OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 9 — Apr. 23, 2012
  • pp: 10376–10381
« Show journal navigation

Wide-angle polarization independent infrared broadband absorbers based on metallic multi-sized disk arrays

Cheng-Wen Cheng, Mohammed Nadhim Abbas, Chao-Wei Chiu, Kun-Ting Lai, Min-Hsiung Shih, and Yia-Chung Chang  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 9, pp. 10376-10381 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.010376


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1295 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Two-dimensional metallic broadband absorbers on a SiO2/Ag/Si substrate were experimentally studied. The absorptivity of such structure can be increased by tailoring the ratio of disk size to the unit cell area. The metallic disk exhibits a localized surface plasmon polariton (LSPP) mode for both TE and TM polarizations. A broadband thermal emitter can be realized because the LSPP mode is independent of the periodicities. By manipulating the ratios and disk sizes, a high-performance, wide-angle, polarization-independent dual band absorber was experimentally achieved. The results demonstrated a substantial flexibility in absorber designs for applications in thermal photovoltaics, sensors, and camouflage.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

Localized surface plasmon polaritons (LSPPs) are electromagnetic excitations localized at the metal/dielectric interface with a strong field enhancement and a decay of evanescent wave intensity away from the boundary. One of the important applications of LSPPs is in plasmonic absorbers with a large absorption from the field enhancement near the interface. The absorbers have recently attracted considerable interest in the research for applications such as solar cells [1

1. K. B. Alici and E. Ozbay, “Photonic metamaterial absorber designs for infrared solar cell applications,” Proc. SPIE 7772, 77721B (2011).

3

3. K. Nakayama, K. Tanabe, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced light absorption in GaAs solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121904 (2008). [CrossRef]

], sensors [4

4. X. Hu, M. Li, Z. Ye, W. Y. Leung, K.-M. Ho, and S.-Y. Lin, “Design of midinfrared photodetectors enhanced by resonant cavities with subwavelength metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241108 (2008). [CrossRef]

12

12. W. Kubo and S. Fujikawa, “Au double nanopillars with nanogap for plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 11(1), 8–15 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], filters [13

13. C. M. Wang, Y. C. Chang, M. W. Tsai, Y. H. Ye, C. Y. Chen, Y. W. Jiang, S. C. Lee, and D. P. Tsai, “Angular independent infrared filter assisted by localized surface plasmon polariton,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(13), 1103–1105 (2008). [CrossRef]

, 14

14. C.-W. Cheng, M. N. Abbas, Z.-C. Chang, M. H. Shih, C. M. Wang, M. C. Wu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Angle-independent plasmonic infrared band-stop reflective filter based on the Ag/SiO₂/Ag T-shaped array,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1440–1442 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and metamaterial coatings [15

15. Z. H. Jiang, S. Yun, F. Toor, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Conformal dual-band near-perfectly absorbing mid-infrared metamaterial coating,” ACS Nano 5(6), 4641–4647 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Based on Kirchhoff’s law of thermal radiation [16

16. R. Siegel and J. Howell, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer (Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, New York, 1981).

], such absorbers operating in the mid-infrared regime can be used as thermal emitters. The emitters are crucial to several relevant applications, especially in thermal selective mid-infrared (MIR) sources [17

17. P.-E. Chang, Y.-W. Jiang, H.-H. Chen, Y.-T. Chang, Y.-T. Wu, L. D.-C. Tzuang, Y.-H. Ye, and S.-C. Lee, “Wavelength selective plasmonic thermal emitter by polarization utilizing Fabry-Pérot type resonances,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 073111 (2011). [CrossRef]

20

20. M. N. Abbas, C.-W. Cheng, Y.-C. Chang, M.-H. Shih, H.-H. Chen, and S.-C. Lee, “Angle and polarization independent narrow-band thermal emitter made of metallic disk on SiO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 121116 (2011). [CrossRef]

] and thermalphotovoltaic (TPV) converters [21

21. T. J. Coutts, “A review of progress in thermophotovoltaic generation of electricity,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 3(2-3), 77–184 (1999). [CrossRef]

, 22

22. M. Laroche, R. Carminati, and J.-J. Greffet, “Near-field thermophotovoltaic energy conversion,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(6), 063704 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. The resonance condition of absorbers sensitively depends on the sizes and geometries. The optical properties of the geometric shapes have been explored, such as strips [4

4. X. Hu, M. Li, Z. Ye, W. Y. Leung, K.-M. Ho, and S.-Y. Lin, “Design of midinfrared photodetectors enhanced by resonant cavities with subwavelength metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241108 (2008). [CrossRef]

, 18

18. M. Diem, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Wide-angle perfect absorber/thermal emitter in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 033101 (2009). [CrossRef]

, 23

23. C. Wu, B. Neuner III, G. Shvets, J. John, A. Milder, B. Zollars, and S. Savoy, “Large-area wide-angle spectrally selective plasmonic absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 84(7), 075102 (2011). [CrossRef]

], disks [5

5. N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 17

17. P.-E. Chang, Y.-W. Jiang, H.-H. Chen, Y.-T. Chang, Y.-T. Wu, L. D.-C. Tzuang, Y.-H. Ye, and S.-C. Lee, “Wavelength selective plasmonic thermal emitter by polarization utilizing Fabry-Pérot type resonances,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 073111 (2011). [CrossRef]

, 20

20. M. N. Abbas, C.-W. Cheng, Y.-C. Chang, M.-H. Shih, H.-H. Chen, and S.-C. Lee, “Angle and polarization independent narrow-band thermal emitter made of metallic disk on SiO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 121116 (2011). [CrossRef]

, 23

23. C. Wu, B. Neuner III, G. Shvets, J. John, A. Milder, B. Zollars, and S. Savoy, “Large-area wide-angle spectrally selective plasmonic absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 84(7), 075102 (2011). [CrossRef]

, 24

24. J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 251104 (2010).

] rings [6

6. C.-Y. Tsai, S.-P. Lu, J.-W. Lin, and P.-T. Lee, “High sensitivity plasmonic index sensor using slablike gold nanoring arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 153108 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], split rings [7

7. E. Cubukcu, S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Split ring resonator sensors for infrared detection of single molecular monolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 043113 (2009). [CrossRef]

, 8

8. Y.-T. Chang, Y.-C. Lai, C.-T. Li, C.-K. Chen, and T.-J. Yen, “A multi-functional plasmonic biosensor,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9561–9569 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 25

25. K. B. Alici, A. B. Turhan, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Optically thin composite resonant absorber at the near-infrared band: a polarization independent and spectrally broadband configuration,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14260–14267 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] crosses [9

9. F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, M. Martínez-Marco, B. Tomás-Navarro, R. Ortuño, J. Martí, A. Martínez, and P. J. Rodríguez-Cantó, “Highly-sensitive chemical detection in the infrared regime using plasmonic gold nanocrosses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 133118 (2011). [CrossRef]

, 19

19. X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] crescents [10

10. A. Unger, U. Rietzler, R. Berger, and M. Kreiter, “Sensitivity of crescent-shaped metal nanoparticles to attachment of dielectric colloids,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2311–2315 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and rods [11

11. A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 12

12. W. Kubo and S. Fujikawa, “Au double nanopillars with nanogap for plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 11(1), 8–15 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, most of high-performance absorbers do not have large incident angle tolerance, such as H-shaped [15

15. Z. H. Jiang, S. Yun, F. Toor, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Conformal dual-band near-perfectly absorbing mid-infrared metamaterial coating,” ACS Nano 5(6), 4641–4647 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and U-shaped structures [25

25. K. B. Alici, A. B. Turhan, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Optically thin composite resonant absorber at the near-infrared band: a polarization independent and spectrally broadband configuration,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14260–14267 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In this study, a round-shaped metal disk absorber is applied because it can provide an angle and polarization independent LSPP band over a broad range of incidence angles of up to nearly 90° [5

5. N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 20

20. M. N. Abbas, C.-W. Cheng, Y.-C. Chang, M.-H. Shih, H.-H. Chen, and S.-C. Lee, “Angle and polarization independent narrow-band thermal emitter made of metallic disk on SiO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 121116 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. The experimental results and numerical simulations performed by using rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) clearly revealed that the resonant wavelength of the LSPP band is independent of the disk periodicity. Since its highly localized behavior, we also combined six distinct disks in one unit cell to form a broadband absorber with a bandwidth of 2000 nm operating at MIR wavelengths, which can potentially be used as a broadband thermal emitter. We also first experimentally found that the absorptivity of the round-shaped disk absorber obeying the Beer Lambert law can be enhanced by increasing the ratio of disk size to the unit cell area. By modifying the area filling ratio, we can demonstrate a high-performance, wide-angle, polarization-independent dual band absorber with two maximal absorptivity peaks greater than 84% over a wide range of incident angles.

2. Design and simulation

Figure 1(a)
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic diagram of the investigated MD structure. (b) SEM image of a fabricated MD structure. The inset shows the details of the structure within one unit cell at a 35° angle of view.
illustrates the geometry of the metallic disk (MD) array structure. An array (with period Λ) of MDs with diameter D and thickness tAg is deposited on the top and a silver ground plane is on the bottom separated by a thin SiO2 layer with a thickness tSiO2. The bottom layer acts as a mirror to reflect incident light and block light transmittance. The fabrication of the structure began with e-gun deposition of a 5nm Cr adhesion layer and a 100 nm sliver layer on the top of a silicon (Si) substrate, followed by a thickness of SiO2 thin film deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). A polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) layer as an e-beam resist was then spin-coated on the top of the SiO2 thin-film layer. An array of the round-shaped disks periodically spaced with a lattice constant Λ in x and y directions was defined on the PMMA resist by electron beam lithography (EBL). After developing the resist, a 100-nm-thick sliver layer was deposited. Then, a PMMA lift-off process was carried out by rinsing the sample in acetone for a few minutes and cleaning it with isopropyl alcohol and de-ionized water, respectively. Finally, the completed structure was dried with nitrogen gas. The size of the array structure was 200μm × 200μm. Figure 1(b) shows a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of a fabricated specimen with the dimensions of Λ = 1.5 μm, D = 1 μm, tAg = 100 nm, and tSiO2 = 80 nm. To understand the resonant behavior of the structure, its reflectance spectra and resonant mode profiles were simulated by RCWA algorithm [26

26. M. G. Moharam, E. B. Grann, D. A. Pommet, and T. K. Gaylord, “Formulation for stable and efficient implementation of the rigorous coupled-wave analysis of binary gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12(5), 1068–1076 (1995). [CrossRef]

], where the frequency-dependent complex dielectric constants of silver (Ag) and SiO2 were obtained from [27

27. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, Boston, 1985).

].

Because the resonance is immune to the MD period, it is feasible for applications in broadband emitters and absorbers consisting of various sublattices with various MD resonators corresponding to various absorption bands. According to Kirchhoff’s law of thermal radiation, the emittance normalized by the blackbody emittance must be equal to absorptivity at equilibrium. The equality has been demonstrated and reported [19

19. X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. If no transmission occurs, the thermal emission spectrum can be predicted by the product of the blackbody radiation profile and the absorptivity integrated over a solid angle
Emission(λ,T)=B(λ,T)(1R(λ,θ,ϕ))cosθdΩ
(1)
where B(λ,T) denotes the thermal radiation spectrum of a perfect blackbody (with unit W/m2) at temperature T, and 1R(λ,θ,φ) is the absorptivity of the designed sample. Therefore, through the equation, the thermal emission peaks of the sample can be enhanced by the increased absorptivity at specified resonant wavelengths and temperature. The absorptivity or absorbance is particularly governed by an absorbing species of cross-sectional area and species concentration, which is the well-known Beer Lambert law [29

29. D. F. Swinehart, “The beer-lambert law,” J. Chem. Educ. 39(7), 333–335 (1962). [CrossRef]

]. The absorptivity or emissivity of the absorber can be improved by modifying the absorption cross section and concentration.

3. Experimental results and discussion

To characterize the resonant mode and absorptivity A(λ) = 1 - R(λ) of the structure, the reflectivities R(λ) at normal incidence normalized with respect to a bare Ag/Si substrate were measured by using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. We also confirmed that the measured absorptivities of the absorbers are nearly the same by using an Ag/Si layer or an Au standard, and the difference between absorptivities from two substrates is less than 3%. A MIR unpolarized light source was focused the sample and reflected back. The back-reflected light through a 50μm × 50μm slit was collected and detected using a MCT (mercury-cadmium-telluride) photodetector with a spectral resolution of 2 cm−1. Figure 3(a)
Fig. 3 (a) Comparison of the calculated and measured wavelengths of resonances as functions of the disk diameter D. (b) Absorptivities at normal incidence of the 1 μm MD arrays with several different periodicities Λ. (c) Absorptivities of the MD arrays with different diameters D for Λ fixed at 3 μm. (d) Experimental peak absorptivity of the MD configuration as a function of its area-fill factor F.
shows the measured resonant wavelengths of the SiO2 cavities with varying disk sizes when tSiO2 = 80 nm and Λ = 1.5 μm. The resonant wavelength is linearly proportional to the MD size (black open squares), in accordance with our simulation (blue solid line). The wavelength tuning rate is approximately 2.8 nm per nm change in D. The absorptivities of the MD arrays versus density and size were also examined. Figure 3(b) displays the absorptivities of the 1 μm MD absorbers with Λ = 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, and 6 μm. All of the absorption peaks were observed at 3.63 μm, showing an agreement with our simulation in Fig. 2(a) and 2(b). The peak absorptivity with approximately the same FWHM of 0.28 μm increased from 17% to 94% as we diminished the periodicity of the MD array (i.e., an increase in the MD density). The figure of merit (FOM) of the absorber defined as FOM = AQ [30

30. V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4391–4397 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], where A and Q = λ/Δλ are absorptivity and quality factor. The FOM of the metal disk array can be increase from 2.2 to 12 by reducing the periodicity from 6 μm to 1.5 μm. Figure 3(c) shows the absorptivities of the absorbers versus the considered disk sizes D (ranging from 846 nm to 1.88 μm), when Λ = 3 μm. The absorption peaks for D = 846 nm, 1.06 μm, 1.57 μm, 1.36 μm, 1.65 μm, and 1.88 μm were found at λ = 2.96, 3.67, 4.05, 4.65, 5.36, and 5.91 μm with a maximal absorptivity of 47%, 66%, 75%, 85%, 90%, and 95%, respectively. Other high-order modes for D = 1.65 μm and 1.88 μm at λ = 3.40 μm and 3.81 μm, corresponding to CO2 and water vapor absorption features in the atmosphere were also visible. When the disk size was increased in proportion to its absorption cross-section, the energy absorbed per unit area due to the Fabry–Pérot-like resonance in the MD resonator increased, resulting in a pronounced increase in the absorptivity. Because the MD density and size are associated with the area-fill factor (F), defined as the ratio of MD size to the unit cell area, the dependence of the absorptivity on the fill factor is shown in Fig. 3(d). The absorptivity is linearly proportional to the fill factor when F< 0.24, and it becomes saturated over 90% of absorption when F≧0.24. Therefore, the result that behaves similarly to the Beer Lambert law when F< 0.24 allows us to control the absorption of the MD configuration.

4. Conclusion

In conclusion, we have presented a method to control the absorptivity of the MD absorber by modifying its area-fill factor. Because the LSPP resonances for the MD absorbers are not affected by their array periodicities, a broadband emitter composed of a multi-sized MD array can be realized. An angle and polarization independent dual-band absorber with two maximal absorptivity over 84% can be achieved by controlling the disk sizes and fill factor. The angle of incidence for the absorber can achieve nearly 90° in the operating mid-infrared region from 2.85 μm to 3.65 μm. The approach is applicable for thermal photovoltaic, sensor, and camouflage applications.

Acknowledgment

The authors would like thank the Center for Nano Science & Technology, National Chiao Tung University (NCTU) for the fabrication facilities support. This study is based on research supported by the National Science Council (NSC) of ROC, Taiwan under Grant No. NSC-99-2112-M-001-033-MY3 and by the Grant of the Academia Sinica, Taiwan.

References and links

1.

K. B. Alici and E. Ozbay, “Photonic metamaterial absorber designs for infrared solar cell applications,” Proc. SPIE 7772, 77721B (2011).

2.

V. E. Ferry, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “Design considerations for plasmonic photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 22(43), 4794–4808 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

K. Nakayama, K. Tanabe, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced light absorption in GaAs solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121904 (2008). [CrossRef]

4.

X. Hu, M. Li, Z. Ye, W. Y. Leung, K.-M. Ho, and S.-Y. Lin, “Design of midinfrared photodetectors enhanced by resonant cavities with subwavelength metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241108 (2008). [CrossRef]

5.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

C.-Y. Tsai, S.-P. Lu, J.-W. Lin, and P.-T. Lee, “High sensitivity plasmonic index sensor using slablike gold nanoring arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 153108 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

E. Cubukcu, S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Split ring resonator sensors for infrared detection of single molecular monolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 043113 (2009). [CrossRef]

8.

Y.-T. Chang, Y.-C. Lai, C.-T. Li, C.-K. Chen, and T.-J. Yen, “A multi-functional plasmonic biosensor,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9561–9569 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, M. Martínez-Marco, B. Tomás-Navarro, R. Ortuño, J. Martí, A. Martínez, and P. J. Rodríguez-Cantó, “Highly-sensitive chemical detection in the infrared regime using plasmonic gold nanocrosses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 133118 (2011). [CrossRef]

10.

A. Unger, U. Rietzler, R. Berger, and M. Kreiter, “Sensitivity of crescent-shaped metal nanoparticles to attachment of dielectric colloids,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2311–2315 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

W. Kubo and S. Fujikawa, “Au double nanopillars with nanogap for plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 11(1), 8–15 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

C. M. Wang, Y. C. Chang, M. W. Tsai, Y. H. Ye, C. Y. Chen, Y. W. Jiang, S. C. Lee, and D. P. Tsai, “Angular independent infrared filter assisted by localized surface plasmon polariton,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(13), 1103–1105 (2008). [CrossRef]

14.

C.-W. Cheng, M. N. Abbas, Z.-C. Chang, M. H. Shih, C. M. Wang, M. C. Wu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Angle-independent plasmonic infrared band-stop reflective filter based on the Ag/SiO₂/Ag T-shaped array,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1440–1442 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

Z. H. Jiang, S. Yun, F. Toor, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Conformal dual-band near-perfectly absorbing mid-infrared metamaterial coating,” ACS Nano 5(6), 4641–4647 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

R. Siegel and J. Howell, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer (Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, New York, 1981).

17.

P.-E. Chang, Y.-W. Jiang, H.-H. Chen, Y.-T. Chang, Y.-T. Wu, L. D.-C. Tzuang, Y.-H. Ye, and S.-C. Lee, “Wavelength selective plasmonic thermal emitter by polarization utilizing Fabry-Pérot type resonances,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 073111 (2011). [CrossRef]

18.

M. Diem, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Wide-angle perfect absorber/thermal emitter in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 033101 (2009). [CrossRef]

19.

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

M. N. Abbas, C.-W. Cheng, Y.-C. Chang, M.-H. Shih, H.-H. Chen, and S.-C. Lee, “Angle and polarization independent narrow-band thermal emitter made of metallic disk on SiO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 121116 (2011). [CrossRef]

21.

T. J. Coutts, “A review of progress in thermophotovoltaic generation of electricity,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 3(2-3), 77–184 (1999). [CrossRef]

22.

M. Laroche, R. Carminati, and J.-J. Greffet, “Near-field thermophotovoltaic energy conversion,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(6), 063704 (2006). [CrossRef]

23.

C. Wu, B. Neuner III, G. Shvets, J. John, A. Milder, B. Zollars, and S. Savoy, “Large-area wide-angle spectrally selective plasmonic absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 84(7), 075102 (2011). [CrossRef]

24.

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 251104 (2010).

25.

K. B. Alici, A. B. Turhan, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Optically thin composite resonant absorber at the near-infrared band: a polarization independent and spectrally broadband configuration,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14260–14267 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

M. G. Moharam, E. B. Grann, D. A. Pommet, and T. K. Gaylord, “Formulation for stable and efficient implementation of the rigorous coupled-wave analysis of binary gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12(5), 1068–1076 (1995). [CrossRef]

27.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, Boston, 1985).

28.

R. Gordon, “Light in a subwavelength slit in a metal: propagation and reflection,” Phys. Rev. B 73(15), 153405 (2006). [CrossRef]

29.

D. F. Swinehart, “The beer-lambert law,” J. Chem. Educ. 39(7), 333–335 (1962). [CrossRef]

30.

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4391–4397 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
(260.3060) Physical optics : Infrared
(160.3918) Materials : Metamaterials
(250.5403) Optoelectronics : Plasmonics

ToC Category:
Optics at Surfaces

History
Original Manuscript: March 5, 2012
Revised Manuscript: April 17, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: April 17, 2012
Published: April 20, 2012

Citation
Cheng-Wen Cheng, Mohammed Nadhim Abbas, Chao-Wei Chiu, Kun-Ting Lai, Min-Hsiung Shih, and Yia-Chung Chang, "Wide-angle polarization independent infrared broadband absorbers based on metallic multi-sized disk arrays," Opt. Express 20, 10376-10381 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-9-10376


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. K. B. Alici and E. Ozbay, “Photonic metamaterial absorber designs for infrared solar cell applications,” Proc. SPIE7772, 77721B (2011).
  2. V. E. Ferry, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “Design considerations for plasmonic photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater.22(43), 4794–4808 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. Nakayama, K. Tanabe, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced light absorption in GaAs solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 121904 (2008). [CrossRef]
  4. X. Hu, M. Li, Z. Ye, W. Y. Leung, K.-M. Ho, and S.-Y. Lin, “Design of midinfrared photodetectors enhanced by resonant cavities with subwavelength metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(24), 241108 (2008). [CrossRef]
  5. N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2342–2348 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C.-Y. Tsai, S.-P. Lu, J.-W. Lin, and P.-T. Lee, “High sensitivity plasmonic index sensor using slablike gold nanoring arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 153108 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. Cubukcu, S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Split ring resonator sensors for infrared detection of single molecular monolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(4), 043113 (2009). [CrossRef]
  8. Y.-T. Chang, Y.-C. Lai, C.-T. Li, C.-K. Chen, and T.-J. Yen, “A multi-functional plasmonic biosensor,” Opt. Express18(9), 9561–9569 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, M. Martínez-Marco, B. Tomás-Navarro, R. Ortuño, J. Martí, A. Martínez, and P. J. Rodríguez-Cantó, “Highly-sensitive chemical detection in the infrared regime using plasmonic gold nanocrosses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(13), 133118 (2011). [CrossRef]
  10. A. Unger, U. Rietzler, R. Berger, and M. Kreiter, “Sensitivity of crescent-shaped metal nanoparticles to attachment of dielectric colloids,” Nano Lett.9(6), 2311–2315 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater.8(11), 867–871 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. W. Kubo and S. Fujikawa, “Au double nanopillars with nanogap for plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett.11(1), 8–15 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. M. Wang, Y. C. Chang, M. W. Tsai, Y. H. Ye, C. Y. Chen, Y. W. Jiang, S. C. Lee, and D. P. Tsai, “Angular independent infrared filter assisted by localized surface plasmon polariton,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(13), 1103–1105 (2008). [CrossRef]
  14. C.-W. Cheng, M. N. Abbas, Z.-C. Chang, M. H. Shih, C. M. Wang, M. C. Wu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Angle-independent plasmonic infrared band-stop reflective filter based on the Ag/SiO₂/Ag T-shaped array,” Opt. Lett.36(8), 1440–1442 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Z. H. Jiang, S. Yun, F. Toor, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Conformal dual-band near-perfectly absorbing mid-infrared metamaterial coating,” ACS Nano5(6), 4641–4647 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. R. Siegel and J. Howell, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer (Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, New York, 1981).
  17. P.-E. Chang, Y.-W. Jiang, H.-H. Chen, Y.-T. Chang, Y.-T. Wu, L. D.-C. Tzuang, Y.-H. Ye, and S.-C. Lee, “Wavelength selective plasmonic thermal emitter by polarization utilizing Fabry-Pérot type resonances,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(7), 073111 (2011). [CrossRef]
  18. M. Diem, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Wide-angle perfect absorber/thermal emitter in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. B79(3), 033101 (2009). [CrossRef]
  19. X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(4), 045901 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. N. Abbas, C.-W. Cheng, Y.-C. Chang, M.-H. Shih, H.-H. Chen, and S.-C. Lee, “Angle and polarization independent narrow-band thermal emitter made of metallic disk on SiO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(12), 121116 (2011). [CrossRef]
  21. T. J. Coutts, “A review of progress in thermophotovoltaic generation of electricity,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev.3(2-3), 77–184 (1999). [CrossRef]
  22. M. Laroche, R. Carminati, and J.-J. Greffet, “Near-field thermophotovoltaic energy conversion,” J. Appl. Phys.100(6), 063704 (2006). [CrossRef]
  23. C. Wu, B. Neuner, G. Shvets, J. John, A. Milder, B. Zollars, and S. Savoy, “Large-area wide-angle spectrally selective plasmonic absorber,” Phys. Rev. B84(7), 075102 (2011). [CrossRef]
  24. J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 251104 (2010).
  25. K. B. Alici, A. B. Turhan, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Optically thin composite resonant absorber at the near-infrared band: a polarization independent and spectrally broadband configuration,” Opt. Express19(15), 14260–14267 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. M. G. Moharam, E. B. Grann, D. A. Pommet, and T. K. Gaylord, “Formulation for stable and efficient implementation of the rigorous coupled-wave analysis of binary gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A12(5), 1068–1076 (1995). [CrossRef]
  27. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, Boston, 1985).
  28. R. Gordon, “Light in a subwavelength slit in a metal: propagation and reflection,” Phys. Rev. B73(15), 153405 (2006). [CrossRef]
  29. D. F. Swinehart, “The beer-lambert law,” J. Chem. Educ.39(7), 333–335 (1962). [CrossRef]
  30. V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett.8(12), 4391–4397 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
 
Fig. 4
 

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited