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Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 9 — Apr. 23, 2012
  • pp: 10071–10076
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Slowing down terahertz waves with tunable group velocities in a broad frequency range by surface magneto plasmons

Bin Hu, Qi Jie Wang, and Ying Zhang  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 9, pp. 10071-10076 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.010071


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Abstract

This paper proposes one broadly tunable terahertz (THz) slow-light system in a semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor structure. Subject to an external magnetic field, the structure supports in total two surface magneto plasmons (SMPs) bands above and below the surface plasma frequency, respectively. Both the SMPs bands can be tuned by the external magnetic field. Numerical studies show that leveraging on the two tunable bands, the frequency and the group velocity of the slowed-down THz wave can be widely tuned from 0.3 THz to 10 THz and from 1 c to 10−6c, respectively, when the external magnetic field increases up to 6 Tesla. The proposed method based on the two SMPs bands can be widely used for many other plasmonic devices.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

Slow-light technology has attracted a lot of attention in recent years because it introduces a wealth of applications in telecommunications, data processing, and light-matter interactions [1

1. T. F. Krauss, “Why do we need slow light?” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 448–450 (2008). [CrossRef]

, 2

2. R. Boyd, “Slow light now and then,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 454–455 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. Although traditional electronic approaches can efficiently slow down light beams [3

3. L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397(6720), 594–598 (1999). [CrossRef]

5

5. B. Wu, J. F. Hulbert, E. J. Lunt, K. Hurd, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, “Slow light on a chip via atomic quantum state control,” Nat. Photonics 4(11), 776–779 (2010). [CrossRef]

], it has many constraints such as narrow band-width, limited operating wavelength range, and difficulty in achieving on-chip devices [6

6. Q. Gan, Z. Fu, Y. J. Ding, and F. J. Bartoli, “Ultrawide-bandwidth slow-light system based on THz plasmonic graded metallic grating structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 256803 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Photonic approaches utilizing optical resonances have been investigated in recent years [7

7. M. F. Yanik and S. Fan, “Stopping light all optically,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(8), 083901 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9

9. C. Huang and C. Jiang, “Nonreciprocal photonic crystal delay waveguide,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(10), 1954–1958 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Among different photonic approaches, plasmonic technology using metal/dielectric layers is more promising due to its subwavelength confinement of electromagnetic (EM) fields [10

10. M. Sandtke and L. Kuipers, “Slow guided surface plasmons at telecom frequencies,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 573–576 (2007). [CrossRef]

12

12. E. Fitrakis, T. Kamalakis, and T. Sphicopoulos, “Slow light in insulator-metal- insulator plasmonic waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(9), 2159–2164 (2011). [CrossRef]

].

The plasmonic slow-light technology has a big challenge when it is intended to apply in the terahertz (THz) regime because metals cannot support surface plasmons (SPs) in this region [13

13. J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305(5685), 847–848 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. One approach to overcome this challenge is to use spoof SPs [6

6. Q. Gan, Z. Fu, Y. J. Ding, and F. J. Bartoli, “Ultrawide-bandwidth slow-light system based on THz plasmonic graded metallic grating structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 256803 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 14

14. J. Zhang, L. Cai, W. Bai, Y. Xu, and G. Song, “Slow light at terahertz frequencies in surface plasmon polariton assisted grating waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103715 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. However, the dielectric properties of a metal in the THz regime are similar to those of a perfect electric conductor, and they are difficult to change by external tuning mechanisms [13

13. J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305(5685), 847–848 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

An emerging approach is to use doped semiconductors to replace metals for THz devices [15

15. J. Gómez Rivas, C. Schotsch, P. Haring Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Enhanced transmission of THz radiation through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 68(20), 201306 (2003). [CrossRef]

19

19. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988), Chap. 2.

], because doped semiconductors have similar dielectric properties in the THz region to those of metals in the visible region [15

15. J. Gómez Rivas, C. Schotsch, P. Haring Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Enhanced transmission of THz radiation through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 68(20), 201306 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. In addition, they can be designed to achieve tunable characteristics through doping, temperature, and/or external magnetic fields [16

16. B. S. Passmore, D. G. Allen, S. R. Vangala, W. D. Goodhue, D. Wasserman, and E. A. Shaner, “Mid-infrared doping tunable transmission through subwavelength metal hole arrays on InSb,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10223–10230 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18

18. B. Hu, B. Gu, B. Dong, and Y. Zhang, “Optical transmission resonances tuned by external static magnetic field in an n-doped semiconductor grating with subwavelength slits,” Opt. Commun. 281(24), 6120–6123 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. Especially, when an external magnetic field is applied in the Voigt configuration, two tunable surface magneto plasmons (SMPs) bands are available [20

20. J. J. Brion, R. F. Wallis, A. Hartstein, and E. Burstein, “Theory of surface magnetoplasmons in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28(22), 1455–1458 (1972). [CrossRef]

]. Not only one band exists below the surface plasma frequency as usual, but also the other appears above the surface plasma frequency. This provides a more flexible and powerful tuning mechanism.

In this paper, we present a magnetic-field tunable THz slow-light system based on SMPs in a semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor (SIS) structure. In this system, both the frequency and the group velocity of the slowed-down THz wave can be tuned. More importantly, due to the existence of two SMPs bands, especially the higher band which has a wider tunable bandwidth, the proposed system has a very broad bandwidth. It is shown through analytical and numerical calculations that when the external magnetic field increases from 0 to 6 Tesla, a monochromatic THz wave in a range of [0.3, 10] THz can be slowed down for a lossless semiconductor. A comprehensive design guideline for the proposed plasmonic showed-down system is also given in the paper.

2. The semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor schematic structure and dispersion relation of the surface magneto plasmons

A plasmonic slow-light system is expected to have the same slow-light effect in both forward- and backward-propagating directions. However, due to the nonreciprocal effect, the dispersion relations of these two propagating waves are different in the structure presented in [20

20. J. J. Brion, R. F. Wallis, A. Hartstein, and E. Burstein, “Theory of surface magnetoplasmons in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28(22), 1455–1458 (1972). [CrossRef]

]. As a result, the group velocities (defined as vg = /) are not the same in the two propagating directions. In this paper, we propose a symmetric structure to eliminate the nonreciprocal effect. The schematic structure of the slow-light system is depicted in Fig. 1(a)
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic structure of the THz plasmonic slow-light system. The magnetic field B is applied perpendicularly to the propagating direction of the THz wave in a Voigt configuration. (b) Dispersion relation of the SMPs modes in the structure in THz frequencies under magnetic fields with different magnitudes.
. The 2D SIS structure is composed of two semiconductor layers with an insulator layer in the middle. The whole structure is invariant in the y-axis. The thickness of the insulator layer along the x-axis is denoted by w. A transverse magnetic (TM)-polarized THz wave (the magnetic field component parallel to the y-axis) is propagating along the z-direction where Ex(r, ω), Ez(r, ω), Hy(r, ω) exp[i(kz-ωt)]. An external static magnetic field B is applied uniformly on the whole structure along the -y-axis, in a Voigt configuration.

The dielectric constant of the semiconductor is a tensor in the Voigt configuration under an external magnetic field [21

21. E. D. Palik and J. K. Furdyna, “Infrared and microwave magnetoplasma effects in semiconductors,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 33(3), 1193–1322 (1970). [CrossRef]

]:

εs=ε[εxx0εxz0εyy0εxz0εxx].
(1)

In the lossless case, the parameters in Eq. (1) have the expressions of εxx = 1 – ωp2/ (ω2ωc2), εxz = –p2ωc / [ω(ω2ωc2)], and εyy = 1 – ωp2/ω2, where ω is the angular frequency of the incident wave, ωp is the plasma frequency of the semiconductor, ε is the high-frequency permittivity, and ωc = eB/m* is the cyclotron frequency. e and m* are the charge and the effective mass of electrons, respectively. B is the applied external magnetic field. With the consideration of the characteristics of the surface mode and the continuity of Hy and Ez at the interfaces of the semiconductor/insulator, the dispersion relation of the waveguide is given by [22

22. B. Hu, Q. J. Wang, S. W. Kok, and Y. Zhang, “Active focal length control of terahertz slitted plane lenses by magnetoplasmons,” Plasmonics (published on line, 2011). http://www.springerlink.com/content/p531745636224004/

]
tanh(wκ1)[1+(εdεV)2κ22κ12+(εdεV)2(εxzεxx)2β2κ12]+2εdεVκ2κ1=0,
(2)
where εd is the dielectric constant of the insulator layer; κ1 and κ2 are respectively defined as κ12 = β2k02εd, κ22 = β2k02εV, β is the propagation constant, and εV = εxx + εxz2xx is the Voigt dielectric constant of the semiconductor. εV can be considered as the bulk permittivity of the semiconductor if the polarization of the EM wave is along the x or z directions [20

20. J. J. Brion, R. F. Wallis, A. Hartstein, and E. Burstein, “Theory of surface magnetoplasmons in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28(22), 1455–1458 (1972). [CrossRef]

]. It can be clearly seen that the nonreciprocal effect disappears in Eq. (2) for the dispersion equations are the same for + β and –β. In Fig. 1(b), we plot the dispersion curves of the SMPs in the structure when the external magnetic field is applied with intensities of 0, 0.5, 1 and 2 Tesla. Without loss of generality, here we consider InSb and air as the semiconductor and insulator materials, respectively, in the calculation. The corresponding parameters of InSb at room temperature are given by m* = 0.014m0 (m0 is the free electron mass in vacuum), ωp = 12.6THz, and ε = 15.68 [17

17. J. Gómez Rivas, C. Janke, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Transmission of THz radiation through InSb gratings of subwavelength apertures,” Opt. Express 13(3), 847–859 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]; and εxx = εyy = –47.6, εxz = 0 for B = 0T and f = 1THz; εxx = 36.8, εyy = –47.6, εxz = 42.2i for B = 1T and f = 1THz. The width of the waveguide is w = 0.1λp = 15μm (~1/20λ of 1 THz wave), where λp is the InSb plasma wavelength defined as 2πc/ωp, and c is the light velocity in vacuum. Without the magnetic field being applied, the dispersion relation has only one curve (the black dashed line). It starts from the zero point, then rises along with the light line in vacuum ω = k0c (the red line), and extends to infinity at a frequency of 1.95 THz. However, when a magnetic field is applied, two SMP bands are excited, and the dispersion curves are seen by the blue, the pink dash-dotted and the green dotted lines. The lower band curves (indicated by the blue shadow region) are similar to the black dashed line, converging to infinity at a lower frequency. The higher band region (indicated by the pink shadow) starts at a hybrid cyclotron-plasma frequency ωH = sqrt(ωc2 + ωp2), which is defined by εxx = 0 [23

23. M. S. Kushwaha and P. Halevi, “Magnetoplasmons in thin films in the Voigt configuration,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 36(11), 5960–5967 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The higher band curves then converge to infinity at a higher cut-off frequency. Because ωH is always larger than ωsp = sqrt[ωp2/(1 + εd)] [19

19. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988), Chap. 2.

], the SMPs can propagate at a frequency above the surface plasma frequency in the higher band. Another important feature from Fig. 1(b) is that with the increase of the magnitude of the external magnetic field, the two bands move toward opposite directions (as indicated by the blue arrow in Fig. 1(b)). Furthermore, the higher band dispersion curve moves ‘faster’ than the lower band dispersion curve. When the magnetic field increases from 0 to 2T, the cut-off frequency of the lower band changes 1.1 THz (from 1.9 to 0.8 THz), while that of the higher band changes 2.9 THz (from 1.9 to 4.8 THz).

The excitation of the two propagating bands can be explained by the effect of the applied magnetic field on the oscillation of the free electrons in semiconductors. When no magnetic field is applied, there is only one responding oscillation of the free electrons, which is along the polarization of the incident wave. However, when a magnetic field is applied, another electron oscillation perpendicular to the incident polarization is excited due to the hybrid Lorentz force [21

21. E. D. Palik and J. K. Furdyna, “Infrared and microwave magnetoplasma effects in semiconductors,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 33(3), 1193–1322 (1970). [CrossRef]

]. Therefore, two surface modes with different frequencies can be supported by the two different kinds of free electron oscillations. In a consequence, the bulk Voigt permittivity εV also changes due to the external magnetic field. Without an external magnetic field, there is only one frequency region for εV <0 in [0, 2] THz, as indicated by the region A in Fig. 2(a)
Fig. 2 (a) Bulk Voigt permittivity εV as a function of the incident frequency without an external magnetic field (black dashed line) and with a 0.5 Tesla magnetic field (blue lines) applied. (b) and (c) Normalized Ex intensities of the SMPs mode along the x-axis under an external magnetic field of 1 Tesla for the incident frequencies at 1 THz and 3 THz, which are in the lower and higher bands, respectively.
. While, when a 0.5 Tesla magnetic field is applied, a singular point in the εV-frequency curve appears around 2.2 THz. Thus, two frequency regions appear for εV <0, indicated by regions B and C. This shows that two propagating bands could be supported when the magnetic field is applied. In Figs. 2(b) and 2(c), the normalized electric field intensities of the SMPs modes in the lower (for an incident frequency at 1THz) and the higher (for an incident frequency at 3THz) bands are plotted under a magnetic field of 1Tesla. It is noticed that with the magnetic field, the mode distribution becomes asymmetric. For the SMPs mode in the lower band, most of the energy is confined on the lower surface of the dielectric layer, while the energy is mostly confined on the upper surface in the higher frequency band.

3. Tuning of the slow-light system

We are now studying the slowed-down characteristics of the structure. Since the analytical expression of the group velocity cannot be obtained from Eq. (2), we calculate / numerically by fitting the curves of Fig. 1(b). In Fig. 3(a)
Fig. 3 Slow-light effect of the proposed structure under an external magnetic field. (a) Normalized group velocity of the structure with 0 to 2 Tesla external magnetic fields (lines: numerical results by fitting dispersion curves in Fig. 1; Triangular points: FDTD simulation results). (b) Incident frequencies versus their corresponding magnetic field intensities required. The lower and the higher bands under the magnetic field are indicated by the blue and the pink shadows, respectively.
, the normalized group velocity vg/c of the SMPs mode as a function of the incident frequency is plotted when the external magnetic fields are 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 Tesla, respectively. It shows that vg can achieve ~10−6c in the structure for both the lower and higher bands. The position of the slow-light region changes obviously with the magnetic fields. When the magnetic field increases from 0 to 2 T, the corresponding frequency for vg<10−6c moves from 1.9 to 0.8 THz for the lower band, while that of the higher band moves from 1.9 to 4.8 THz. To verify these results, finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations are conducted for B = 0 and 1 Tesla [24

24. J. Rivas, A. Benet, J. Niehusmann, P. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Time-resolved broadband analysis of slow-light propagation and superluminal transmission of electromagnetic waves in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 71(15), 155110 (2005). [CrossRef]

], respectively, as shown in Fig. 3(a) (see the triangular points). The group velocities of the simulation results agree well with the analytical results from Eq. (2). This verifies the slow-light effects of the system. It should be noted that the slow-light frequency moves continuously with the increase of the magnetic field. Therefore, any frequency in the region of [0.8, 4.8] THz can be slowed down in the structure by applying an appropriate magnetic field between [0, 2] Tesla.

From the curves in Fig. 3(a), it can be inferred that for a monochromatic THz wave, the group velocity can also be tuned by changing the intensity of the magnetic field. Without loss of generality, we choose 1 THz and 3 THz in the lower and higher bands, respectively. We then calculate their corresponding group velocities as a function of B, which are shown in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Group velocity of a monochromatic wave tuning by the magnetic field. (a) f = 1 THz in the lower band; (b) f = 3THz in the higher band. Blue lines: results from the analytical model. Red dots: FDTD simulation results.
. The results between the FDTD simulations and the analytical model agree very well. Because of the counter moving directions of the frequency-vg curves in the lower band and higher band when increasing the magnetic field, it is found that vg in the lower band decreases with the magnetic field, while vg in the higher band increases. When the magnetic field increases from 0 to 1.36 Tesla, the group velocity of 1 THz frequency deceases from 0.65c to 10−3c. For frequency at 3 THz, the required magnetic field is from 1.04 to 0.88 Tesla in order to slow down the wave from 0.23c to 0.048c. Therefore, in addition to the broad tuning range, the group velocity can also be flexibly tuned in the proposed slow-light system.

4. Conclusions

In conclusion, we present a broadly tunable plasmonic slow-light system based on SMPs in a semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor structure. Since a higher propagating band of SMPs can be excited when an external magnetic field is applied perpendicularly to the propagating direction of the incident wave, the slow-light frequency can be tuned from 0.3 to 10 THz when the magnetic field increases from 0 to 6 Tesla. We also show that the group velocity can be tuned by the magnetic field. It is believed that the broad tuning mechanism by employing the higher band can also be applied to other tunable THz devices.

References and links

1.

T. F. Krauss, “Why do we need slow light?” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 448–450 (2008). [CrossRef]

2.

R. Boyd, “Slow light now and then,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 454–455 (2008). [CrossRef]

3.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397(6720), 594–598 (1999). [CrossRef]

4.

L. V. Hau, “Optical information processing in Bose-Einstein condensates,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 451–453 (2008). [CrossRef]

5.

B. Wu, J. F. Hulbert, E. J. Lunt, K. Hurd, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, “Slow light on a chip via atomic quantum state control,” Nat. Photonics 4(11), 776–779 (2010). [CrossRef]

6.

Q. Gan, Z. Fu, Y. J. Ding, and F. J. Bartoli, “Ultrawide-bandwidth slow-light system based on THz plasmonic graded metallic grating structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 256803 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

M. F. Yanik and S. Fan, “Stopping light all optically,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(8), 083901 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

M. F. Yanik, W. Suh, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, “Stopping light in a waveguide with an all-optical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(23), 233903 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

C. Huang and C. Jiang, “Nonreciprocal photonic crystal delay waveguide,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(10), 1954–1958 (2009). [CrossRef]

10.

M. Sandtke and L. Kuipers, “Slow guided surface plasmons at telecom frequencies,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 573–576 (2007). [CrossRef]

11.

A. Karalis, E. Lidorikis, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljacić, “Surface-plasmon-assisted guiding of broadband slow and subwavelength light in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(6), 063901 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

E. Fitrakis, T. Kamalakis, and T. Sphicopoulos, “Slow light in insulator-metal- insulator plasmonic waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(9), 2159–2164 (2011). [CrossRef]

13.

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305(5685), 847–848 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

J. Zhang, L. Cai, W. Bai, Y. Xu, and G. Song, “Slow light at terahertz frequencies in surface plasmon polariton assisted grating waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103715 (2009). [CrossRef]

15.

J. Gómez Rivas, C. Schotsch, P. Haring Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Enhanced transmission of THz radiation through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 68(20), 201306 (2003). [CrossRef]

16.

B. S. Passmore, D. G. Allen, S. R. Vangala, W. D. Goodhue, D. Wasserman, and E. A. Shaner, “Mid-infrared doping tunable transmission through subwavelength metal hole arrays on InSb,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10223–10230 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

J. Gómez Rivas, C. Janke, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Transmission of THz radiation through InSb gratings of subwavelength apertures,” Opt. Express 13(3), 847–859 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

B. Hu, B. Gu, B. Dong, and Y. Zhang, “Optical transmission resonances tuned by external static magnetic field in an n-doped semiconductor grating with subwavelength slits,” Opt. Commun. 281(24), 6120–6123 (2008). [CrossRef]

19.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988), Chap. 2.

20.

J. J. Brion, R. F. Wallis, A. Hartstein, and E. Burstein, “Theory of surface magnetoplasmons in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28(22), 1455–1458 (1972). [CrossRef]

21.

E. D. Palik and J. K. Furdyna, “Infrared and microwave magnetoplasma effects in semiconductors,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 33(3), 1193–1322 (1970). [CrossRef]

22.

B. Hu, Q. J. Wang, S. W. Kok, and Y. Zhang, “Active focal length control of terahertz slitted plane lenses by magnetoplasmons,” Plasmonics (published on line, 2011). http://www.springerlink.com/content/p531745636224004/

23.

M. S. Kushwaha and P. Halevi, “Magnetoplasmons in thin films in the Voigt configuration,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 36(11), 5960–5967 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

J. Rivas, A. Benet, J. Niehusmann, P. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Time-resolved broadband analysis of slow-light propagation and superluminal transmission of electromagnetic waves in three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 71(15), 155110 (2005). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.1810) Fiber optics and optical communications : Buffers, couplers, routers, switches, and multiplexers
(230.3810) Optical devices : Magneto-optic systems
(240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons

ToC Category:
Optics at Surfaces

History
Original Manuscript: March 6, 2012
Revised Manuscript: April 4, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: April 5, 2012
Published: April 18, 2012

Citation
Bin Hu, Qi Jie Wang, and Ying Zhang, "Slowing down terahertz waves with tunable group velocities in a broad frequency range by surface magneto plasmons," Opt. Express 20, 10071-10076 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-9-10071


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References

  1. T. F. Krauss, “Why do we need slow light?” Nat. Photonics2(8), 448–450 (2008). [CrossRef]
  2. R. Boyd, “Slow light now and then,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 454–455 (2008). [CrossRef]
  3. L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature397(6720), 594–598 (1999). [CrossRef]
  4. L. V. Hau, “Optical information processing in Bose-Einstein condensates,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 451–453 (2008). [CrossRef]
  5. B. Wu, J. F. Hulbert, E. J. Lunt, K. Hurd, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, “Slow light on a chip via atomic quantum state control,” Nat. Photonics4(11), 776–779 (2010). [CrossRef]
  6. Q. Gan, Z. Fu, Y. J. Ding, and F. J. Bartoli, “Ultrawide-bandwidth slow-light system based on THz plasmonic graded metallic grating structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(25), 256803 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. F. Yanik and S. Fan, “Stopping light all optically,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92(8), 083901 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. F. Yanik, W. Suh, Z. Wang, and S. Fan, “Stopping light in a waveguide with an all-optical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93(23), 233903 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. Huang and C. Jiang, “Nonreciprocal photonic crystal delay waveguide,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B26(10), 1954–1958 (2009). [CrossRef]
  10. M. Sandtke and L. Kuipers, “Slow guided surface plasmons at telecom frequencies,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 573–576 (2007). [CrossRef]
  11. A. Karalis, E. Lidorikis, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Soljacić, “Surface-plasmon-assisted guiding of broadband slow and subwavelength light in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(6), 063901 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. E. Fitrakis, T. Kamalakis, and T. Sphicopoulos, “Slow light in insulator-metal- insulator plasmonic waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B28(9), 2159–2164 (2011). [CrossRef]
  13. J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science305(5685), 847–848 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Zhang, L. Cai, W. Bai, Y. Xu, and G. Song, “Slow light at terahertz frequencies in surface plasmon polariton assisted grating waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys.106(10), 103715 (2009). [CrossRef]
  15. J. Gómez Rivas, C. Schotsch, P. Haring Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Enhanced transmission of THz radiation through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B68(20), 201306 (2003). [CrossRef]
  16. B. S. Passmore, D. G. Allen, S. R. Vangala, W. D. Goodhue, D. Wasserman, and E. A. Shaner, “Mid-infrared doping tunable transmission through subwavelength metal hole arrays on InSb,” Opt. Express17(12), 10223–10230 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. Gómez Rivas, C. Janke, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Transmission of THz radiation through InSb gratings of subwavelength apertures,” Opt. Express13(3), 847–859 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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