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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 8 — Apr. 9, 2012
  • pp: 8998–9003
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Nearly three orders of magnitude enhancement of Goos-Hanchen shift by exciting Bloch surface wave

Yuhang Wan, Zheng Zheng, Weijing Kong, Xin Zhao, Ya Liu, Yusheng Bian, and Jiansheng Liu  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 8, pp. 8998-9003 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.008998


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Abstract

Goos-Hanchen effect is experimentally studied when the Bloch surface wave is excited in the forbidden band of a one-dimensional photonic band-gap structure. By tuning the refractive index of the cladding covering the truncated photonic crystal structure, either a guided or a surface mode can be excited. In the latter case, strong enhancement of the Goos-Hanchen shift induced by the Bloch-surface-wave results in sub-millimeter shifts of the reflected beam position. Such giant Goos-Hanchen shift, ~750 times of the wavelength, could enable many intriguing applications that had been less than feasible to implement before.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

Goos-Hanchen (GH) effect is one of the most studied nonspecular reflection phenomena, where a bounded light beam reflected from an interface between different materials is laterally shifted from its ideal position. Though some argued that the phenomenon had been predicted as early as by Isaac Newton, the evasively small Goos-Hanchen shift had not been experimentally observed until 1940s [1

1. F. Goos and H. Hanchen, “Ein neuer und fundamentaler versuch zur totalreflexion,” Ann. Phys. 436(7-8), 333–346 (1947). [CrossRef]

]. Through a clever experimental setup that ‘magnified’ the magnitude of the shift through multiple total internal reflections, up to more than a hundred times, Goos and Hanchen managed to demonstrate its existence. Since then, this interesting phenomenon and its potential applications have inspired many research works [2

2. H. K. V. Lotsch, “Beam displacement at total reflection: The Goos-Hanchen effect,” Optik (Stuttg.) 32, 116 (1970).

12

12. K. L. Tsakmakidis, A. D. Boardman, and O. Hess, “‘Trapped rainbow’ storage of light in metamaterials,” Nature 450(7168), 397–401 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], especially in the past decade.

On the other hand, it’s been shown that surface electromagnetic waves could also exist at the interface of a truncated stack of periodically alternating dielectric layers (e.g. the photonic band-gap (PBG) structure) [21

21. R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Electromagnetic Bloch waves at the surface of a photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 44(19), 10961–10964 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 22

22. W. M. Robertson and M. S. May, “Surface electromagnetic wave excitation on one-dimensional photonic band-gap arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(13), 1800–1802 (1999). [CrossRef]

]. Also known as the Bloch surface wave (BSW), it can be excited when the supported mode falls within the forbidden band of the PBG structure. In contrast to its surface plasmon counterpart, by properly designing the photonic band-gap structure, Bloch surface wave could be excited at either polarization and over a much wider range of wavelengths. Its propagation loss can be significantly reduced, due to the all-dielectric structure. As a promising alternative to the plasmonic devices, fluorescence enhancement, sensing based on reflectivity measurements, and nano-waveguides had been demonstrated based on the BSW phenomenon very recently [23

23. M. Shinn and W. M. Robertson, “Surface plasmon-like sensor based on surface electromagnetic waves in a photonic band-gap material,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 105(2), 360–364 (2005). [CrossRef]

25

25. E. Descrovi, T. Sfez, M. Quaglio, D. Brunazzo, L. Dominici, F. Michelotti, H. P. Herzig, O. J. F. Martin, and F. Giorgis, “Guided Bloch surface waves on ultrathin polymeric ridges,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2087–2091 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Though the Goos-Hanchen effect could occur by directly illuminating a one-dimensional photonic crystal slab near the angle of its band edge [26

26. D. Felbacq, A. Moreau, and R. Smaâli, “Goos-Hanchen effect in the gaps of photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett. 28(18), 1633–1635 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] or its defect mode [27

27. L. G. Wang and S. Y. Zhu, “Giant lateral shift of a light beam at the defect mode in one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett. 31(1), 101–103 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] due to the abrupt, angular-dependent reflectance and phase jumps, only limited (several to tens of times) enhancement is theoretically predicted. An alternative approach based on exciting Bloch surface wave of the truncated photonic crystal structures could be a more effective way to generate much larger GH shifts. Recently, under a prism-based configuration, the enhanced GH shift as large as ~50 times of the wavelength in the presence of surface wave was first detected at the surface of the photonic crystal using a microscope [28

28. V. V. Moskalenko, I. V. Soboleva, and A. A. Fedyanin, “Surface wave-induced enhancement of the Goos-Hanchen effect in one-dimensional photonic crystals,” JETP Lett. 91(8), 382–386 (2010). [CrossRef]

], showing the potential to generate GH effect similar to the SPR-enhanced ones [11

11. X. Yin, L. Hesselink, Z. Liu, N. Fang, and X. Zhang, “Large positive and negative lateral optical beam displacements due to surface plasmon resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 372–374 (2004). [CrossRef]

, 20

20. Y. Wan, Z. Zheng, and J. Zhu, “Experimental observation of the propagation-dependent beam profile distortion and Goos-Hanchen shift under the surface plasmon resonance condition,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(2), 314–318 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. Under a similar geometry, yet by exciting a guided mode with the optical field confined within a PBG structure under the TIR configuration, GH shifts as large as a couple of hundreds of microns was observed [29

29. Y. Wan, Z. Zheng, W. Kong, Y. Liu, Z. Lu, and Y. Bian, “Direct experimental observation of giant Goos-Hanchen shifts from bandgap-enhanced total internal reflection,” Opt. Lett. 36(18), 3539–3541 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Here, we experimentally demonstrate that giant GH shifts as large as nearly 3 orders of magnitude of wavelength could be realized by exciting Bloch surface wave at the dielectric interface between a truncated photonic crystal and the cladding medium. Through changing the refractive index of the cladding, either a BSW mode or a guided mode can be excited. The experimental results show that the former leads to far larger GH shift enhancement than the latter. This sub-millimeter Bloch-surface-wave-Induced Giant Goos-Hanchen (BIGG) shift could enable many important applications. The field enhancement feature of the BSW at the surface could also be advantageous for potential sensing applications over the enhanced GH schemes where the field is mostly confined within the device structures [9

9. L. Chen, Z. Q. Cao, F. Ou, H. G. Li, Q. S. Shen, and H. C. Qiao, “Observation of large positive and negative lateral shifts of a reflected beam from symmetrical metal-cladding waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1432–1434 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 27

27. L. G. Wang and S. Y. Zhu, “Giant lateral shift of a light beam at the defect mode in one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett. 31(1), 101–103 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 29

29. Y. Wan, Z. Zheng, W. Kong, Y. Liu, Z. Lu, and Y. Bian, “Direct experimental observation of giant Goos-Hanchen shifts from bandgap-enhanced total internal reflection,” Opt. Lett. 36(18), 3539–3541 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

2. Experimental setup

As shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 schematic diagram of the experimental setup and the BIGG device
, the PBG device consists of 10 periods of alternating TiO2 (n=2.30) and SiO2 (n=1.434) layers on a ZF10 glass slide (n=1.668), terminated with a TiO2 buffer layer. The thickness of the TiO2 and SiO2 layers in the photonic crystal and the buffer layer are estimated as 163nm, 391nm, and 23nm, respectively, based on the fabrication conditions and the measured photonic band-gap structures. A fiber-pigtailed Fabry–Perot 980nm laser is used as the light source. The device is illuminated by the p-polarized Gaussian beam through a high index ZF3 glass prism (n=1.695) under the Kretschmann configuration. Its optical properties for the p-polarized input are shown to be very different from those for the s-polarized input as in [29

29. Y. Wan, Z. Zheng, W. Kong, Y. Liu, Z. Lu, and Y. Bian, “Direct experimental observation of giant Goos-Hanchen shifts from bandgap-enhanced total internal reflection,” Opt. Lett. 36(18), 3539–3541 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], though the devices are similar. The collimated Gaussian beam is spatially filtered and has a waist of ~750 μm. Its state of the polarization is controlled by a λ/2 waveplate followed by a Glan-Taylor prism. The incident angle is set by a motorized rotation stage, on which the prism is mounted. A CCD camera (Toshiba, IK-SX1) captures the reflected beam intensity profile, based on which the GH shift is calculated. A separate photodiode connected to a lock-in amplifier (SRS, SR530) is used to more accurately measure the reflectance.

3. Results and discussions

Angular-dependent Goos-Hanchen shifts are also measured under different claddings. Since negligible Goos-Hanchen shift of the s-polarized input is expected in the angular range of interest (50~54°), the Goos-Hanchen shift of the p-polarized beam is obtained by measuring the difference in the position of the p- and s-polarized spots. For either polarization, the centroids of the horizontal intensity distribution along the direction of the beam are recorded as the positions of the beam. The intensity is averaged within a horizontal stripe with a height of 30% of the 1/e intensity radius around the vertical center of the captured image of the beam. The simulated values in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Measured GH shift of the p-polarized input for (a) air and (b) water. The insert in (b) shows the reflected beam captured by CCD at the position of the maximal GH shift.
are obtained by numerically calculating the centroid of the reflected field distribution of a Gaussian beam [6

6. Y. Wan, Z. Zheng, and J. Zhu, “Propagation-dependent beam profile distortion associated with the Goos-Hanchen shift,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21313–21319 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

As shown in Fig. 4, both Goos-Hanchen shift curves show a peak when an optical mode is excited by the incident beam (see Fig. 3). For the guided mode with the air cladding, the measured peak GH shift is ~90 μm, i.e. ~92 times of the wavelength. In contrast, in presence of BSW, the corresponding Goos-Hanchen shift is boosted by nearly an order of magnitude, to a peak value of ~740 μm (i.e. ~750 times of the wavelength), as in Fig. 4(b). The extremely large Goos-Hanchen effect can be clearly seen by naked eyes using an infrared viewer, as shown by the pictures in Fig. 4(b). The splitting of the beam profile under the gigantic Goos-Hanchen effect is typical for extremely large Goos-Hanchen shifts, caused by the very steep angular phase response variations [7

7. I. V. Shadrivov, A. A. Zharov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Giant Goos-Hanchen effect at the reflection from left-handed metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(13), 2713–2715 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. We also note that, as shown in Fig. 2(b), the optical reflection loss at the maximal GH shift is significantly lower when compared to the case leveraging the surface plasmon resonance [11

11. X. Yin, L. Hesselink, Z. Liu, N. Fang, and X. Zhang, “Large positive and negative lateral optical beam displacements due to surface plasmon resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 372–374 (2004). [CrossRef]

, 20

20. Y. Wan, Z. Zheng, and J. Zhu, “Experimental observation of the propagation-dependent beam profile distortion and Goos-Hanchen shift under the surface plasmon resonance condition,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(2), 314–318 (2011). [CrossRef]

], while the maximal Goos-Hanchen shift in our study is improved by nearly an order of magnitude. The reduced optical loss could be very helpful for applications like switching [14

14. T. Sakata, H. Togo, and F. Shimokawa, “Reflection-type 2x2 optical waveguide switch using the Goos-Hanchen shift effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(20), 2841–2843 (2000). [CrossRef]

], data storage [12

12. K. L. Tsakmakidis, A. D. Boardman, and O. Hess, “‘Trapped rainbow’ storage of light in metamaterials,” Nature 450(7168), 397–401 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and sensing [13

13. X. Yin and L. Hesselink, “Goos-Hanchen shift surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 261108 (2006). [CrossRef]

].

Goos-Hanchen effect induced by the Bloch surface wave is also expected to be very sensitive to the surface properties, such as the refractive index of the cladding, considering the similarity of BSW to surface plasmon waves. That is also experimentally demonstrated by measuring the Goos-Hanchen shifts for sodium chloride solutions of different concentrations instead of pure water. The results are shown in Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured Goos-Hanchen shift for p-polarization under different aqueous samples (from pure water to 0.1%, 0.2%...0.5% NaCl solutions, consecutively).
, where the neighboring curves have a concentration difference of 0.1% (i.e. an estimated refractive index change of 1.76*10−4 RIU [33

33. D. R. Lide, ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 85th ed. (CRC Press, 2005)

]). The curves show significant shifts under such small index changes, and such Goos-Hanchen devices could be very useful for high-sensitivity sensing applications.

4. Conclusions

Giant Goos-Hanchen shifts are demonstrated by exciting the Bloch surface wave at the surface of a relatively simple, truncated photonic band-gap structure. The sub-millimeter Goos-Hanchen shift is shown to be very sensitive to the surface properties. Even larger Goos-Hanchen response could be realized by further optimizing the photonic crystal structure and the fabrication procedures. Many previously envisioned applications, especially high-sensitivity sensing, could be enabled by such huge Goos-Hanchen shifts.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by 973 Program (2009CB930701), NSFC (61077064 /60921001), and the Innovation Foundation of BUAA for PhD Graduates.

References

1.

F. Goos and H. Hanchen, “Ein neuer und fundamentaler versuch zur totalreflexion,” Ann. Phys. 436(7-8), 333–346 (1947). [CrossRef]

2.

H. K. V. Lotsch, “Beam displacement at total reflection: The Goos-Hanchen effect,” Optik (Stuttg.) 32, 116 (1970).

3.

O. C. de Beauregard, C. Imbert, and Y. Levy, “Observation of shifts in total reflection of a light beam by a multilayered structure,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields 15(12), 3553–3562 (1977). [CrossRef]

4.

H. Schomerus and M. Hentschel, “Correcting ray optics at curved dielectric microresonator interfaces: phase-space unification of Fresnel filtering and the Goos-Hänchen shift,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(24), 243903 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

M. Merano, A. Aiello, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Observing angular deviations in the specular reflection of a light beam,” Nat. Photonics 3(6), 337–340 (2009). [CrossRef]

6.

Y. Wan, Z. Zheng, and J. Zhu, “Propagation-dependent beam profile distortion associated with the Goos-Hanchen shift,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21313–21319 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

I. V. Shadrivov, A. A. Zharov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Giant Goos-Hanchen effect at the reflection from left-handed metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(13), 2713–2715 (2003). [CrossRef]

8.

R. R. Wei, X. Chen, J. W. Tao, and C. F. Li, “Giant and negative bistable shifts for one-dimensional photonic crystal containing a nonlinear metamaterial defect,” Phys. Lett. A 372(45), 6797–6800 (2008). [CrossRef]

9.

L. Chen, Z. Q. Cao, F. Ou, H. G. Li, Q. S. Shen, and H. C. Qiao, “Observation of large positive and negative lateral shifts of a reflected beam from symmetrical metal-cladding waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1432–1434 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

F. Huerkamp, T. A. Leskova, A. A. Maradudin, and B. Baumeier, “The Goos-Hänchen effect for surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15483–15489 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

X. Yin, L. Hesselink, Z. Liu, N. Fang, and X. Zhang, “Large positive and negative lateral optical beam displacements due to surface plasmon resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 372–374 (2004). [CrossRef]

12.

K. L. Tsakmakidis, A. D. Boardman, and O. Hess, “‘Trapped rainbow’ storage of light in metamaterials,” Nature 450(7168), 397–401 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

X. Yin and L. Hesselink, “Goos-Hanchen shift surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 261108 (2006). [CrossRef]

14.

T. Sakata, H. Togo, and F. Shimokawa, “Reflection-type 2x2 optical waveguide switch using the Goos-Hanchen shift effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(20), 2841–2843 (2000). [CrossRef]

15.

W. J. Wild and C. L. Giles, “Goos-Hanchen shifts from absorbing media,” Phys. Rev. A 25(4), 2099–2101 (1982). [CrossRef]

16.

H. M. Lai and S. W. Chan, “Large and negative Goos-Hanchen shift near the Brewster dip on reflection from weakly absorbing media,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 680–682 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

Y. Y. Huang, W. T. Dong, L. Gao, and D. W. Qiu, “Large positive and negative lateral shifts near pseudo-Brewster dip on reflection from a chiral metamaterial slab,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1310–1323 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

Y. Wan, Z. Zheng, and J. Zhu, “Experimental observation of the propagation-dependent beam profile distortion and Goos-Hanchen shift under the surface plasmon resonance condition,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(2), 314–318 (2011). [CrossRef]

21.

R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Electromagnetic Bloch waves at the surface of a photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 44(19), 10961–10964 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

W. M. Robertson and M. S. May, “Surface electromagnetic wave excitation on one-dimensional photonic band-gap arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(13), 1800–1802 (1999). [CrossRef]

23.

M. Shinn and W. M. Robertson, “Surface plasmon-like sensor based on surface electromagnetic waves in a photonic band-gap material,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 105(2), 360–364 (2005). [CrossRef]

24.

I. V. Soboleva, E. Descrovi, C. Summonte, A. A. Fedyanin, and F. Giorgis, “Fluorescence emission enhanced by surface electromagnetic waves on one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231122 (2009). [CrossRef]

25.

E. Descrovi, T. Sfez, M. Quaglio, D. Brunazzo, L. Dominici, F. Michelotti, H. P. Herzig, O. J. F. Martin, and F. Giorgis, “Guided Bloch surface waves on ultrathin polymeric ridges,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2087–2091 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

D. Felbacq, A. Moreau, and R. Smaâli, “Goos-Hanchen effect in the gaps of photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett. 28(18), 1633–1635 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

L. G. Wang and S. Y. Zhu, “Giant lateral shift of a light beam at the defect mode in one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett. 31(1), 101–103 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28.

V. V. Moskalenko, I. V. Soboleva, and A. A. Fedyanin, “Surface wave-induced enhancement of the Goos-Hanchen effect in one-dimensional photonic crystals,” JETP Lett. 91(8), 382–386 (2010). [CrossRef]

29.

Y. Wan, Z. Zheng, W. Kong, Y. Liu, Z. Lu, and Y. Bian, “Direct experimental observation of giant Goos-Hanchen shifts from bandgap-enhanced total internal reflection,” Opt. Lett. 36(18), 3539–3541 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

30.

W. M. Robertson, “Experimental measurement of the effect of termination on surface electromagnetic waves in one-dimensional photonic bandgap arrays,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(11), 2013–2017 (1999). [CrossRef]

31.

E. Descrovi, F. Frascella, B. Sciacca, F. Geobaldo, L. Dominici, and F. Michelotti, “Coupling of surface waves in highly defined one-dimensional porous silicon photonic crystals for gas sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 241109 (2007). [CrossRef]

32.

P. Yeh, A. Yariv, and C.-S. Hong, “Electromagnetic propagation in periodic stratified media. I. General theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67(4), 423–438 (1977). [CrossRef]

33.

D. R. Lide, ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 85th ed. (CRC Press, 2005)

OCIS Codes
(240.5420) Optics at surfaces : Polaritons
(240.6690) Optics at surfaces : Surface waves
(260.0260) Physical optics : Physical optics
(230.5298) Optical devices : Photonic crystals

ToC Category:
Optics at Surfaces

History
Original Manuscript: January 18, 2012
Revised Manuscript: March 15, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: March 15, 2012
Published: April 3, 2012

Citation
Yuhang Wan, Zheng Zheng, Weijing Kong, Xin Zhao, Ya Liu, Yusheng Bian, and Jiansheng Liu, "Nearly three orders of magnitude enhancement of Goos-Hanchen shift by exciting Bloch surface wave," Opt. Express 20, 8998-9003 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-8-8998


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References

  1. F. Goos and H. Hanchen, “Ein neuer und fundamentaler versuch zur totalreflexion,” Ann. Phys.436(7-8), 333–346 (1947). [CrossRef]
  2. H. K. V. Lotsch, “Beam displacement at total reflection: The Goos-Hanchen effect,” Optik (Stuttg.)32, 116 (1970).
  3. O. C. de Beauregard, C. Imbert, and Y. Levy, “Observation of shifts in total reflection of a light beam by a multilayered structure,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields15(12), 3553–3562 (1977). [CrossRef]
  4. H. Schomerus and M. Hentschel, “Correcting ray optics at curved dielectric microresonator interfaces: phase-space unification of Fresnel filtering and the Goos-Hänchen shift,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(24), 243903 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Merano, A. Aiello, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Observing angular deviations in the specular reflection of a light beam,” Nat. Photonics3(6), 337–340 (2009). [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Wan, Z. Zheng, and J. Zhu, “Propagation-dependent beam profile distortion associated with the Goos-Hanchen shift,” Opt. Express17(23), 21313–21319 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. I. V. Shadrivov, A. A. Zharov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Giant Goos-Hanchen effect at the reflection from left-handed metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(13), 2713–2715 (2003). [CrossRef]
  8. R. R. Wei, X. Chen, J. W. Tao, and C. F. Li, “Giant and negative bistable shifts for one-dimensional photonic crystal containing a nonlinear metamaterial defect,” Phys. Lett. A372(45), 6797–6800 (2008). [CrossRef]
  9. L. Chen, Z. Q. Cao, F. Ou, H. G. Li, Q. S. Shen, and H. C. Qiao, “Observation of large positive and negative lateral shifts of a reflected beam from symmetrical metal-cladding waveguides,” Opt. Lett.32(11), 1432–1434 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. F. Huerkamp, T. A. Leskova, A. A. Maradudin, and B. Baumeier, “The Goos-Hänchen effect for surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Express19(16), 15483–15489 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. X. Yin, L. Hesselink, Z. Liu, N. Fang, and X. Zhang, “Large positive and negative lateral optical beam displacements due to surface plasmon resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(3), 372–374 (2004). [CrossRef]
  12. K. L. Tsakmakidis, A. D. Boardman, and O. Hess, “‘Trapped rainbow’ storage of light in metamaterials,” Nature450(7168), 397–401 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. X. Yin and L. Hesselink, “Goos-Hanchen shift surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(26), 261108 (2006). [CrossRef]
  14. T. Sakata, H. Togo, and F. Shimokawa, “Reflection-type 2x2 optical waveguide switch using the Goos-Hanchen shift effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(20), 2841–2843 (2000). [CrossRef]
  15. W. J. Wild and C. L. Giles, “Goos-Hanchen shifts from absorbing media,” Phys. Rev. A25(4), 2099–2101 (1982). [CrossRef]
  16. H. M. Lai and S. W. Chan, “Large and negative Goos-Hanchen shift near the Brewster dip on reflection from weakly absorbing media,” Opt. Lett.27(9), 680–682 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Y. Y. Huang, W. T. Dong, L. Gao, and D. W. Qiu, “Large positive and negative lateral shifts near pseudo-Brewster dip on reflection from a chiral metamaterial slab,” Opt. Express19(2), 1310–1323 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev.108(2), 494–521 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424(6950), 824–830 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Y. Wan, Z. Zheng, and J. Zhu, “Experimental observation of the propagation-dependent beam profile distortion and Goos-Hanchen shift under the surface plasmon resonance condition,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B28(2), 314–318 (2011). [CrossRef]
  21. R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Electromagnetic Bloch waves at the surface of a photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter44(19), 10961–10964 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. W. M. Robertson and M. S. May, “Surface electromagnetic wave excitation on one-dimensional photonic band-gap arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(13), 1800–1802 (1999). [CrossRef]
  23. M. Shinn and W. M. Robertson, “Surface plasmon-like sensor based on surface electromagnetic waves in a photonic band-gap material,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.105(2), 360–364 (2005). [CrossRef]
  24. I. V. Soboleva, E. Descrovi, C. Summonte, A. A. Fedyanin, and F. Giorgis, “Fluorescence emission enhanced by surface electromagnetic waves on one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(23), 231122 (2009). [CrossRef]
  25. E. Descrovi, T. Sfez, M. Quaglio, D. Brunazzo, L. Dominici, F. Michelotti, H. P. Herzig, O. J. F. Martin, and F. Giorgis, “Guided Bloch surface waves on ultrathin polymeric ridges,” Nano Lett.10(6), 2087–2091 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. D. Felbacq, A. Moreau, and R. Smaâli, “Goos-Hanchen effect in the gaps of photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett.28(18), 1633–1635 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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