OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 8 — Apr. 9, 2012
  • pp: 9046–9051
« Show journal navigation

1 W at 785 nm from a frequency-doubled wafer-fused semiconductor disk laser

Antti Rantamäki, Jussi Rautiainen, Jari Lyytikäinen, Alexei Sirbu, Alexandru Mereuta, Eli Kapon, and Oleg G. Okhotnikov  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 8, pp. 9046-9051 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.009046


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1110 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We demonstrate an optically pumped semiconductor disk laser operating at 1580 nm with 4.6 W of output power, which represents the highest output power reported from this type of laser. 1 W of output power at 785 nm with nearly diffraction-limited beam has been achieved from this laser through intracavity frequency doubling, which offers an attractive alternative to Ti:sapphire lasers and laser diodes in a number of applications, e.g., in spectroscopy, atomic cooling and biophotonics.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

The advantages of optically pumped semiconductor disk lasers (SDLs) include their capability of producing multi-Watt output powers with excellent beam quality [1

1. M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-power (> 0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(8), 1063–1065 (1997). [CrossRef]

]. The external cavity of SDLs allows various optical components to be conveniently integrated into the cavity, and for power scaling by increasing the mode area on the gain element or by using multiple gain elements. However, the most prominent feature of SDLs is their spectral versatility as the range of accessible wavelengths for semiconductor technology spans from the ultraviolet to 5 μm [2

2. Y. Kaneda, J. M. Yarborough, L. Li, N. Peyghambarian, L. Fan, C. Hessenius, M. Fallahi, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, Y. Honda, M. Nishioka, Y. Shimizu, K. Miyazono, H. Shimatani, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, Y. Kitaoka, and T. Sasaki, “Continuous-wave all-solid-state 244 nm deep-ultraviolet laser source by fourth-harmonic generation of an optically pumped semiconductor laser using CsLiB6O10 in an external resonator,” Opt. Lett. 33(15), 1705–1707 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

-3

3. M. Rahim, F. Felder, M. Fill, and H. Zogg, “Optically pumped 5 μm IV-VI VECSEL with Al-heat spreader,” Opt. Lett. 33(24), 3010–3012 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Significant progress has been achieved in recent years in SDL technology based on InGaAs quantum wells (QWs) emitting at wavelengths 920-1180 nm. High infrared (IR) power obtained in continuous wave regime [4

4. J. Chilla, Q. Shu, H. Zhou, E. Weiss, M. Reed, and L. Spinelli, “Recent advances in optically pumped semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6451, 645109, 645109-10 (2007). [CrossRef]

6

6. T. Wang, Y. Kaneda, J. Yarborough, J. Hader, J. Moloney, A. Chernikov, S. Chatterjee, S. Koch, B. Kunert, and W. Stolz, “High-power optically pumped semiconductor laser at 1040 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 661–663 (2010). [CrossRef]

] has been efficiently converted into blue, green and yellow wavelengths by intracavity frequency doubling [4

4. J. Chilla, Q. Shu, H. Zhou, E. Weiss, M. Reed, and L. Spinelli, “Recent advances in optically pumped semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6451, 645109, 645109-10 (2007). [CrossRef]

, 7

7. J. Chilla, S. Butterworth, A. Zeitschel, J. Charles, A. Caprara, M. Reed, and L. Spinelli, “High power optically pumped semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 5332, 143–150 (2004). [CrossRef]

10

10. T. Leinonen, V. Korpijärvi, A. Härkonen, and M. Guina, “7.4 W yellow GaInNAs based semiconductor disk laser,” Electron. Lett. 47(20), 1139–1440 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. Further extension of the SDL spectral coverage to the 600-900 nm and the 1200-1600 nm spectral ranges requires special efforts and different approaches. One way to extend the operation wavelength of SDLs is to use in-well pumping instead of the traditional barrier pumping. For emission wavelengths in the range 830-870 nm, this scheme can utilize the inexpensive and powerful pump sources emitting around 800 nm and has enabled up to 1 W of output power from a GaAs/AlGaAs SDL [11

11. J. Hastie, J. Hopkins, S. Calvez, C. Jeon, D. Burns, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. Ferguson, and M. Dawson, “0.5-W single transverse-mode operation of an 850-nm diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(7), 894–896 (2003). [CrossRef]

,12

12. W. Zhang, T. Ackemann, S. McGinily, M. Schmid, E. Riis, and A. I. Ferguson, “Operation of an optical in-well-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Opt. 45(29), 7729–7735 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In-well pumping has also been proposed as a solution to cover the 700-820 nm spectral band [13

13. M. Schmid, S. Benchabane, F. Torabi-Goudarzi, R. Abram, A. Ferguson, and E. Riis, “Optical in-well pumping of a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(24), 4860 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. This approach, however, suffers from the low power and the high cost of the available pump diodes emitting around 670 nm. Using frequency-doubled solid-state systems, e.g. Nd:YVO4 based lasers, for pumping SDLs emitting below 800 nm is another option. Although this approach is unlikely to be a practical solution, output powers of 1 W at 675 nm from a GaInP QW SDL [14

14. J. Hastie, L. Morton, A. Kemp, M. Dawson, A. Krysa, and J. Roberts, “Tunable ultraviolet output from an intracavity frequency-doubled red vertical-external-cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 061114 (2006). [CrossRef]

] and 52 mW at 716-755 nm from an InP quantum-dot (QD) system have been reported [15

15. P. J. Schlosser, J. E. Hastie, S. Calvez, A. B. Krysa, and M. D. Dawson, “InP/AlGaInP quantum dot semiconductor disk lasers for CW TEM00 emission at 716 - 755 nm,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21782–21787 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Contrary to the SDLs emitting at 600-830 nm, various sources are readily available for pumping SDLs operating at 920-1600 nm. Though the state-of-the-art pumping technology has contributed significantly to the rapid progress of high power InGaAs QW SDLs, extending the emission wavelength of InGaAs structures beyond 1180 nm is limited by the increased lattice mismatch between GaAs and InGaAs. The operation wavelength can be shifted beyond 1180 nm by adding nitrogen into the InGaAs QWs as demonstrated in [16

16. J. Rautiainen, A. Härkönen, V. M. Korpijärvi, P. Tuomisto, M. Guina, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “2.7 W tunable orange-red GaInNAs semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Express 15(26), 18345–18350 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], but this approach requires higher accuracy in the growth conditions and suffers from enhanced non-radiative processes with increasing nitrogen content needed to tailor the operating wavelength to longer wavelengths [17

17. T. Jouhti, C. Peng, E. Pavelescu, J. Konttinen, L. Gomes, O. Okhotnikov, and M. Pessa, “Strain-compensated GaInNAs structures for 1.3-μm lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(4), 787–794 (2002). [CrossRef]

, 18

18. V. Korpijärvi, M. Guina, J. Puustinen, P. Tuomisto, J. Rautiainen, A. Härkönen, A. Tukiainen, O. Okhotnikov, and M. Pessa, “MBE grown GaInNAs-based multi-Watt disk lasers,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(7), 1868–1871 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Although the dilute nitride GaInNAs structures have produced 11 W at 1180 nm [19

19. V. M. Korpijärvi, T. Leinonen, J. Puustinen, A. Härkönen, and M. D. Guina, “11 W single gain-chip dilute nitride disk laser emitting around 1180 nm,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25633–25641, 641 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], the reported output power drops down to 600 mW at 1320 nm [20

20. J. Hopkins, S. Smith, C. Jeon, H. Sun, D. Burns, S. Calvez, M. Dawson, T. Jouhti, and M. Pessa, “0.6 W CW GaInNAs vertical external-cavity surface emitting laser operating at 1.32 μm,” Electron. Lett. 40(1), 30–31 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. Alternatively, quantum dot (QD) nitrogen-free structures have been employed to produce radiation at wavelengths above 1180 nm [21

21. M. Butkus, J. Rautiainen, O. G. Okhotnikov, C. J. Hamilton, G. P. A. Malcolm, S. S. Mikhrin, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, and E. U. Rafailov, “Quantum dot based semiconductor disk lasers for 1-1.3 μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1763–1771 (2011). [CrossRef]

] and orange emission through frequency doubling [22

22. J. Rautiainen, I. Krestnikov, J. Nikkinen, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “2.5 W orange power by frequency conversion from a dual-gain quantum-dot disk laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 1935–1937 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The QD structures, however, suffer from lower gain as compared to the QW structures and the prospect for their exploitation to achieve lasing beyond 1300 nm is still unclear.

InP-based QWs are ideal for semiconductor lasers operating at the 1200-1600 nm spectral band [23

23. H. Lindberg, M. Strassner, E. Gerster, and A. Larsson, “0.8 W optically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting laser operating CW at 1550 nm,” Electron. Lett. 40(10), 601–602 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. Monolithic InP-based lasers with vertical cavity, however, suffer from low refractive index contrast and poor thermal conductivity of the compounds lattice-matched to InP [24

24. M. Guden and J. Piprek, “Material parameters of quaternary III-V semiconductors for multilayer mirrors at wavelength,” Model. Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. 4(4), 349–357 (1996). [CrossRef]

], requiring thick distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) with reduced performance [25

25. N. Schulz, J. Hopkins, M. Rattunde, D. Burns, and J. Wagner, “High-brightness long-wavelength semiconductor disk lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2(3), 160–181 (2008). [CrossRef]

, 26

26. C. Symonds, J. Dion, I. Sagnes, M. Dainese, M. Strassner, L. Leroy, and J. Oudar, “High performance 1.55 μm vertical external cavity surface emitting laser with broadband integrated dielectric-metal mirror,” Electron. Lett. 40(12), 734–735 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. This problem can be overcome by wafer fusion [27

27. A. Syrbu, J. Fernandez, J. Behrend, C. Berseth, J. Carlin, A. Rudra, and E. Kapon, “InGaAs/lnGaAsP/lnP edge emitting laser diodes on p-GaAs substrates obtained by localised wafer fusion,” Electron. Lett. 33(10), 866–868 (1997). [CrossRef]

], which allows the integration of InP-based QWs and high quality GaAs/AlGaAs DBRs. Particularly, the high power wafer-fused SDLs operating at 1200-1600 nm [28

28. J. Rautiainen, L. Toikkanen, J. Lyytikainen, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, E. Kapon, and O. Okhotnikov, “Wafer fused optically-pumped semiconductor disk laser operating at 1220-nm,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 2009 and the European Quantum Electronics Conference (Munich, 2009, paper CB5_3.

31

31. J. Rautiainen, J. Lyytikäinen, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, E. Kapon, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “2.6 W optically-pumped semiconductor disk laser operating at 1.57-μm using wafer fusion,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21881–21886 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] have enabled 3 W of output power at 650 nm by frequency doubling [32

32. A. Rantamäki, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, E. Kapon, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “3 W of 650 nm red emission by frequency doubling of wafer-fused semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21645–21650 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

We have previously reported 2.6 W of output power from a wafer-fused SDL operating at 1580 nm [31

31. J. Rautiainen, J. Lyytikäinen, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, E. Kapon, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “2.6 W optically-pumped semiconductor disk laser operating at 1.57-μm using wafer fusion,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21881–21886 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In this Letter, we scale this power up to 4.6 W which allows 1 W of frequency-doubled output power at 785 nm to be obtained. SDLs operating at the 700-800 nm wavelength range could provide an alternative to the expensive and bulky Ti:sapphire laser when broad wavelength tunability is not required [33

33. M. Schmid, “Optically in-well-pumped VECSELs: An attractive new aource in the near-IR,” Photon. Spectra 38(11), 58–64 (2004).

]. The SDL concept also allows for enhanced power scaling with diffraction limited beam quality as compared to laser diodes [34

34. B. Sumpf, K.-H. Hasler, P. Adamiec, F. Bugge, F. Dittmar, J. Ö. Fricke, H. Wenzel, M. Zorn, G. Ö. Erbert, and G. Ü. TrÄnkle, “High-brightness quantum well tapered lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 1009–1020 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. In all, intracavity frequency doubling of SDLs emitting at 1400-1600 nm allows to cover the 700-800 nm spectral range and represents a practical scheme since it uses powerful and inexpensive 980 nm pump diodes.

2. Wafer-fused SDL emitting at 1580 nm

The active medium of the SDL discussed here was grown on an InP substrate by low pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (LP MOVPE). The 5 pairs of compressively strained (1%) AlGaInAs QWs were positioned at the antinodes of the optical field. The measured photoluminescence peak is centered near 1520 nm at room temperature. The DBR grown by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy (SS MBE) on a GaAs substrate consists of 35 pairs of quarter wave thick Al0.9Ga0.1As and GaAs layers. The wafers were then processed using the 2-inch wafer fusion technique described in [35

35. A. Sirbu, N. Volet, A. Mereuta, J. Lyytikäinen, J. Rautiainen, O. Okhotnikov, J. Walczak, M. Wasiak, T. Czyszanowski, A. Caliman, Q. Zhu, V. Iakovlev, and E. Kapon, “Wafer-fused optically-pumped VECSELs emitting in the 1310 nm and 1550 nm wavebands,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2011, 1–8 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. After the fusion, the InP substrate was removed by wet-etching using HCl. The GaInAsP etch-stop was removed using H3PO4:H2O2:H2O (3:1:3). The structure then was cut into pieces of 2.5 x 2.5 mm2. The thermal management of the structure was achieved by capillary bonding a 300 μm thick transparent diamond on top of the gain section using de-ionized water [36

36. Z. Liau, “Semiconductor wafer bonding via liquid capillarity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(5), 651 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. The assembly was then placed between water-cooled copper blocks using thin indium foil to ensure good mechanical and thermal contact. Finally, an antireflection (AR) coating at the signal wavelength was deposited on the diamond surface. The role of the antireflection coating is to preserve good beam quality while the spectral fringes cannot be avoided completely.

The optical pumping was performed with a 980 nm fiber-coupled diode laser that was focused onto a spot with a diameter of 300 μm at the gain element. The cavity geometry ensured that the size of the laser mode matched closely to the pumped spot. A schematic of the cavity is given in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Cavity schematic of the wafer-fused SDL producing 4.6 W of output power at 1580 nm. The output coupling ratio is close to 1.5%.
. The output power characteristics with the corresponding spectra are shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Output power as function of pump power for two gain element temperatures. The laser spectra and the output beam taken at the highest output power are shown in the insets.
. The maximum output powers of 4.2 W and 4.6 W were obtained at gain element temperatures of 15 °C and 8°C, respectively. The output power was limited by thermal roll-over. The beam quality parameter M2 was measured to be below 1.25 in both transverse directions at all pump powers. The multiline spectra shown in the inset of Fig. 2 originate from the Fabry-Pérot etalon effect induced by the intracavity diamond heat spreader.

3. Generation of 785 nm radiation by frequency conversion

The schematic of the cavity comprising the nonlinear crystal for frequency doubling is shown in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Cavity schematic of the frequency-doubled SDL producing 1 W of output power at 785 nm. The mode diameter in the 6 mm long LBO crystal was estimated to be 140 μm.
. The second harmonic output at 785 nm is obtained through mirror 2 (M2), which is transparent for the frequency-doubled radiation. Mirror 3 (M3) is highly reflective for both fundamental and second harmonic wavelengths. The nonlinear crystal is a critically phase-matched, Type I, 6 mm long lithium triborate (LBO) crystal that was AR coated for the signal and the second harmonic wavelengths. The temperature of the LBO crystal was fixed to 25 °C by mounting it into a Peltier cooler in order to preserve the phase matching condition in the LBO crystal [37

37. J. H. Lee, S. M. Lee, T. Kim, and Y. J. Park, “7 W high-efficiency continuous-wave green light generation by intracavity frequency doubling of an end-pumped vertical external-cavity surface emitting semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241107 (2006). [CrossRef]

, 38

38. J.-Y. Kim, S. Cho, S.-M. Lee, G. B. Kim, J. Lee, J. Yoo, K.-S. Kim, T. Kim, and Y. Park, “Highly efficient green VECSEL with intra-cavity diamond heat spreader,” Electron. Lett. 43(2), 105–107 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. The 785 nm output power as a function of 980 nm pump power and the corresponding spectra are shown in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Frequency-doubled output power as a function of pump power. The temperature of the gain element was kept at 15°C. The laser spectra and the output beam taken at the highest output power are shown in the insets.
. The output power reaches 1 W at 42 W of pump power and is limited by thermal roll-over. The beam quality parameter M2 was measured to be below 1.45 in both transversal directions at all pump powers, allowing a 70% coupling efficiency into a single mode fiber.

The output power characteristic for the frequency-doubled radiation, shown Fig. 4, is typical for lasers for which the conversion efficiency is relatively low and the fundamental intracavity power increases approximately linearly with pump power [39

39. J. Bartschke, R. Knappe, K.-J. Boller, and R. Wallenstein, “Investigation of efficient self-frequency-doubling Nd:YAB Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(12), 2295–2300 (1997). [CrossRef]

41

41. C. Du, Z. Wang, J. Liu, X. Xu, B. Teng, K. Fu, J. Wang, Y. Liu, and Z. Shao, “Efficient intracavity second-harmonic generation at 1.06 µm in a BiB3O6 (BIBO) crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 73(3), 215–217 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. One factor responsible for the relatively low conversion efficiency could be a limited phase matching bandwidth of the LBO crystal. It should be noted, however, that the acceptance bandwidth of the LBO crystal is ≈5.3 nm, which approximately corresponds to the −3 dB spectral width of the laser. Nevertheless, improvements in the conversion efficiency could be obtained by using crystals with wider acceptance bandwidths or/and by reducing the bandwidth of optical spectrum by using appropriate filters or etalons [42

42. A. Maclean, A. Kemp, S. Calvez, J. Kim, T. Kim, M. Dawson, and D. Burns, “Continuous tuning and efficient intracavity second-harmonic generation in a semiconductor disk laser with an intracavity diamond heatspreader,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(3), 216–225 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. Further improvement in the conversion efficiency could be achieved by applying polarization control of the fundamental wave to prevent the LBO crystal from affecting the laser polarization.

4. Conclusion

We demonstrate a wafer-fused optically pumped semiconductor disk laser generating 4.6 W of output power at 1580 nm. Through intracavity frequency doubling the disk laser produces up to 1 W of output power at 785 nm. This disk laser concept allows for substantial tailoring of the operation wavelength and offers the potential for power scaling with good beam quality. Future work includes further power scaling of long-wavelength semiconductor disk lasers and improvement of the frequency conversion efficiency. This progress is expected through thermal management enhancement of the gain element and optimization of the laser cavity.

New applications for long-wavelength semiconductor disk lasers are expected to arise due to the unique combination of characteristics they offer – high power and low-noise operation. In particular, optical pumping of Raman fiber lasers and amplifiers with 1200-1600 nm semiconductor disk lasers provides significant advantages over conventional pumping techniques based on diode lasers and/or fiber converters and could radically change Raman fiber technology. Finally, high power SDLs operating at 700-800 nm could significantly increases the number of potential SDL applications, including spectroscopy, atomic cooling and biophotonics.

Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge the technical help of Vladimir Iakovlev and Grigore Suruceanu from BeamExpress S.A, Lausanne, Switzerland, and Lauri Toikkanen and Jari Nikkinen from the Optoelectronics Research Centre, Tampere University of Technology.

References and links

1.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-power (> 0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(8), 1063–1065 (1997). [CrossRef]

2.

Y. Kaneda, J. M. Yarborough, L. Li, N. Peyghambarian, L. Fan, C. Hessenius, M. Fallahi, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, Y. Honda, M. Nishioka, Y. Shimizu, K. Miyazono, H. Shimatani, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, Y. Kitaoka, and T. Sasaki, “Continuous-wave all-solid-state 244 nm deep-ultraviolet laser source by fourth-harmonic generation of an optically pumped semiconductor laser using CsLiB6O10 in an external resonator,” Opt. Lett. 33(15), 1705–1707 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

M. Rahim, F. Felder, M. Fill, and H. Zogg, “Optically pumped 5 μm IV-VI VECSEL with Al-heat spreader,” Opt. Lett. 33(24), 3010–3012 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

J. Chilla, Q. Shu, H. Zhou, E. Weiss, M. Reed, and L. Spinelli, “Recent advances in optically pumped semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6451, 645109, 645109-10 (2007). [CrossRef]

5.

A. Chernikov, J. Herrmann, M. Koch, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. Chatterjee, S. Koch, T. Wang, Y. Kaneda, J. Yarborough, J. Hader, and J. V. Moloney, “Heat management in high-power vertical external- cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1772–1778 (2011). [CrossRef]

6.

T. Wang, Y. Kaneda, J. Yarborough, J. Hader, J. Moloney, A. Chernikov, S. Chatterjee, S. Koch, B. Kunert, and W. Stolz, “High-power optically pumped semiconductor laser at 1040 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 661–663 (2010). [CrossRef]

7.

J. Chilla, S. Butterworth, A. Zeitschel, J. Charles, A. Caprara, M. Reed, and L. Spinelli, “High power optically pumped semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 5332, 143–150 (2004). [CrossRef]

8.

S. Hilbich, W. Seelert, V. Ostroumov, C. Kannengiesser, R. Elm, J. Mueller, E. Weiss, H. Zhou, and J. Chilla, “New wavelengths in the yellow-orange range between 545 nm and 580 nm generated by an intracavity frequency-doubled optically pumped semiconductor laser,” Proc. SPIE 6451, 64510C (2007). [CrossRef]

9.

M. Fallahi, Y. Li Fan, C. Kaneda, J. Hessenius, Hader, J. V. Hongbo Li, B. Moloney, W. Kunert, S. W. Stolz, J. Koch, Murray, and R. Bedford, “5-W yellow laser by intracavity frequency doubling of high power vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1700–1702 (2008). [CrossRef]

10.

T. Leinonen, V. Korpijärvi, A. Härkonen, and M. Guina, “7.4 W yellow GaInNAs based semiconductor disk laser,” Electron. Lett. 47(20), 1139–1440 (2011). [CrossRef]

11.

J. Hastie, J. Hopkins, S. Calvez, C. Jeon, D. Burns, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. Ferguson, and M. Dawson, “0.5-W single transverse-mode operation of an 850-nm diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(7), 894–896 (2003). [CrossRef]

12.

W. Zhang, T. Ackemann, S. McGinily, M. Schmid, E. Riis, and A. I. Ferguson, “Operation of an optical in-well-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Opt. 45(29), 7729–7735 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

M. Schmid, S. Benchabane, F. Torabi-Goudarzi, R. Abram, A. Ferguson, and E. Riis, “Optical in-well pumping of a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(24), 4860 (2004). [CrossRef]

14.

J. Hastie, L. Morton, A. Kemp, M. Dawson, A. Krysa, and J. Roberts, “Tunable ultraviolet output from an intracavity frequency-doubled red vertical-external-cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 061114 (2006). [CrossRef]

15.

P. J. Schlosser, J. E. Hastie, S. Calvez, A. B. Krysa, and M. D. Dawson, “InP/AlGaInP quantum dot semiconductor disk lasers for CW TEM00 emission at 716 - 755 nm,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21782–21787 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

J. Rautiainen, A. Härkönen, V. M. Korpijärvi, P. Tuomisto, M. Guina, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “2.7 W tunable orange-red GaInNAs semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Express 15(26), 18345–18350 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

T. Jouhti, C. Peng, E. Pavelescu, J. Konttinen, L. Gomes, O. Okhotnikov, and M. Pessa, “Strain-compensated GaInNAs structures for 1.3-μm lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(4), 787–794 (2002). [CrossRef]

18.

V. Korpijärvi, M. Guina, J. Puustinen, P. Tuomisto, J. Rautiainen, A. Härkönen, A. Tukiainen, O. Okhotnikov, and M. Pessa, “MBE grown GaInNAs-based multi-Watt disk lasers,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(7), 1868–1871 (2009). [CrossRef]

19.

V. M. Korpijärvi, T. Leinonen, J. Puustinen, A. Härkönen, and M. D. Guina, “11 W single gain-chip dilute nitride disk laser emitting around 1180 nm,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25633–25641, 641 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

J. Hopkins, S. Smith, C. Jeon, H. Sun, D. Burns, S. Calvez, M. Dawson, T. Jouhti, and M. Pessa, “0.6 W CW GaInNAs vertical external-cavity surface emitting laser operating at 1.32 μm,” Electron. Lett. 40(1), 30–31 (2004). [CrossRef]

21.

M. Butkus, J. Rautiainen, O. G. Okhotnikov, C. J. Hamilton, G. P. A. Malcolm, S. S. Mikhrin, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, and E. U. Rafailov, “Quantum dot based semiconductor disk lasers for 1-1.3 μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1763–1771 (2011). [CrossRef]

22.

J. Rautiainen, I. Krestnikov, J. Nikkinen, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “2.5 W orange power by frequency conversion from a dual-gain quantum-dot disk laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 1935–1937 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

H. Lindberg, M. Strassner, E. Gerster, and A. Larsson, “0.8 W optically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting laser operating CW at 1550 nm,” Electron. Lett. 40(10), 601–602 (2004). [CrossRef]

24.

M. Guden and J. Piprek, “Material parameters of quaternary III-V semiconductors for multilayer mirrors at wavelength,” Model. Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. 4(4), 349–357 (1996). [CrossRef]

25.

N. Schulz, J. Hopkins, M. Rattunde, D. Burns, and J. Wagner, “High-brightness long-wavelength semiconductor disk lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2(3), 160–181 (2008). [CrossRef]

26.

C. Symonds, J. Dion, I. Sagnes, M. Dainese, M. Strassner, L. Leroy, and J. Oudar, “High performance 1.55 μm vertical external cavity surface emitting laser with broadband integrated dielectric-metal mirror,” Electron. Lett. 40(12), 734–735 (2004). [CrossRef]

27.

A. Syrbu, J. Fernandez, J. Behrend, C. Berseth, J. Carlin, A. Rudra, and E. Kapon, “InGaAs/lnGaAsP/lnP edge emitting laser diodes on p-GaAs substrates obtained by localised wafer fusion,” Electron. Lett. 33(10), 866–868 (1997). [CrossRef]

28.

J. Rautiainen, L. Toikkanen, J. Lyytikainen, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, E. Kapon, and O. Okhotnikov, “Wafer fused optically-pumped semiconductor disk laser operating at 1220-nm,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 2009 and the European Quantum Electronics Conference (Munich, 2009, paper CB5_3.

29.

J. Lyytikäinen, J. Rautiainen, L. Toikkanen, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, E. Kapon, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “13-µm optically-pumped semiconductor disk laser by wafer fusion,” Opt. Express 17(11), 9047–9052 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

30.

J. Lyytikäinen, J. Rautiainen, A. Sirbu, V. Iakovlev, N. Laakso, S. Ranta, M. Tavast, E. Kapon, and O. Okhotnikov, “High-power 1.48-μm wafer-fused optically pumped semiconductor disk laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(13), 917–919 (2011). [CrossRef]

31.

J. Rautiainen, J. Lyytikäinen, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, E. Kapon, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “2.6 W optically-pumped semiconductor disk laser operating at 1.57-μm using wafer fusion,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21881–21886 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

32.

A. Rantamäki, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, E. Kapon, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “3 W of 650 nm red emission by frequency doubling of wafer-fused semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21645–21650 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

33.

M. Schmid, “Optically in-well-pumped VECSELs: An attractive new aource in the near-IR,” Photon. Spectra 38(11), 58–64 (2004).

34.

B. Sumpf, K.-H. Hasler, P. Adamiec, F. Bugge, F. Dittmar, J. Ö. Fricke, H. Wenzel, M. Zorn, G. Ö. Erbert, and G. Ü. TrÄnkle, “High-brightness quantum well tapered lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 1009–1020 (2009). [CrossRef]

35.

A. Sirbu, N. Volet, A. Mereuta, J. Lyytikäinen, J. Rautiainen, O. Okhotnikov, J. Walczak, M. Wasiak, T. Czyszanowski, A. Caliman, Q. Zhu, V. Iakovlev, and E. Kapon, “Wafer-fused optically-pumped VECSELs emitting in the 1310 nm and 1550 nm wavebands,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2011, 1–8 (2011). [CrossRef]

36.

Z. Liau, “Semiconductor wafer bonding via liquid capillarity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(5), 651 (2000). [CrossRef]

37.

J. H. Lee, S. M. Lee, T. Kim, and Y. J. Park, “7 W high-efficiency continuous-wave green light generation by intracavity frequency doubling of an end-pumped vertical external-cavity surface emitting semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241107 (2006). [CrossRef]

38.

J.-Y. Kim, S. Cho, S.-M. Lee, G. B. Kim, J. Lee, J. Yoo, K.-S. Kim, T. Kim, and Y. Park, “Highly efficient green VECSEL with intra-cavity diamond heat spreader,” Electron. Lett. 43(2), 105–107 (2007). [CrossRef]

39.

J. Bartschke, R. Knappe, K.-J. Boller, and R. Wallenstein, “Investigation of efficient self-frequency-doubling Nd:YAB Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(12), 2295–2300 (1997). [CrossRef]

40.

C. Wang, L. Reekie, Y. Chow, and W. Gambling, “Efficient blue light generation from a diode laser pumped Nd: YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 167(1–6), 155–158 (1999). [CrossRef]

41.

C. Du, Z. Wang, J. Liu, X. Xu, B. Teng, K. Fu, J. Wang, Y. Liu, and Z. Shao, “Efficient intracavity second-harmonic generation at 1.06 µm in a BiB3O6 (BIBO) crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 73(3), 215–217 (2001). [CrossRef]

42.

A. Maclean, A. Kemp, S. Calvez, J. Kim, T. Kim, M. Dawson, and D. Burns, “Continuous tuning and efficient intracavity second-harmonic generation in a semiconductor disk laser with an intracavity diamond heatspreader,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(3), 216–225 (2008). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.3480) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, diode-pumped
(140.5960) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers
(190.2620) Nonlinear optics : Harmonic generation and mixing

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: February 8, 2012
Revised Manuscript: March 15, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: March 29, 2012
Published: April 3, 2012

Virtual Issues
Vol. 7, Iss. 6 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Antti Rantamäki, Jussi Rautiainen, Jari Lyytikäinen, Alexei Sirbu, Alexandru Mereuta, Eli Kapon, and Oleg G. Okhotnikov, "1 W at 785 nm from a frequency-doubled wafer-fused semiconductor disk laser," Opt. Express 20, 9046-9051 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-8-9046


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-power (> 0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(8), 1063–1065 (1997). [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Kaneda, J. M. Yarborough, L. Li, N. Peyghambarian, L. Fan, C. Hessenius, M. Fallahi, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, Y. Honda, M. Nishioka, Y. Shimizu, K. Miyazono, H. Shimatani, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, Y. Kitaoka, and T. Sasaki, “Continuous-wave all-solid-state 244 nm deep-ultraviolet laser source by fourth-harmonic generation of an optically pumped semiconductor laser using CsLiB6O10 in an external resonator,” Opt. Lett. 33(15), 1705–1707 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Rahim, F. Felder, M. Fill, and H. Zogg, “Optically pumped 5 μm IV-VI VECSEL with Al-heat spreader,” Opt. Lett. 33(24), 3010–3012 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Chilla, Q. Shu, H. Zhou, E. Weiss, M. Reed, and L. Spinelli, “Recent advances in optically pumped semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 6451, 645109, 645109-10 (2007). [CrossRef]
  5. A. Chernikov, J. Herrmann, M. Koch, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. Chatterjee, S. Koch, T. Wang, Y. Kaneda, J. Yarborough, J. Hader, and J. V. Moloney, “Heat management in high-power vertical external- cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1772–1778 (2011). [CrossRef]
  6. T. Wang, Y. Kaneda, J. Yarborough, J. Hader, J. Moloney, A. Chernikov, S. Chatterjee, S. Koch, B. Kunert, and W. Stolz, “High-power optically pumped semiconductor laser at 1040 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 661–663 (2010). [CrossRef]
  7. J. Chilla, S. Butterworth, A. Zeitschel, J. Charles, A. Caprara, M. Reed, and L. Spinelli, “High power optically pumped semiconductor lasers,” Proc. SPIE 5332, 143–150 (2004). [CrossRef]
  8. S. Hilbich, W. Seelert, V. Ostroumov, C. Kannengiesser, R. Elm, J. Mueller, E. Weiss, H. Zhou, and J. Chilla, “New wavelengths in the yellow-orange range between 545 nm and 580 nm generated by an intracavity frequency-doubled optically pumped semiconductor laser,” Proc. SPIE 6451, 64510C (2007). [CrossRef]
  9. M. Fallahi, Y. Li Fan, C. Kaneda, J. Hessenius, Hader, J. V. Hongbo Li, B. Moloney, W. Kunert, S. W. Stolz, J. Koch, Murray, and R. Bedford, “5-W yellow laser by intracavity frequency doubling of high power vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1700–1702 (2008). [CrossRef]
  10. T. Leinonen, V. Korpijärvi, A. Härkonen, and M. Guina, “7.4 W yellow GaInNAs based semiconductor disk laser,” Electron. Lett. 47(20), 1139–1440 (2011). [CrossRef]
  11. J. Hastie, J. Hopkins, S. Calvez, C. Jeon, D. Burns, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. Ferguson, and M. Dawson, “0.5-W single transverse-mode operation of an 850-nm diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(7), 894–896 (2003). [CrossRef]
  12. W. Zhang, T. Ackemann, S. McGinily, M. Schmid, E. Riis, and A. I. Ferguson, “Operation of an optical in-well-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Opt. 45(29), 7729–7735 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Schmid, S. Benchabane, F. Torabi-Goudarzi, R. Abram, A. Ferguson, and E. Riis, “Optical in-well pumping of a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(24), 4860 (2004). [CrossRef]
  14. J. Hastie, L. Morton, A. Kemp, M. Dawson, A. Krysa, and J. Roberts, “Tunable ultraviolet output from an intracavity frequency-doubled red vertical-external-cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 061114 (2006). [CrossRef]
  15. P. J. Schlosser, J. E. Hastie, S. Calvez, A. B. Krysa, and M. D. Dawson, “InP/AlGaInP quantum dot semiconductor disk lasers for CW TEM00 emission at 716 - 755 nm,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21782–21787 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. Rautiainen, A. Härkönen, V. M. Korpijärvi, P. Tuomisto, M. Guina, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “2.7 W tunable orange-red GaInNAs semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Express 15(26), 18345–18350 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. T. Jouhti, C. Peng, E. Pavelescu, J. Konttinen, L. Gomes, O. Okhotnikov, and M. Pessa, “Strain-compensated GaInNAs structures for 1.3-μm lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(4), 787–794 (2002). [CrossRef]
  18. V. Korpijärvi, M. Guina, J. Puustinen, P. Tuomisto, J. Rautiainen, A. Härkönen, A. Tukiainen, O. Okhotnikov, and M. Pessa, “MBE grown GaInNAs-based multi-Watt disk lasers,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(7), 1868–1871 (2009). [CrossRef]
  19. V. M. Korpijärvi, T. Leinonen, J. Puustinen, A. Härkönen, and M. D. Guina, “11 W single gain-chip dilute nitride disk laser emitting around 1180 nm,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25633–25641, 641 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. Hopkins, S. Smith, C. Jeon, H. Sun, D. Burns, S. Calvez, M. Dawson, T. Jouhti, and M. Pessa, “0.6 W CW GaInNAs vertical external-cavity surface emitting laser operating at 1.32 μm,” Electron. Lett. 40(1), 30–31 (2004). [CrossRef]
  21. M. Butkus, J. Rautiainen, O. G. Okhotnikov, C. J. Hamilton, G. P. A. Malcolm, S. S. Mikhrin, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, and E. U. Rafailov, “Quantum dot based semiconductor disk lasers for 1-1.3 μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1763–1771 (2011). [CrossRef]
  22. J. Rautiainen, I. Krestnikov, J. Nikkinen, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “2.5 W orange power by frequency conversion from a dual-gain quantum-dot disk laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 1935–1937 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. H. Lindberg, M. Strassner, E. Gerster, and A. Larsson, “0.8 W optically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting laser operating CW at 1550 nm,” Electron. Lett. 40(10), 601–602 (2004). [CrossRef]
  24. M. Guden and J. Piprek, “Material parameters of quaternary III-V semiconductors for multilayer mirrors at wavelength,” Model. Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. 4(4), 349–357 (1996). [CrossRef]
  25. N. Schulz, J. Hopkins, M. Rattunde, D. Burns, and J. Wagner, “High-brightness long-wavelength semiconductor disk lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2(3), 160–181 (2008). [CrossRef]
  26. C. Symonds, J. Dion, I. Sagnes, M. Dainese, M. Strassner, L. Leroy, and J. Oudar, “High performance 1.55 μm vertical external cavity surface emitting laser with broadband integrated dielectric-metal mirror,” Electron. Lett. 40(12), 734–735 (2004). [CrossRef]
  27. A. Syrbu, J. Fernandez, J. Behrend, C. Berseth, J. Carlin, A. Rudra, and E. Kapon, “InGaAs/lnGaAsP/lnP edge emitting laser diodes on p-GaAs substrates obtained by localised wafer fusion,” Electron. Lett. 33(10), 866–868 (1997). [CrossRef]
  28. J. Rautiainen, L. Toikkanen, J. Lyytikainen, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, E. Kapon, and O. Okhotnikov, “Wafer fused optically-pumped semiconductor disk laser operating at 1220-nm,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 2009 and the European Quantum Electronics Conference (Munich, 2009, paper CB5_3.
  29. J. Lyytikäinen, J. Rautiainen, L. Toikkanen, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, E. Kapon, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “13-µm optically-pumped semiconductor disk laser by wafer fusion,” Opt. Express 17(11), 9047–9052 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. J. Lyytikäinen, J. Rautiainen, A. Sirbu, V. Iakovlev, N. Laakso, S. Ranta, M. Tavast, E. Kapon, and O. Okhotnikov, “High-power 1.48-μm wafer-fused optically pumped semiconductor disk laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(13), 917–919 (2011). [CrossRef]
  31. J. Rautiainen, J. Lyytikäinen, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, A. Caliman, E. Kapon, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “2.6 W optically-pumped semiconductor disk laser operating at 1.57-μm using wafer fusion,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21881–21886 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. A. Rantamäki, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, E. Kapon, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “3 W of 650 nm red emission by frequency doubling of wafer-fused semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21645–21650 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. M. Schmid, “Optically in-well-pumped VECSELs: An attractive new aource in the near-IR,” Photon. Spectra 38(11), 58–64 (2004).
  34. B. Sumpf, K.-H. Hasler, P. Adamiec, F. Bugge, F. Dittmar, J. Ö. Fricke, H. Wenzel, M. Zorn, G. Ö. Erbert, and G. Ü. TrÄnkle, “High-brightness quantum well tapered lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(3), 1009–1020 (2009). [CrossRef]
  35. A. Sirbu, N. Volet, A. Mereuta, J. Lyytikäinen, J. Rautiainen, O. Okhotnikov, J. Walczak, M. Wasiak, T. Czyszanowski, A. Caliman, Q. Zhu, V. Iakovlev, and E. Kapon, “Wafer-fused optically-pumped VECSELs emitting in the 1310 nm and 1550 nm wavebands,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2011, 1–8 (2011). [CrossRef]
  36. Z. Liau, “Semiconductor wafer bonding via liquid capillarity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(5), 651 (2000). [CrossRef]
  37. J. H. Lee, S. M. Lee, T. Kim, and Y. J. Park, “7 W high-efficiency continuous-wave green light generation by intracavity frequency doubling of an end-pumped vertical external-cavity surface emitting semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241107 (2006). [CrossRef]
  38. J.-Y. Kim, S. Cho, S.-M. Lee, G. B. Kim, J. Lee, J. Yoo, K.-S. Kim, T. Kim, and Y. Park, “Highly efficient green VECSEL with intra-cavity diamond heat spreader,” Electron. Lett. 43(2), 105–107 (2007). [CrossRef]
  39. J. Bartschke, R. Knappe, K.-J. Boller, and R. Wallenstein, “Investigation of efficient self-frequency-doubling Nd:YAB Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(12), 2295–2300 (1997). [CrossRef]
  40. C. Wang, L. Reekie, Y. Chow, and W. Gambling, “Efficient blue light generation from a diode laser pumped Nd: YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 167(1–6), 155–158 (1999). [CrossRef]
  41. C. Du, Z. Wang, J. Liu, X. Xu, B. Teng, K. Fu, J. Wang, Y. Liu, and Z. Shao, “Efficient intracavity second-harmonic generation at 1.06 µm in a BiB3O6 (BIBO) crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 73(3), 215–217 (2001). [CrossRef]
  42. A. Maclean, A. Kemp, S. Calvez, J. Kim, T. Kim, M. Dawson, and D. Burns, “Continuous tuning and efficient intracavity second-harmonic generation in a semiconductor disk laser with an intracavity diamond heatspreader,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(3), 216–225 (2008). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
 
Fig. 4
 

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited