the radiation-induced changes on the amplifier output power through a power meter (PWM) and the spectral dependence of the amplified signal through an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA). For the testing of fibers #3 and #3H, we adapted our experimental setup to record during separate irradiation runs, the radiation-induced attenuation (RIA) at both 915 nm pump and 1545 nm signal wavelengths.

3. Experimental results

3.1. Amplifier gain decrease with dose

We first recorded the radiation induced changes on the amplifier output power at 1545 nm (max emission wavelength) with the following operating conditions: room temperature, pumping at 915 nm (max pump power of ~6.5W). Figure 2
Fig. 2 Dose dependence of the gain of the four amplifiers (A#1, A#2,A#1H,A#2H) during irradiation at a dose rate of 0.003 Gy/s. The gains were normalized to their maximum values to authorize a more direct comparison between radiation effects in the different amplifiers.
shows the evolution of the gain for the four amplifiers up to doses of 400 Gy for A#1 and 900 Gy for three other amplifiers. To allow a better comparison of radiation effects on these devices, the output powers have been normalized to their maximum values.

Our results showed that the radiation sensitivity of the amplifiers strongly depends on the nature of the RE-doped fiber used for the signal amplification. In amplifier A#1 with the standard fiber composition, we noticed a strong decrease of the amplifier output power at 1545 nm from about ~760 mW to ~190 mW (~75% at 400 Gy). This corresponds to a 32% decrease of the gain from 19 dB to ~12.5 dB (6.5 dB) after an irradiation dose of 400 Gy. This degradation is strongly limited for amplifier A#2 which was the one designed with the radiation-hardened YbErCeP fiber #2. This A#2 amplifier presents a low gain degradation level (8%) after an irradiation dose of ~900 Gy, corresponding to an absolute gain decrease from ~19 dB to ~17.5 dB (1.5 dB). The two amplifiers designed with fibers #1 or #2 pre-treated with H2 exhibit excellent radiation hardness with gain degradation of less than 1% respectively after a dose of 900 Gy. This corresponds to a limited degradation of 0.4 dB (from 19.2 dB to 18.8 dB) and 0.2 dB (from 17.3 dB to 17.1 dB) for amplifiers A#1H and A#2H respectively.

3.2. Amplifier gain decrease with input pump power

All the in situ tests have been performed with the pump power of ~6.5 W to facilitate the comparison. For all amplifiers, we measured very limited recovery of the amplifier gain during the first 1000 s after the end of irradiation. The point defects at the origin of the fiber degradation seem stable at room temperature.

After each irradiation run, we controlled the dependences of the amplifier output power at 1545 nm versus the 915 nm pump power and then calculate the equivalent output power losses L at 1545 nm for each possible operating pump power(> 2 W) of the two amplifiers. This loss L(Ppump) is calculated as:
L(Ppump)=10×log((Pirr(Ppump)/P0(Ppump)))
where Pirr(Ppump) is the measured output power at the tested pump power Ppump and P0(Ppump) the output power measured for the amplifier at the same conditions before irradiation. Results are illustrated in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Dependence of the output power loss L(I) versus the pump power for the amplifier A#1 and A#2 respectively irradiated at doses of 420 Gy and 900 Gy (dose rate of 0.003 Gy/s).
for the two amplifiers.

These tests confirm that, independently of the pump power, the equivalent induced losses at the signal wavelength remains constant at around 0.6 dB for A#1 and 8 dB for A#2.

3.2. Radiation-induced attenuation in fibers #3 and #3H

Under similar irradiation conditions than for the amplifiers, we characterized the RIA at both pump and signal wavelengths in the fibers #3 and #3H that did not contain Er or Yb ions. The obtained results are shown in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Dose dependence of the radiation-induced attenuation (RIA) measured at both pump (915 nm) and signal (1545 nm) wavelengths during irradiation up to 900 Gy at a dose rate of 0.003 Gy/s (room temperature of the #3 and #3H fibers. The inset highlights the low RIA values measured for the H2-pretreated #3H fiber.
.

In agreement with amplifier behaviors, these measurements reveal the strong positive effect of the H2 pre-treatment on the fiber radiation response and this, at the two investigated wavelengths.

4. Discussion

Our radiation tests reveal different amplifier degradation depending on the RE-doped fiber choice as amplification media. In Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Dose dependence of the amplifier gains for our four amplifiers A#1, A#2, A#1H and A#2H (dose rate of 0.003 Gy/s) and of other Yb/Er amplifiers reported in [10, 11].
, we compare the radiation hardness of our amplifiers to those previously published in the literature [10

10. M. Alam, J. Abramczyk, P. Madasamy, W. Torruellas, and A. Sanchez, “Fiber amplifier performance in gamma radiation environment,” OSA/Optical Fiber Conference 2007, paper OMF4.

, 11

11. J. Ma, M. Li, L. Tan, Y. Zhou, S. Yu, and Q. Ran, “Experimental investigation of radiation effect on erbium-ytterbium co-doped fiber amplifier for space optical communication in low-dose radiation environment,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15571–15577 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-18-15571. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]

Our work shows that the design of amplifiers with excellent radiation responses is now possible. Several mechanisms can be responsible for the degradation of the fiber amplifier output power, such as:

  • The generation of radiation-induced point defects absorbing at around 1545 nm, the emission wavelength of the amplifier and/or at 915 nm the pump wavelength. These point defects can directly affect both the pump and amplified signals propagation. In our fibers, we have shown [6

    6. S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, B. Tortech, C. Marcandella, T. Robin, B. Cadier, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, P. E. Dodd, and E. W. Blackmore, “Radiation effects on Ytterbium- and Ytterbium/Erbium-doped double-clad optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(6), 3293–3299 (2009). [CrossRef]

    ] that the radiation-induced losses are due to Phosphorus Oxygen Hole Centers [16

    16. G. M. Williams and E. J. Friebele, “Space radiation effects on erbium-doped fiber devices: sources, amplifiers, and passive measurements,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45(3), 1531–1536 (1998). [CrossRef]

    ] in the near-IR and to P1 defect centers in the IR [16

    16. G. M. Williams and E. J. Friebele, “Space radiation effects on erbium-doped fiber devices: sources, amplifiers, and passive measurements,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45(3), 1531–1536 (1998). [CrossRef]

    ]. Even if, the exact mechanisms are still under investigation, both Ce-codoping and H2-loading affect the generation efficiencies or the thermal stability of these defects, resulting in a decrease of their contribution to the radiation-induced attenuation.
  • The modifications of the spectroscopic properties of Er3+ and Yb3+ ions and of their cross interactions by Ce incorporation. This point is developed in [22

    22. M. Vivona, S. Girard, T. Robin, B. Cadier, L. Vaccaro, M. Cannas, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Influence of Ce3+ codoping on the photoluminescence excitation channels of phosphosilicate Er/Yb doped glasses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (in press), 2012. Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/LPT.2011.2182644 [CrossRef]

    ] that investigates the natures of interactions between these different rare-earths.

4. Conclusion

In conclusion, we presented two different techniques to improve the radiation hardness of phosphosilicate rare-earth (Er/Yb) doped optical fibers and their associated optical amplifiers.

The first one consists in the Ce-codoping of the fiber core. We show that amplifiers based on Ce-codoped fiber can survive in the harsh environments associated with challenging space missions. A degradation of about 1.5 dB of the 19 dB gain of our amplifier is measured after an irradiation dose of 900 Gy (at 0.003Gy/s). Such radiation hardness offers very promising perspectives for fiber-based amplifier integration in future space missions.

Work is in progress to design more radiation-tolerant optical fibers and fiber-based systems by combining the radiation-hardened fibers presented in this paper with radiation-hardening by system through simulations of the amplifier properties taking into account the radiation effects. By combining these different hardening approaches, it appears possible to design radiation-hardened fibers for doses up to 1500 Gy in the near future.

References and links

1.

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium- doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007). [CrossRef]

2.

G. M. Williams, M. A. Putnam, C. G. Askins, M. E. Gingerich, and E. J. Friebele, “Radiation effects in erbium-doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 28(19), 1816–1818 (1992). [CrossRef]

3.

M. Ott, “Radiation effects expected for fiber laser/amplifier and rare-earth doped optical fibers,” NASA GSFC, Parts, Packaging and Assembly Technologies Office Survey Report, 2004.

4.

B. P. Fox, K. Simmons-Potter, W. J. Thomes Jr, and D. A. V. Kliner, “Gamma-radiation-induced photodarkening in unpumped optical fibers doped with rare-earth constituents,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57(3), 1618–1625 (2010). [CrossRef]

5.

B. P. Fox, K. Simmons-Potter, W. J. Thomes Jr, D. C. Meister, R. P. Bambha, and D. A. V. Kliner, “Temperature and dose-rate effects in gamma irradiated rare-earth doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7095, 70950B, 70950B-8 (2008). [CrossRef]

6.

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, B. Tortech, C. Marcandella, T. Robin, B. Cadier, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, P. E. Dodd, and E. W. Blackmore, “Radiation effects on Ytterbium- and Ytterbium/Erbium-doped double-clad optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(6), 3293–3299 (2009). [CrossRef]

7.

T. S. Rose, D. Gunn, and G. C. Valley, “Gamma and proton radiation effects in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers: active and passive measurements,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19(12), 1918–1923 (2001). [CrossRef]

8.

M. Li, J. Ma, L. Y. Tan, Y. P. Zhou, S. Y. Yu, J. J. Yu, and C. Che, “Investigation of the irradiation effect on erbium-doped fiber amplifiers composed by different density erbium-doped fibers,” Laser Phys. 19(1), 138–142 (2009). [CrossRef]

9.

A. Gusarov, M. Van Uffelen, M. Hotoleanu, H. Thienpont, and F. Berghmans, “Radiation sensitivity of EDFAs based on highly Er-doped fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(11), 1540–1545 (2009). [CrossRef]

10.

M. Alam, J. Abramczyk, P. Madasamy, W. Torruellas, and A. Sanchez, “Fiber amplifier performance in gamma radiation environment,” OSA/Optical Fiber Conference 2007, paper OMF4.

11.

J. Ma, M. Li, L. Tan, Y. Zhou, S. Yu, and Q. Ran, “Experimental investigation of radiation effect on erbium-ytterbium co-doped fiber amplifier for space optical communication in low-dose radiation environment,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15571–15577 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-18-15571. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

M. Vivona, S. Girard, C. Marcandella, T. Robin, B. Cadier, M. Cannas, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Influence of Ce codoping and H2 pre-loading on Er/Yb-doped fiber: radiation response characterized by confocal micro-luminescence,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(8-9), 1963–1965 (2011). [CrossRef]

13.

K. V. Zotov, M. E. Likhachev, A. L. Tomashuk, M. L. Bubnov, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, and S. N. Klyamkin, “Radiation-resistant erbium-doped fiber for spacecraft applications,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(4), 2213–2215 (2008). [CrossRef]

14.

K. V. Zotov, M. E. Likhachev, A. L. Tomashuk, A. F. Kosolapov, M. M. Bubnov, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Radiation resistant Er-doped fibers: optimization of pump wavelength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1476–1478 (2008). [CrossRef]

15.

S. Girard, L. Mescia, M. Vivona, A. Laurent, Y. Ouerdane, C. Marcandella, F. Prudenzano, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, P. Paillet, V. Goiffon, B. Cadier, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Coupled experiment/simulation approach for the design of radiation-hardened rare-earth doped optical fibers and amplifiers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (submitted to).

16.

G. M. Williams and E. J. Friebele, “Space radiation effects on erbium-doped fiber devices: sources, amplifiers, and passive measurements,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45(3), 1531–1536 (1998). [CrossRef]

17.

E. J. Friebele, C. G. Askins, and M. E. Gingerich, “Effect of low dose rate irradiation on doped silica core optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 23(23), 4202–4208 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, C. Marcandella, A. Boukenter, S. Quenard, and N. Authier, “Feasibility of radiation dosimetry with phosphorus-doped optical fibers in the ultraviolet and visible domain,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(8-9), 1871–1874 (2011). [CrossRef]

19.

D. L. Griscom, E. J. Friebele, K. J. Long, and J. W. Fleming, “Fundamental defect centers in glass: electron spin resonance and optical absorption studies of irradiated phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(7), 3743–3762 (1983). [CrossRef]

20.

H. Henschel, O. Kohn, H. U. Schmidt, J. Kirchof, and S. Unger, “Radiation-induced loss of rare earth doped silica fibres,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45(3), 1552–1557 (1998). [CrossRef]

21.

B. Brichard, A. F. Fernandez, H. Ooms, and F. Berghmans, “Gamma dose rate effect in erbium doped fibers for space gyroscopes,” in Proc. of the 16th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (2003).

22.

M. Vivona, S. Girard, T. Robin, B. Cadier, L. Vaccaro, M. Cannas, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Influence of Ce3+ codoping on the photoluminescence excitation channels of phosphosilicate Er/Yb doped glasses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (in press), 2012. Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/LPT.2011.2182644 [CrossRef]

23.

A. Bishay, “Radiation induced color centers in multicomponent glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 3(1), 54–114 (1970). [CrossRef]

24.

J. S. Stroud, “Color-Center Kinetics in Cerium-Containing Glass,” J. Chem. Phys. 43(7), 2442–2450 (1965). [CrossRef]

25.

J. S. Stroud, “Color Centers in a Cerium-Containing Silicate Glass,” J. Chem. Phys. 37(4), 836–841 (1962). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.2320) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics amplifiers and oscillators
(060.2330) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics communications
(160.2220) Materials : Defect-center materials
(350.5610) Other areas of optics : Radiation

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: January 11, 2012
Revised Manuscript: February 19, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: February 19, 2012
Published: March 27, 2012

Citation
Sylvain Girard, Marilena Vivona, Arnaud Laurent, Benoît Cadier, Claude Marcandella, Thierry Robin, Emmanuel Pinsard, Aziz Boukenter, and Youcef Ouerdane, "Radiation hardening techniques for Er/Yb doped optical fibers and amplifiers for space application," Opt. Express 20, 8457-8465 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-8-8457


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References

  1. S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium- doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.54(6), 2426–2434 (2007). [CrossRef]
  2. G. M. Williams, M. A. Putnam, C. G. Askins, M. E. Gingerich, and E. J. Friebele, “Radiation effects in erbium-doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett.28(19), 1816–1818 (1992). [CrossRef]
  3. M. Ott, “Radiation effects expected for fiber laser/amplifier and rare-earth doped optical fibers,” NASA GSFC, Parts, Packaging and Assembly Technologies Office Survey Report, 2004.
  4. B. P. Fox, K. Simmons-Potter, W. J. Thomes, and D. A. V. Kliner, “Gamma-radiation-induced photodarkening in unpumped optical fibers doped with rare-earth constituents,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.57(3), 1618–1625 (2010). [CrossRef]
  5. B. P. Fox, K. Simmons-Potter, W. J. Thomes, D. C. Meister, R. P. Bambha, and D. A. V. Kliner, “Temperature and dose-rate effects in gamma irradiated rare-earth doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE7095, 70950B, 70950B-8 (2008). [CrossRef]
  6. S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, B. Tortech, C. Marcandella, T. Robin, B. Cadier, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, P. E. Dodd, and E. W. Blackmore, “Radiation effects on Ytterbium- and Ytterbium/Erbium-doped double-clad optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.56(6), 3293–3299 (2009). [CrossRef]
  7. T. S. Rose, D. Gunn, and G. C. Valley, “Gamma and proton radiation effects in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers: active and passive measurements,” J. Lightwave Technol.19(12), 1918–1923 (2001). [CrossRef]
  8. M. Li, J. Ma, L. Y. Tan, Y. P. Zhou, S. Y. Yu, J. J. Yu, and C. Che, “Investigation of the irradiation effect on erbium-doped fiber amplifiers composed by different density erbium-doped fibers,” Laser Phys.19(1), 138–142 (2009). [CrossRef]
  9. A. Gusarov, M. Van Uffelen, M. Hotoleanu, H. Thienpont, and F. Berghmans, “Radiation sensitivity of EDFAs based on highly Er-doped fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(11), 1540–1545 (2009). [CrossRef]
  10. M. Alam, J. Abramczyk, P. Madasamy, W. Torruellas, and A. Sanchez, “Fiber amplifier performance in gamma radiation environment,” OSA/Optical Fiber Conference 2007, paper OMF4.
  11. J. Ma, M. Li, L. Tan, Y. Zhou, S. Yu, and Q. Ran, “Experimental investigation of radiation effect on erbium-ytterbium co-doped fiber amplifier for space optical communication in low-dose radiation environment,” Opt. Express17(18), 15571–15577 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-18-15571 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Vivona, S. Girard, C. Marcandella, T. Robin, B. Cadier, M. Cannas, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Influence of Ce codoping and H2 pre-loading on Er/Yb-doped fiber: radiation response characterized by confocal micro-luminescence,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids357(8-9), 1963–1965 (2011). [CrossRef]
  13. K. V. Zotov, M. E. Likhachev, A. L. Tomashuk, M. L. Bubnov, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, and S. N. Klyamkin, “Radiation-resistant erbium-doped fiber for spacecraft applications,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(4), 2213–2215 (2008). [CrossRef]
  14. K. V. Zotov, M. E. Likhachev, A. L. Tomashuk, A. F. Kosolapov, M. M. Bubnov, M. V. Yashkov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Radiation resistant Er-doped fibers: optimization of pump wavelength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(17), 1476–1478 (2008). [CrossRef]
  15. S. Girard, L. Mescia, M. Vivona, A. Laurent, Y. Ouerdane, C. Marcandella, F. Prudenzano, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, P. Paillet, V. Goiffon, B. Cadier, M. Cannas, and R. Boscaino, “Coupled experiment/simulation approach for the design of radiation-hardened rare-earth doped optical fibers and amplifiers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (submitted to).
  16. G. M. Williams and E. J. Friebele, “Space radiation effects on erbium-doped fiber devices: sources, amplifiers, and passive measurements,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.45(3), 1531–1536 (1998). [CrossRef]
  17. E. J. Friebele, C. G. Askins, and M. E. Gingerich, “Effect of low dose rate irradiation on doped silica core optical fibers,” Appl. Opt.23(23), 4202–4208 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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