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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 8 — Apr. 9, 2012
  • pp: 9312–9321
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Monolithic integration of a silica AWG and Ge photodiodes on Si photonic platform for one-chip WDM receiver

Hidetaka Nishi, Tai Tsuchizawa, Rai Kou, Hiroyuki Shinojima, Takashi Yamada, Hideaki Kimura, Yasuhiko Ishikawa, Kazumi Wada, and Koji Yamada  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 8, pp. 9312-9321 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.009312


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Abstract

On the silicon (Si) photonic platform, we monolithically integrated a silica-based arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) and germanium (Ge) photodiodes (PDs) using low-temperature fabrication technology. We confirmed demultiplexing by the AWG, optical-electrical signal conversion by Ge PDs, and high-speed signal detection at all channels. In addition, we mounted a multichannel transimpedance amplifier/limiting amplifier (TIA/LA) circuit on the fabricated AWG-PD device using flip-chip bonding technology. The results show the promising potential of our Si photonic platform as a photonics-electronics convergence.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

The silicon (Si) photonic platform realizes ultrasmall photonic devices, densely integrates multiple channels and functions, and is attracting much attention for integration of electronics on a single chip [1

1. D. Lockwood and L. Pavesi, Silicon Photonics II (Springer-Verlag, Berlin2011). [CrossRef]

]. To leverage these features, wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) systems are promising applications, because they demand a multi-channel configuration of optical devices and integration of them to reduce the footprint, cost, and power dissipation [2

2. G. Jacobsen and P. Wildhagen, “A general and rigorous WDM receiver model targeting 10–40-Gb/s channel bit rates,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 966–976 (2001). [CrossRef]

4

4. F. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. Schneider Jr., M. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. Rahn, M. Leeuwen, J. Stewart, D. Lambert, R. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. Pavinski Jr., J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. Taylor, R. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. Thomson, S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, and S. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1470–1489 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. WDM-based systems are widely deployed aiming at large transmission capability, and have the potential to provide flexible and low-power operation of optical networks [5

5. H. Kimura and K. Kumozaki, “A mixed rate MUX/DEMUX technique with highly efficient use of wavelength for WDM/TDM-based future optical access systems,” in IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS, 2009), Paper WU4.

7

7. P. Iannone and K. Reichmann, “Optical access beyond 10Gb/s PON,” in 36th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2010), Tu.3.B.1.

].

For telecommunications applications, however, the optical devices must meet several strict requirements, including high reliability, low insertion loss, low crosstalk, and insensitivity to polarization and temperature variations [8

8. T. Miya, “Silica-based planar lightwave circuits: passive and thermally active devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 38–45 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. To satisfy these requirements, we must carefully select waveguide materials and structures on the Si photonic platform. For example, Si photonic wire waveguides provide an ultrasmall arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG), which can be monolihically integrated with waveguide-coupled germanium (Ge) photodiodes (PDs) [9

9. Q. Fang, T. Y. Liow, J. F. Song, K. W. Ang, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “WDM multi-channel silicon photonic receiver with 320 Gbps data transmission capability,” Opt. Express 18, 5106–5113 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. An AWG based on Si wire waveguides are suitable for multi-channel configurations for WDM systems due to the small footprint, though these waveguides essentially have severe polarization dependence. To achieve polarization insensitivity, a large-core Si waveguides, which can be integrated with an echelle grating and Ge PDs, was developed [10

10. D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, N. Feng, S. Liao, C. Kung, J. Fong, Y. Liu, R. Shafiiha, D. Lee, B. Luff, and M. Asghari, “Terabit/s single chip WDM receiver on the SOI platform,” in 8th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP, 2011), FA2.

], though it exhibits a residual thermo-optic effect. Another possible candidate is a silicon nitride (SiN) waveguide, which can be fabricated by a complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible process [11

11. L. Chen, C. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. Aroca, “Monolithically integrated 40-wavelength demultiplexer and photodetector array on silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 869–871 (2011). [CrossRef]

, 12

12. C. Doerr, L. Chen, L. Buhl, and Y. Chen, “Eight-channel SiO2/Si3N4/Si/Ge CWDM receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1201–1203 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. It exhibits low transmission loss, but polarization sensitivity and some thermo-optic effect still remain. A promising solution is to use silica waveguides, which have low polarization dependence, a low thermo-optic coefficient, and low loss with reliable performance. Planar lightwave circuits (PLCs) based on silica waveguides are generally used in existing optical telecommunications networks [8

8. T. Miya, “Silica-based planar lightwave circuits: passive and thermally active devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 38–45 (2000). [CrossRef]

, 13

13. C. Doerr and K. Okamoto, “Advances in silica planar lightwave circuits,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4763–4789 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. However, the conventional silica material for waveguides cannot be monolithically fabricated on the Si photonic platform because the high-temperature fabrication processes for commercial silica PLC production would damage the dynamic and electronic devices based on Si and Ge. Moreover, on the silica PLC platform, PD integration often requires extraordinary processes [14

14. I. Ogawa, H. Yamazaki, and A. Kaneko, “Highly integrated PLC-type devices with surface-mounted monitor PDs for ROADM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC, 2007), OWO2.

17

17. S. Mino, T. Ohyama, Y. Akahori, T. Hashimoro, Y. Yamada, M. Yanagisawa, and Y. Muramoto, “A 10-Gb/s hybrid-integrated receiver array module using a planar lightwave circuit (PLC) platform including a novel assembly region structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2475–2482 (1996). [CrossRef]

]. For integration of silica waveguides on the Si photonic platform, we recently developed a low-temperature fabrication technology that is compatible with Si dynamic photonic devices [18

18. T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, R. Kou, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 516–525 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. The technology is also helpful for silica and Ge integration.

Integration of electronics and photonics is the ultimate issue for higher functionalization. For long-reach telecommunications, Si WDM receivers have demonstrated integration of electronics using several single-channel circuits placed on an outer board connected with wire bonding [9

9. Q. Fang, T. Y. Liow, J. F. Song, K. W. Ang, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “WDM multi-channel silicon photonic receiver with 320 Gbps data transmission capability,” Opt. Express 18, 5106–5113 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,12

12. C. Doerr, L. Chen, L. Buhl, and Y. Chen, “Eight-channel SiO2/Si3N4/Si/Ge CWDM receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1201–1203 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. However, there is still room for improvement in the photonics-electronics integration technology. In contrast, for short-reach optical interconnection, a full-monolithically integrated multi-channel receiver consisting of Si waveguides, Ge PDs, and transimpedance amplifier and limiting amplifier (TIA/LA) has already been realized [19

19. G. Masini, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “A four-channel, 10Gbps monolithic optical receiver in 130nm CMOS with integrated Ge waveguide photodetectors,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC, 2007), PDP312.

]. However, an alternative approach was taken recently, because incompatibility of the fabrication processes, including wafer mismatch on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) and buried-oxide (BOX) thickness between the photonics and electronics, sacrifices the state-of-the-art CMOS technology and energy efficiency [20

20. X. Zheng, F. Liu, D. Patil, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, J. Yao, G. Li, J. Shi, K. Raj, J. Lexau, E. Alon, R. Ho, J. Cunningham, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “A sub-picojoule-per-bit CMOS photonic receiver for densely integrated systems,” Opt. Express 18, 204–211 (2009). [CrossRef]

,21

21. X. Zheng, D. Patil, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, J. Li, J. Yao, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. Moghadam, E. Alon, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. Cunningham, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-efficient 10Gb/s hybrid integrated silicon photonic transmitter and receiver,” Opt. Express 19, 5172–5186 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

In this paper, towards application in optical telecommunications network, a one-chip integrated device of a silica-based AWG, Ge PDs, and an electronic integrated circuit is reported. We demonstrate monolithic integration of a silica-based AWG and Ge PDs on a Si photonic platform, and investigate the device’s performance. Then, we also integrate a multichannel TIA/LA circuit on the fabricated AWG-PD device to confirm whether or not the silica-Si-Ge photonic platform is promising towards photonics-electronics convergence.

2. Design and fabrication of monolithically integrated AWG-PD

Figure 1 is a schematic illustration of the connecting structure of a Si-rich silica (SiOx) waveguide for the AWG and Ge PD, and Fig. 2 shows schematic cross-sections of each component of the AWG-PD integrated device. The AWG is made of SiOx waveguides [18

18. T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, R. Kou, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 516–525 (2011). [CrossRef]

], which allows for lower transmission loss, a lower thermo-optic coefficient, and lower birefringence depending on core-geometry variation, compared to Si wire waveguides. Each SiOx waveguide has core with 3 μm ×3 μm cross-section and refractive index contrast (Δ) of about 2.6%. The AWG consists of 16-input and 16-output waveguides, two slab regions with a focal length of 1.75 mm, and 64 arrays with a minimum bending radius of 500 μm. It has the grating order of 52 and is designed for a channel spacing of 200 GHz (∼1.6 nm).

Fig. 1 Schematic image of connecting structure of SiOx waveguide and Ge PD.
Fig. 2 Cross sections of AWG-PD integrated device. (a) SiOx waveguide, (b) SSC at Si taper tip, (c) Si wire rib waveguide, and (d) Ge PD.

Each output SiOx waveguide of the AWG is connected to a Si photonic wire waveguide through a spot-size converter (SSC) [18

18. T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, R. Kou, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 516–525 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. The SSC is a conventional one with an inverse Si taper. Si tip width, tip height, and taper length are 80 nm, 200 nm, and 300 μm, respectively. The Si tip is expanded to 600-nm width and changed into a rib-type waveguide which has 200-nm-thick and 600-nm-wide core and 100-nm-thick slab. Here, the core of the SiOx waveguide acts as overcladding of the Si wire waveguides [22

22. H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, S. Park, R. Kou, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of a silica-based arrayed waveguide grating filter and silicon variable optical attenuators based on p-i-n carrier injection structure,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 102203 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. These Si parts are optimized only for TE light, but they have already integrated with silica waveguide successfully [22

22. H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, S. Park, R. Kou, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of a silica-based arrayed waveguide grating filter and silicon variable optical attenuators based on p-i-n carrier injection structure,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 102203 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. Therefore, in this work, we employ them again to confirm the feasibility of silica-Si-Ge integration structure and its fabrication technology shown in Fig. 1. The Si wire rib-type waveguides are then coupled into Ge PDs. A Ge mesa is formed on the 200-nm-thick Si slab, and a vertical PIN diode is constructed between the Si slab and the upper electrode [23

23. S. Park, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, and S. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration and synchronous operation of germanium photodetectors and silicon variable optical attenuator,” Opt. Express 18, 8412–8421 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The thickness and area of the Ge mesa are about 1 μm and 8 μm × 50 μm, respectively.

Fig. 3 Microscope images of a fabricated AWG-PD chip.

3. Characteristics of fabricated AWG-PD

Fig. 4 I–V characteristics of an integrated Ge PD (blue: unilluminated, red:illuminated), the light was input from SiOx waveguide.
Fig. 5 Photocurrent spectrum of a Ge PD integrated with an SiOx waveguide.

Fig. 6 Spectrum of fiber-to-detector photocurrent as a function of input wavelength for all 16 channels.
Fig. 7 Set of eye diagrams of 16 demultiplexed channels obtained from fabricated AWG-PD measured at a bitrate of 1.25 Gbps with NRZ PRBS data having a word length of 231 − 1.
Fig. 8 BER characteristics measured at channel 7 of fabricated AWG-PD.

4. Integration of TIA/LA with AWG-PD

Finally, to obtain a one-chip WDM receiver, we mounted a multichannel TIA/LA electronic circuit on the fabricated AWG-PD device using flip-chip bonding technology. In comparison with wire bonding, the flip-chip bonding technology provides low parasitic inductance and short interconnect length, which is suitable for high-frequency signal transmission. The technology has been widely developed and realized signal transmission of several tens of gigaheltz due to low parasitic inductance and short interconnect. Another advatage is enabling high I/O density and small footprint of module which is sutable for multichannel application such as WDM system. Figure 9 is a schematic cross-section of the one-chip integration of the TIA/LA on the Si photonic chip. We use upper layer over the SiO2 overcladding of the Si photonic chip as the electrical wiring layer of CMOS ICs. Electrodes of Ge PDs are vertically connected to the electric pads on the SiO2 overcladding where TIA/LA electrodes are to be direlctly bonded. The distance from the PD electrodes to TIA/LA bonding pads is designed to be small enough so that the transmission loss of high-frequency signal is negligible. The commercially available 12-channel TIA/LA, which accommodates a multichannel configuration densely, is mounted upside down. To obtain high-frequency differential signal through TIA/LA, we configure coplanar waveguides (CPW) at the output.

Fig. 9 Schematic cross-section of one-chip integration of TIA/LA on the AWG-PD integrated Si photonic chip.

Here, we explain the TIA/LA integration processes. Note that the Si photonic platform must be tolerant to following backend processes owing to its stable feature compared to compound semiconductor platforms [4

4. F. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. Schneider Jr., M. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. Rahn, M. Leeuwen, J. Stewart, D. Lambert, R. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. Pavinski Jr., J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. Taylor, R. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. Thomson, S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, and S. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1470–1489 (2011). [CrossRef]

, 27

27. R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, S. Hurtt, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, P. Evans, M. Missey, R. Muthia, A. Chen, D. Lambert, P. Chavarkar, A. Mathur, J. Bäck, S. Murthy, R. Salvatore, C. Joyner, J. Rossi, R. Schneider, M. Ziari, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “Monolithic, 10 and 40 channel InP Receiver photonic integrated circits with on-chip amplification,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC, 2007), PDP32.

, 28

28. M. Kohtoku, H. Sanjoh, S. Oku, Y. Kadota, and Y. Yoshikuni, “Packaged polarization-insensitive WDM monitor with low loss (7.3 dB) and wide tuning range (4.5 nm),” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1614–1616 (1998). [CrossRef]

]. First, we formed metal electrodes and electric wiring by copper (Cu) plating on the SiO2 over-cladding layer. Next, we covered the wafer with polyimide, opened contact windows, and formed a bonding pad with solder plating. Then, a TIA/LA was bonded with Sn-Ag-Cu solder bumps onto the photonic wafer using flip-chip bonding technology, followed by post-processing. Note that these processes were carried out at less than 300 degree Celsius so that the photonic wafer did not suffer thermal damage.

Figure 10 shows images of fabricated AWG-PD-TIA/LA integratad devices. Chip capacitors were mounted to cut low-frequency noise and shut surge current. DC lines were also placed in the same layer with CPW for a power supply to the TIA/LA. The footprint is about 10 mm square. To our knowledge, this is the smallest WDM receiver with TIA/LA accommodating 16 channels. It can be packaged in standard tranceiver housing, such as a small-factor pluggable (SFP) package. Figure 11(a) shows waveforms of TIA/LA output bias on the time axis. Yellow, green, and red lines are positive (P), negative (N), and differential output, respectively. Figure 11(b) is an eye diagram for Channel 8. It was obtained from the differential output of the TIA/LA at a detector bias of 3.3 V. In these experiments, the input signal was a 1.25-Gbps NRZ PRBS with a word length of 231–1. We obtained clear eye openings and confirmed that the TIA/LA was successfully integrated on the Si photonic device.

Fig. 10 Images of TIA/LA integratad AWG-PD devices. (a) Birds-eye view of a wafer after flip-chip bonding; (b) microscope image of AWG-PD-TIA/LA integrated device.
Fig. 11 (a) Waveform of TIA/LA output bias on the time axis. Yellow, green, and red lines are positive (P), negative (N), and differential output, respectively. (b) Eye diagram obtained from differential signal at input of 1.25-Gbps NRZ input.

5. Conclusion

We monolithically integrated an SiOx AWG and Ge PDs on a single Si chip. We confirmed the AWG and PDs were successfully operated at all channels. Moreover, we integrated multi-channel TIA/LA electric circuits on the Si photonic platform using flip-chip bonding technology. We confirmed wavelength-demultiplexing signal reception at bitrate of 1.25 Gbps through the integrated TIA/LA. These results demonstrate remarkable growth of monolithic integration technology of SiOx, Si, and Ge photonic devices, and exhibit hopeful potentials of Si photonic platform for photonics-electronics conversion.

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Mr. Toshifumi Watanabe, Dr. Sungbong Park, Mr. Hiroshi Fukuda, Mr. Yusuke Muranaka, Mr. Shin-ichiro Mutoh, and Dr. Sei-ichi Itabashi for their helpful technical supports and discussions.

References and links

1.

D. Lockwood and L. Pavesi, Silicon Photonics II (Springer-Verlag, Berlin2011). [CrossRef]

2.

G. Jacobsen and P. Wildhagen, “A general and rigorous WDM receiver model targeting 10–40-Gb/s channel bit rates,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 966–976 (2001). [CrossRef]

3.

A. Bogoni, “Photonics for solving unbundling in next-generation WDM-PON,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 472–479 (2011). [CrossRef]

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F. Kish, D. Welch, R. Nagarajan, J. Pleumeekers, V. Lal, M. Ziari, A. Nilsson, M. Kato, S. Murthy, P. Evans, S. Corzine, M. Mitchell, P. Samra, M. Missey, S. DeMars, R. Schneider Jr., M. Reffle, T. Butrie, J. Rahn, M. Leeuwen, J. Stewart, D. Lambert, R. Muthiah, H. Tsai, J. Bostak, A. Dentai, K. Wu, H. Sun, D. Pavinski Jr., J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. McNicol, M. Kuntz, V. Dominic, B. Taylor, R. Salvatore, M. Fisher, A. Spannagel, E. Strzelecka, P. Studenkov, M. Raburn, W. Williams, D. Christini, K. Thomson, S. Agashe, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, S. Melle, C. Joyner, M. Kaufman, and S. Grubb, “Current status of large-scale InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1470–1489 (2011). [CrossRef]

5.

H. Kimura and K. Kumozaki, “A mixed rate MUX/DEMUX technique with highly efficient use of wavelength for WDM/TDM-based future optical access systems,” in IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS, 2009), Paper WU4.

6.

J. Kani, “Enabling technologies for future scalable and flexible WDM-PON and WDM/TDM-PON system,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 1290–1297 (2010). [CrossRef]

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P. Iannone and K. Reichmann, “Optical access beyond 10Gb/s PON,” in 36th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2010), Tu.3.B.1.

8.

T. Miya, “Silica-based planar lightwave circuits: passive and thermally active devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 38–45 (2000). [CrossRef]

9.

Q. Fang, T. Y. Liow, J. F. Song, K. W. Ang, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “WDM multi-channel silicon photonic receiver with 320 Gbps data transmission capability,” Opt. Express 18, 5106–5113 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, N. Feng, S. Liao, C. Kung, J. Fong, Y. Liu, R. Shafiiha, D. Lee, B. Luff, and M. Asghari, “Terabit/s single chip WDM receiver on the SOI platform,” in 8th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP, 2011), FA2.

11.

L. Chen, C. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. Aroca, “Monolithically integrated 40-wavelength demultiplexer and photodetector array on silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 869–871 (2011). [CrossRef]

12.

C. Doerr, L. Chen, L. Buhl, and Y. Chen, “Eight-channel SiO2/Si3N4/Si/Ge CWDM receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1201–1203 (2011). [CrossRef]

13.

C. Doerr and K. Okamoto, “Advances in silica planar lightwave circuits,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4763–4789 (2006). [CrossRef]

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S. Mino, T. Ohyama, Y. Akahori, T. Hashimoro, Y. Yamada, M. Yanagisawa, and Y. Muramoto, “A 10-Gb/s hybrid-integrated receiver array module using a planar lightwave circuit (PLC) platform including a novel assembly region structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2475–2482 (1996). [CrossRef]

18.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, R. Kou, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 516–525 (2011). [CrossRef]

19.

G. Masini, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “A four-channel, 10Gbps monolithic optical receiver in 130nm CMOS with integrated Ge waveguide photodetectors,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC, 2007), PDP312.

20.

X. Zheng, F. Liu, D. Patil, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, J. Yao, G. Li, J. Shi, K. Raj, J. Lexau, E. Alon, R. Ho, J. Cunningham, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “A sub-picojoule-per-bit CMOS photonic receiver for densely integrated systems,” Opt. Express 18, 204–211 (2009). [CrossRef]

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X. Zheng, D. Patil, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, J. Li, J. Yao, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. Moghadam, E. Alon, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. Cunningham, and A. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-efficient 10Gb/s hybrid integrated silicon photonic transmitter and receiver,” Opt. Express 19, 5172–5186 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, S. Park, R. Kou, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of a silica-based arrayed waveguide grating filter and silicon variable optical attenuators based on p-i-n carrier injection structure,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 102203 (2010). [CrossRef]

23.

S. Park, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, and S. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration and synchronous operation of germanium photodetectors and silicon variable optical attenuator,” Opt. Express 18, 8412–8421 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Sugita, A. Kaneko, K. Okamoto, M. Itoh, A. Himeno, and Y. Ohmori, “Very low insertion loss arrayed-waveguide grating with vertically tapered waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1180–1182 (2000). [CrossRef]

26.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Fukuda, H. Shinojima, H. Nishi, S. Park, R. Kou, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, and S. Itabashi, “Silicon photonic devices and their integration technology,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC, 2011), OWQ6.

27.

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, S. Hurtt, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, P. Evans, M. Missey, R. Muthia, A. Chen, D. Lambert, P. Chavarkar, A. Mathur, J. Bäck, S. Murthy, R. Salvatore, C. Joyner, J. Rossi, R. Schneider, M. Ziari, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “Monolithic, 10 and 40 channel InP Receiver photonic integrated circits with on-chip amplification,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC, 2007), PDP32.

28.

M. Kohtoku, H. Sanjoh, S. Oku, Y. Kadota, and Y. Yoshikuni, “Packaged polarization-insensitive WDM monitor with low loss (7.3 dB) and wide tuning range (4.5 nm),” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1614–1616 (1998). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(230.3120) Optical devices : Integrated optics devices
(250.3140) Optoelectronics : Integrated optoelectronic circuits

ToC Category:
Integrated Optics

History
Original Manuscript: February 21, 2012
Revised Manuscript: March 25, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: March 27, 2012
Published: April 6, 2012

Citation
Hidetaka Nishi, Tai Tsuchizawa, Rai Kou, Hiroyuki Shinojima, Takashi Yamada, Hideaki Kimura, Yasuhiko Ishikawa, Kazumi Wada, and Koji Yamada, "Monolithic integration of a silica AWG and Ge photodiodes on Si photonic platform for one-chip WDM receiver," Opt. Express 20, 9312-9321 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-8-9312


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  26. K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Fukuda, H. Shinojima, H. Nishi, S. Park, R. Kou, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, and S. Itabashi, “Silicon photonic devices and their integration technology,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC, 2011), OWQ6.
  27. R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, S. Hurtt, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, P. Evans, M. Missey, R. Muthia, A. Chen, D. Lambert, P. Chavarkar, A. Mathur, J. Bäck, S. Murthy, R. Salvatore, C. Joyner, J. Rossi, R. Schneider, M. Ziari, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “Monolithic, 10 and 40 channel InP Receiver photonic integrated circits with on-chip amplification,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC, 2007), PDP32.
  28. M. Kohtoku, H. Sanjoh, S. Oku, Y. Kadota, and Y. Yoshikuni, “Packaged polarization-insensitive WDM monitor with low loss (7.3 dB) and wide tuning range (4.5 nm),” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.10, 1614–1616 (1998). [CrossRef]

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