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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 20, Iss. 9 — Apr. 23, 2012
  • pp: 9650–9656
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Self-referenceable frequency comb from an ultrafast thin disk laser

Clara J. Saraceno, Selina Pekarek, Oliver H. Heckl, Cyrill R. E. Baer, Cinia Schriber, Matthias Golling, Kolja Beil, Christian Kränkel, Günter Huber, Ursula Keller, and Thomas Südmeyer  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 9, pp. 9650-9656 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.009650


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Abstract

We present the first measurement of the carrier envelope offset (CEO) frequency of an ultrafast thin disk laser (TDL). The TDL used for this proof-of-principle experiment was based on the gain material Yb:Lu2O3 and delivered 7 W of average power in 142-fs pulses, which is more than two times shorter than previously realized with this material. Using only 65 mW of the output of the laser, we generated a coherent octave-spanning supercontinuum (SC) in a highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (PCF). We detected the CEO beat signal using a standard f-to-2f interferometer, achieving a signal-to-noise ratio of >25 dB (3 kHz resolution bandwidth). The CEO frequency was tunable with the pump current with a slope of 33 kHz/mA. This result opens the door towards high-power frequency combs from unamplified oscillators. Furthermore, it confirms the suitability of these sources for future intralaser extreme nonlinear optics experiments such as high harmonic generation and VUV frequency comb generation from compact sources.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

Ultrafast thin disk lasers (TDLs), passively modelocked with semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) [1

1. A. Giesen and J. Speiser, “Fifteen years of work on thin-disk lasers: results and scaling laws,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 598–609 (2007). [CrossRef]

,2

2. U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996). [CrossRef]

], currently achieve higher pulse energies and average powers than any other modelocked oscillator technology. The thin gain medium of only few 100 µm allows for efficient heat removal and reduced thermal distortions. Using the well-established gain material Yb:YAG in a multi-pass geometry, a pulse energy >40 µJ has been demonstrated with 1.1 ps pulses at an average power of 145 W [3

3. D. Bauer, F. Schättiger, J. Kleinbauer, D. Sutter, A. Killi, and T. Dekorsy, “Energies above 30 μJ and average power beyond 100 W directly from a mode‐locked thin‐disk oscillator,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper ATuC2.

,4

4. D. Sutter, “Ultrafast thin disk lasers,” in Photonics West (SPIE, 2012), paper 8235.

]. A comparable average output power level of 141 W with a pulse duration of 738 fs has been demonstrated with one single pass over a disk based on the sesquioxide material Yb:Lu2O3 [5

5. C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond thin-disk laser with 141 W of average power,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2302–2304 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

In principle, the output power of TDLs can be simply scaled up by proportionally increasing the beam diameters on the thin disk gain medium and the SESAM, without excessive increase of nonlinear effects. Therefore, they are excellent candidates for driving experiments requiring high intensities at megahertz repetition rates in systems with the footprint of a low power oscillator [6

6. T. Südmeyer, S. V. Marchese, S. Hashimoto, C. R. E. Baer, G. Gingras, B. Witzel, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond laser oscillators for high-field science,” Nat. Photonics 2(10), 599–604 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. In particular, the high average power levels achievable appear promising to boost the average photon flux in high harmonic generation (HHG) [7

7. M. Ferray, A. L'Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 21(3), L31–L35 (1988). [CrossRef]

,8

8. A. McPherson, G. Gibson, H. Jara, U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Studies of multiphoton production of vacuum-ultraviolet radiation in the rare gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4(4), 595–601 (1987). [CrossRef]

] and therefore generate a table-top source of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation. Recently, a record-high average power of 200 μW in the UV was achieved using a passive enhancement cavity seeded by a multi-stage Yb-doped fiber amplifier source operating at MHz repetiton rates [9

9. D. C. Yost, A. Cingöz, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Power optimization of XUV frequency combs for spectroscopy applications [Invited],” Opt. Express 19(23), 23483–23493 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Efficiently driving such highly nonlinear processes requires short pulses durations (<100 fs). Modelocked TDLs were typically limited to pulse durations >200 fs [10

10. T. Südmeyer, C. Kränkel, C. R. E. Baer, O. H. Heckl, C. J. Saraceno, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “High-power ultrafast thin disk laser oscillators and their potential for sub-100-femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 281–295 (2009). [CrossRef]

] and required pulse compression schemes to reach the sub-100 fs regime [11

11. T. Südmeyer, F. Brunner, E. Innerhofer, R. Paschotta, K. Furusawa, J. C. Baggett, T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, and U. Keller, “Nonlinear femtosecond pulse compression at high average power levels by use of a large-mode-area holey fiber,” Opt. Lett. 28(20), 1951–1953 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13

13. C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Pulse compression of a high-power thin disk laser using rod-type fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1395–1407 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Most recently, we have demonstrated for the first time sub-100 fs pulses directly from a modelocked TDL using the mixed sesquioxide material Yb:LuScO3 [14

14. C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. Schriber, M. Golling, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Sub-100 femtosecond pulses from a SESAM modelocked thin disk laser,” Appl. Phys. B 106(3), 559–562 (2012) (Rapid Communication). [CrossRef]

].

Considering these very recent results that confirm that TDLs can directly access the sub-100 fs regime [14

14. C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. Schriber, M. Golling, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Sub-100 femtosecond pulses from a SESAM modelocked thin disk laser,” Appl. Phys. B 106(3), 559–562 (2012) (Rapid Communication). [CrossRef]

] and the carrier envelope offset (CEO) frequency stabilization discussed in this paper, making use of the high intracavity intensity levels inside a TDL to drive extreme nonlinear optics experiments appears very promising. In this approach, which has not yet been demonstrated, one benefits from the high intracavity intensity levels achievable in TDLs to drive for example HHG. Typically, modelocked TDLs operating with one pass over the thin gain medium require low outcoupling coefficients (< 10%). Therefore, they operate at intracavity average powers in the kW regime, pulse energies in the 100 μJ range and peak powers of several tens of MW. For example, the above mentioned femtosecond Yb:Lu2O3 TDL with 141 W average output power operated at 1.56 kW intracavity average power and with an intracavity peak power of 31 MW [5

5. C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond thin-disk laser with 141 W of average power,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2302–2304 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], while the high-energy Yb:YAG TDL in [15

15. S. V. Marchese, C. R. E. Baer, A. G. Engqvist, S. Hashimoto, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond thin disk laser oscillator with pulse energy beyond the 10-microjoule level,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6397–6407 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] already achieved 791 fs pulses with an intracavity energy of 113 µJ at a peak power of 125 MW. Even the recently demonstrated sub-100 fs low-power TDL [14

14. C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. Schriber, M. Golling, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Sub-100 femtosecond pulses from a SESAM modelocked thin disk laser,” Appl. Phys. B 106(3), 559–562 (2012) (Rapid Communication). [CrossRef]

] achieves an intracavity peak power >25 MW and an average power of >200 W, which is already an interesting starting point for first proof-of-principle experiments.

An important range of applications such as VUV/XUV precision spectroscopy on He+ [16

16. M. Herrmann, M. Haas, U. D. Jentschura, F. Kottmann, D. Leibfried, G. Saathoff, C. Gohle, A. Ozawa, V. Batteiger, S. Knunz, N. Kolachevsky, H. A. Schussler, T. W. Hansch, and T. Udem, “Feasibility of coherent xuv spectroscopy on the 1S-2S transition in singly ionized helium,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 052505 (2009). [CrossRef]

] or even exploring nuclear transitions [17

17. W. G. Rellergert, D. DeMille, R. R. Greco, M. P. Hehlen, J. R. Torgerson, and E. R. Hudson, “Constraining the evolution of the fundamental constants with a solid-state optical frequency reference based on the 229Th nucleus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(20), 200802 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] would benefit from these table-top sources. Very recently, the first demonstration of direct XUV frequency comb spectroscopy was reported [18

18. A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 482(7383), 68–71 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] at MHz repetition rate using a UV frequency comb driven by a high power fiber based system coupled to a passive enhancement cavity.

In contrast to passive enhancement cavities [19

19. C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436(7048), 234–237 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22

22. A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] where the circulating pulse has to match the driving pulses, both pulse formation and laser amplification would be achieved inside the TDL cavity, where the nonlinear process takes place. In addition, there is no need for coherent coupling of the driving pulses, which is a challenging point in passive enhancement cavities. Furthermore, when driving HHG inside a TDL, the circulating pulse can simply adapt to the present nonlinearity. Therefore, bi-stability issues observed in high-finesse passive enhancement cavities due to plasma formation are minimized [23

23. T. K. Allison, A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, and J. Ye, “Extreme nonlinear optics in a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(18), 183903 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Another potential advantage is that different transverse mode profiles can be achieved, for example TEM01, for efficient output coupling of the high harmonics via a hole in a cavity mirror [24

24. K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Output coupling methods for cavity-based high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8189–8197 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. This is not the case in passive enhancement cavities, where efficient extraction of the UV radiation from these very high finesse cavities is challenging [25

25. D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, and J. Ye, “Efficient output coupling of intracavity high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 33(10), 1099–1101 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,26

26. Y.-Y. Yang, F. Süßmann, S. Zherebtsov, I. Pupeza, J. Kaster, D. Lehr, H.-J. Fuchs, E.-B. Kley, E. Fill, X.-M. Duan, Z.-S. Zhao, F. Krausz, S. L. Stebbings, and M. F. Kling, “Optimization and characterization of a highly-efficient diffraction nanograting for MHz XUV pulses,” Opt. Express 19(3), 1954–1962 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

The frequency stability of ultrafast TDLs has not been studied before, which is a key aspect for experiments in the area of high field science and spectroscopy. High power levels are very attractive, because an increase in the average power of frequency combs results in a higher power per mode. So far, stabilized multi-stage fiber chirped pulse amplifier (CPA) systems have reached up to 80 W average power [27

27. A. Ruehl, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, and I. Hartl, “80 W, 120 fs Yb-fiber frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 35(18), 3015–3017 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. TDLs can reach similar or higher power levels directly from the oscillator. Prior to the work presented here it was not clear whether pump-induced instabilities could potentially increase the noise level such that a stable frequency comb cannot be realized [28

28. J. J. McFerran, W. C. Swann, B. R. Washburn, and N. R. Newbury, “Suppression of pump-induced frequency noise in fiber-laser frequency combs leading to sub-radian f (ceo) phase excursions,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 219–227 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. TDLs are pumped by high power diodes, which operate in a multimode transverse beam (the fiber-delivered pump beam typically has M2 > 100). Furthermore, they require current drivers operating at several tens of amperes.

2. Yb Lu2O3 thin disk laser with short pulse duration

The laser setup used for this experiment is shown in Fig. 1a
Fig. 1 a) Schematic of the cavity b) Optical spectrum of the pulses at an average power of 7W c) Autocorrelation trace of the corresponding pulses.
. The thin disk, used as a folding mirror in the single-mode cavity, consisted of a 150-μm thick, 3%-doped Yb:Lu2O3 disk mounted on a 1.4-mm thick diamond heatsink, soldered on a back-cooled copper mount. It had a highly reflective coating for both the pump and laser wavelength on the backside and an antireflective coating for the same spectral range on the front side. Additionally, the disk had a wedge of 0.1° in order to avoid residual reflections which can destabilize modelocked operation. In order to efficiently pump Yb:Lu2O3 at its narrow zero-phonon line, we used a volume Bragg grating (VBG) stabilized pump diode [31

31. G. B. Venus, A. Sevian, V. I. Smirnov, and L. B. Glebov, “High-brightness narrow-line laser diode source with volume Bragg-grating feedback,” Proc. SPIE 5711, 166–176 (2005).

] emitting at 976 nm in a narrow linewidth Δλ < 0.5 nm. The thin disk module was arranged for 24 passes through the disk enabling an absorption >95% of the pump radiation. Throughout the experiment, we used a pump spot diameter of 1.9 mm.

In order to achieve soliton modelocking [32

32. F. X. Kärtner and U. Keller, “Stabilization of solitonlike pulses with a slow saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 20(1), 16–18 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,33

33. R. Paschotta and U. Keller, “Passive mode locking with slow saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 73(7), 653–662 (2001). [CrossRef]

], we used two Gires Tournois interferometer (GTI) type mirrors that accounted for 2200 fs2 of negative dispersion per roundtrip. A 1.5-mm thick uncoated YAG plate, introduced at a focus of ≈200 μm radius accounted for the necessary self-phase modulation (SPM) to balance the negative dispersion in the cavity. Furthermore, it ensures a linearly polarized output. The outcoupling coefficient was 4%. The SESAM used for this experiment was characterized at 1030 nm with 1-ps long pulses. The measurement yielded a saturation fluence Fsat = 35 μJ/cm2, a high modulation depth ΔR = 3.4%, nonsaturable losses ΔRns = 0.8% and a fast recovery time of τ1/e = 1.9 ps.

We obtained stable modelocking up to an average power of 7 W. At this average power, pulses as short as 142 fs were obtained with an optical-to-optical efficiency of 15%. This corresponds to a pump power of 47 W. The laser operated at a repetition rate of 64 MHz. The pulses were close to the transform-limit of the spectrum with a time-bandwidth product of 0.34 (Figs. 1 b and c). The corresponding intracavity average power level was 175 W, and the intracavity pulse energy 2.7 μJ. This corresponds to a peak power circulating in the cavity of 17 MW. It is worth noticing that the achieved modelocked optical spectrum (8.5 nm full-width half maximum (FWHM)) is >70% of the available FWHM emission bandwidth of Yb:Lu2O3, confirming the large potential of this material also in terms of short pulse generation in the thin disk geometry.

In this experiment, small spot sizes on the disk and the SESAM were used to operate in a relaxed cavity configuration [34

34. C. R. E. Baer, O. H. Heckl, C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, C. Kränkel, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Frontiers in passively mode-locked high-power thin disk laser oscillators,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7054–7065 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,35

35. V. Magni, “Multielement stable resonators containing a variable lens,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4(10), 1962–1969 (1987). [CrossRef]

] and to minimize Q-switching instabilities [36

36. C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(1), 46–56 (1999). [CrossRef]

] in the goal of investigating the pulse duration limits of this material. Higher average powers will be reached at these short pulse durations in the near future by using larger disks and laser mode sizes both on the disk and the SESAM.

The SESAM used in this experiment proved crucial for pushing the pulse duration to the limits of the emission bandwidth of this material. In particular, the high modulation depth and fast recovery time have an impact on the stabilization of these short pulses, confirming theoretical predictions of soliton modelocking [32

32. F. X. Kärtner and U. Keller, “Stabilization of solitonlike pulses with a slow saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 20(1), 16–18 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,33

33. R. Paschotta and U. Keller, “Passive mode locking with slow saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 73(7), 653–662 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. In this proof-of-principle experiment, we focused on obtaining short pulses and achieved the crucial SESAM parameters in samples with moderate saturation fluence. Future designs will combine these crucial parameters (large modulation depths, fast recovery times) with larger saturation fluences and damage thresholds by using dielectric topcoatings [37

37. C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “SESAMs for high-power oscillators: design guidelines and damage thresholds,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 29–41 (2012). [CrossRef]

], allowing to reach higher power levels.

3. CEO beat detection

We generated a coherent SC in a 1-m long, highly nonlinear PCF using only 65 mW out of the available 7 W of our Yb:Lu2O3 TDL. The fiber used is a commercially available highly nonlinear PCF (NKT Photonics A/S, product NL-3.2-945) with a nonlinear parameter γ = 23 W−1km−1, and a zero dispersion wavelength of 945 nm. At the laser wavelength of 1034 nm, the fiber exhibits anomalous dispersion of approximately −15.1 ps2km−1. Considering an estimated coupling efficiency of 50%, the corresponding soliton order launched into the nonlinear fiber is N = 5. According to numerical simulations [38

38. J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006). [CrossRef]

], and recent experiments [39

39. S. Pekarek, T. Südmeyer, S. Lecomte, S. Kundermann, J. M. Dudley, and U. Keller, “Self-referenceable frequency comb from a gigahertz diode-pumped solid-state laser,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16491–16497 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] a soliton order N < 10 is required for the generation of the coherent supercontinuum in this fiber. The short pulses of our TDL enabled the generation of this coherent SC without the need for external pulse compression or amplification. The SC (Fig. 2b
Fig. 2 CEO frequency measurement using a standard f-to-2f interferometer [30]: a) Schematic of the Yb:Lu2O3 modelocked TDL b) A small fraction of the output power of this laser is enough to generate a coherent SC from a 1-m long highly nonlinear PCF c) The generated SC is launched into a standard f-to-2f interferometer for CEO beat detection.
) after the PCF covered more than an octave and was launched into a standard f-to-2f interferometer [30

30. H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999). [CrossRef]

] for CEO beat detection. The technical details of the components in the f-to2f interferometer are described in detail in [39

39. S. Pekarek, T. Südmeyer, S. Lecomte, S. Kundermann, J. M. Dudley, and U. Keller, “Self-referenceable frequency comb from a gigahertz diode-pumped solid-state laser,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16491–16497 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The CEO beats had a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of >25 dB in a resolution bandwidth (RBW) of 3 kHz (Fig. 4c of [39

39. S. Pekarek, T. Südmeyer, S. Lecomte, S. Kundermann, J. M. Dudley, and U. Keller, “Self-referenceable frequency comb from a gigahertz diode-pumped solid-state laser,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16491–16497 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]) and >30 dB in a RBW of 1 kHz. We believe that the achieved SNR ratio is large enough for initial locking tests of the CEO beat, in particular given the high stability of the observed beats. During the time of the experiment (approximately one hour) we did not observe significant frequency excursion or amplitude fluctuations of the CEO beats. Furthermore, significantly better SNR can be achieved by optimizing the laser for low noise performance. It is important to notice that the TDL used for this proof-of-principle experiment was built with standard optomechanics, and was not isolated in terms of external vibrations. Furthermore, the pump laser was operated at only 15% of its maximum operation current. Therefore, we believe better performance is achievable by improving the mounting technique, boxing, and pump operation point. Furthermore, optimizing the CEO-beat detection scheme (fiber length, input power level, fiber design, temperature stabilization of the fiber [40

40. D. C. Heinecke, A. Bartels, and S. A. Diddams, “Offset frequency dynamics and phase noise properties of a self-referenced 10 GHz Ti:sapphire frequency comb,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18440–18451 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], etc...) should also result in an improved SNR.

To investigate the influence of the pulse duration on the detected CEO beats, we increased the pulse duration to 172 fs according to the soliton formula [32

32. F. X. Kärtner and U. Keller, “Stabilization of solitonlike pulses with a slow saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 20(1), 16–18 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] by lowering the pump power and operating at 5.1 W output power. We could still clearly detect the CEO beats at this longer pulse duration, at the expense of a lower SNR (16 dB in 3 kHz RBW). According to numerical simulations [38

38. J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006). [CrossRef]

], recently confirmed experimentally [39

39. S. Pekarek, T. Südmeyer, S. Lecomte, S. Kundermann, J. M. Dudley, and U. Keller, “Self-referenceable frequency comb from a gigahertz diode-pumped solid-state laser,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16491–16497 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] the generation of a coherent SC in a given nonlinear fiber sets a lower limit in terms of pulse duration of the source. For our system, this limit was calculated to be at a pulse duration of approximately 180 fs, which seems to be in accordance with our experiment. Further investigations will target to confirm this limit in pulse duration experimentally. In our experiment, further lengthening of the pulse duration was not possible without breaking into the Q-switched modelocking regime.

The CEO beat frequency was tunable by the pump current, with a slope of approximately 33 kHz/mA. This mechanism can be used for electronic stabilization of the CEO frequency to an external reference. It is worth emphasizing that CEO detection was possible in spite of the strongly multimode pumping scheme of TDLs, usually associated with a high noise level. This seems to indicate that systems such as the one presented in [5

5. C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond thin-disk laser with 141 W of average power,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2302–2304 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] with an external passive pulse compression stage to reach the necessary short pulse duration for CEO detection would already be suitable to achieve >100-W-level stabilized frequency combs.

4. Conclusion and outlook

Our experimental results represent the first confirmation of the potential of modelocked TDLs as high-power stabilized frequency combs. Pulses as short as 142 fs were obtained with the sesquioxide material Yb:Lu2O3, which has already demonstrated its suitability for high power operation in the thin disk geometry [5

5. C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond thin-disk laser with 141 W of average power,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2302–2304 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. This proves the potential of this material also in terms of high power short pulse generation. Higher output powers will be achieved in the near future at these short pulse durations by using larger disks, increased mode areas and by designing SESAMs with high modulation depths and fast recovery times such as the one used in this experiment, but higher saturation fluences, lower two-photon absorption effects and higher damage thresholds [37

37. C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “SESAMs for high-power oscillators: design guidelines and damage thresholds,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 29–41 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. We expect to reach more than 100 W output power and kW intracavity levels from such a source with sub-100 fs pulse duration in the near future.

The demonstrated Yb:Lu2O3 TDL with 142-fs pulses enabled the first CEO frequency beat measurement of a modelocked TDL, which was performed without any external amplification or pulse compression using a standard f-to-2f interferometer [30

30. H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999). [CrossRef]

]. This measurement established a sufficiently large SNR for future stabilization of the laser system with the pump current. Therefore, high-power stabilized frequency combs in the 100 W range from unamplified laser oscillators appear feasible in the near future. These results further increase our confidence that TDLs are ideal candidates for megahertz intracavity nonlinear optics experiments, such as high harmonic generation for future compact XUV/VUV sources.

Acknowledgments

We acknowledge financial support by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF) and support from the FIRST cleanroom facilities of ETH Zurich for the SESAM fabrication. Christian Kränkel and Kolja Beil acknowledge financial support by the Joachim Herz Stiftung. Thomas Südmeyer acknowledges support from the European Research Council for the project “Efficient megahertz XUV light source” (ERC Starting Grant 2011 #279545).

References and links

1.

A. Giesen and J. Speiser, “Fifteen years of work on thin-disk lasers: results and scaling laws,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 598–609 (2007). [CrossRef]

2.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996). [CrossRef]

3.

D. Bauer, F. Schättiger, J. Kleinbauer, D. Sutter, A. Killi, and T. Dekorsy, “Energies above 30 μJ and average power beyond 100 W directly from a mode‐locked thin‐disk oscillator,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper ATuC2.

4.

D. Sutter, “Ultrafast thin disk lasers,” in Photonics West (SPIE, 2012), paper 8235.

5.

C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond thin-disk laser with 141 W of average power,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2302–2304 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

T. Südmeyer, S. V. Marchese, S. Hashimoto, C. R. E. Baer, G. Gingras, B. Witzel, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond laser oscillators for high-field science,” Nat. Photonics 2(10), 599–604 (2008). [CrossRef]

7.

M. Ferray, A. L'Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 21(3), L31–L35 (1988). [CrossRef]

8.

A. McPherson, G. Gibson, H. Jara, U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Studies of multiphoton production of vacuum-ultraviolet radiation in the rare gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4(4), 595–601 (1987). [CrossRef]

9.

D. C. Yost, A. Cingöz, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Power optimization of XUV frequency combs for spectroscopy applications [Invited],” Opt. Express 19(23), 23483–23493 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

T. Südmeyer, C. Kränkel, C. R. E. Baer, O. H. Heckl, C. J. Saraceno, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “High-power ultrafast thin disk laser oscillators and their potential for sub-100-femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 281–295 (2009). [CrossRef]

11.

T. Südmeyer, F. Brunner, E. Innerhofer, R. Paschotta, K. Furusawa, J. C. Baggett, T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, and U. Keller, “Nonlinear femtosecond pulse compression at high average power levels by use of a large-mode-area holey fiber,” Opt. Lett. 28(20), 1951–1953 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

E. Innerhofer, F. Brunner, S. V. Marchese, R. Paschotta, U. Keller, K. Furusawa, J. C. Baggett, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, “32 W of average power in 24-fs pulses from a passively mode-locked thin disk laser with nonlinear fiber compression,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper TuA3.

13.

C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Pulse compression of a high-power thin disk laser using rod-type fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1395–1407 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. Schriber, M. Golling, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Sub-100 femtosecond pulses from a SESAM modelocked thin disk laser,” Appl. Phys. B 106(3), 559–562 (2012) (Rapid Communication). [CrossRef]

15.

S. V. Marchese, C. R. E. Baer, A. G. Engqvist, S. Hashimoto, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond thin disk laser oscillator with pulse energy beyond the 10-microjoule level,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6397–6407 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

M. Herrmann, M. Haas, U. D. Jentschura, F. Kottmann, D. Leibfried, G. Saathoff, C. Gohle, A. Ozawa, V. Batteiger, S. Knunz, N. Kolachevsky, H. A. Schussler, T. W. Hansch, and T. Udem, “Feasibility of coherent xuv spectroscopy on the 1S-2S transition in singly ionized helium,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 052505 (2009). [CrossRef]

17.

W. G. Rellergert, D. DeMille, R. R. Greco, M. P. Hehlen, J. R. Torgerson, and E. R. Hudson, “Constraining the evolution of the fundamental constants with a solid-state optical frequency reference based on the 229Th nucleus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(20), 200802 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 482(7383), 68–71 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436(7048), 234–237 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum ultraviolet via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(19), 193201 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

I. Hartl, T. R. Schibli, A. Marcinkevicius, D. C. Yost, D. D. Hudson, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Cavity-enhanced similariton Yb-fiber laser frequency comb: 3×1014 W/cm2 peak intensity at 136 MHz,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2870–2872 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

T. K. Allison, A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, and J. Ye, “Extreme nonlinear optics in a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(18), 183903 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Output coupling methods for cavity-based high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8189–8197 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, and J. Ye, “Efficient output coupling of intracavity high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 33(10), 1099–1101 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

Y.-Y. Yang, F. Süßmann, S. Zherebtsov, I. Pupeza, J. Kaster, D. Lehr, H.-J. Fuchs, E.-B. Kley, E. Fill, X.-M. Duan, Z.-S. Zhao, F. Krausz, S. L. Stebbings, and M. F. Kling, “Optimization and characterization of a highly-efficient diffraction nanograting for MHz XUV pulses,” Opt. Express 19(3), 1954–1962 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

A. Ruehl, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, and I. Hartl, “80 W, 120 fs Yb-fiber frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 35(18), 3015–3017 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28.

J. J. McFerran, W. C. Swann, B. R. Washburn, and N. R. Newbury, “Suppression of pump-induced frequency noise in fiber-laser frequency combs leading to sub-radian f (ceo) phase excursions,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 219–227 (2007). [CrossRef]

29.

C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond Yb:Lu(2)O(3) thin disk laser with 63 W of average power,” Opt. Lett. 34(18), 2823–2825 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

30.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999). [CrossRef]

31.

G. B. Venus, A. Sevian, V. I. Smirnov, and L. B. Glebov, “High-brightness narrow-line laser diode source with volume Bragg-grating feedback,” Proc. SPIE 5711, 166–176 (2005).

32.

F. X. Kärtner and U. Keller, “Stabilization of solitonlike pulses with a slow saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 20(1), 16–18 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

33.

R. Paschotta and U. Keller, “Passive mode locking with slow saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 73(7), 653–662 (2001). [CrossRef]

34.

C. R. E. Baer, O. H. Heckl, C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, C. Kränkel, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Frontiers in passively mode-locked high-power thin disk laser oscillators,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7054–7065 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

35.

V. Magni, “Multielement stable resonators containing a variable lens,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4(10), 1962–1969 (1987). [CrossRef]

36.

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(1), 46–56 (1999). [CrossRef]

37.

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “SESAMs for high-power oscillators: design guidelines and damage thresholds,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 29–41 (2012). [CrossRef]

38.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006). [CrossRef]

39.

S. Pekarek, T. Südmeyer, S. Lecomte, S. Kundermann, J. M. Dudley, and U. Keller, “Self-referenceable frequency comb from a gigahertz diode-pumped solid-state laser,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16491–16497 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

40.

D. C. Heinecke, A. Bartels, and S. A. Diddams, “Offset frequency dynamics and phase noise properties of a self-referenced 10 GHz Ti:sapphire frequency comb,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18440–18451 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(140.3580) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, solid-state
(140.4050) Lasers and laser optics : Mode-locked lasers
(320.7090) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast lasers
(320.6629) Ultrafast optics : Supercontinuum generation

ToC Category:
Ultrafast Optics

History
Original Manuscript: February 21, 2012
Revised Manuscript: April 10, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: April 10, 2012
Published: April 12, 2012

Citation
Clara J. Saraceno, Selina Pekarek, Oliver H. Heckl, Cyrill R. E. Baer, Cinia Schriber, Matthias Golling, Kolja Beil, Christian Kränkel, Günter Huber, Ursula Keller, and Thomas Südmeyer, "Self-referenceable frequency comb from an ultrafast thin disk laser," Opt. Express 20, 9650-9656 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-9-9650


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References

  1. A. Giesen and J. Speiser, “Fifteen years of work on thin-disk lasers: results and scaling laws,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(3), 598–609 (2007). [CrossRef]
  2. U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 435–453 (1996). [CrossRef]
  3. D. Bauer, F. Schättiger, J. Kleinbauer, D. Sutter, A. Killi, and T. Dekorsy, “Energies above 30 μJ and average power beyond 100 W directly from a mode‐locked thin‐disk oscillator,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper ATuC2.
  4. D. Sutter, “Ultrafast thin disk lasers,” in Photonics West (SPIE, 2012), paper 8235.
  5. C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond thin-disk laser with 141 W of average power,” Opt. Lett.35(13), 2302–2304 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Südmeyer, S. V. Marchese, S. Hashimoto, C. R. E. Baer, G. Gingras, B. Witzel, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond laser oscillators for high-field science,” Nat. Photonics2(10), 599–604 (2008). [CrossRef]
  7. M. Ferray, A. L'Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.21(3), L31–L35 (1988). [CrossRef]
  8. A. McPherson, G. Gibson, H. Jara, U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Studies of multiphoton production of vacuum-ultraviolet radiation in the rare gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B4(4), 595–601 (1987). [CrossRef]
  9. D. C. Yost, A. Cingöz, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Power optimization of XUV frequency combs for spectroscopy applications [Invited],” Opt. Express19(23), 23483–23493 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. T. Südmeyer, C. Kränkel, C. R. E. Baer, O. H. Heckl, C. J. Saraceno, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “High-power ultrafast thin disk laser oscillators and their potential for sub-100-femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B97(2), 281–295 (2009). [CrossRef]
  11. T. Südmeyer, F. Brunner, E. Innerhofer, R. Paschotta, K. Furusawa, J. C. Baggett, T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, and U. Keller, “Nonlinear femtosecond pulse compression at high average power levels by use of a large-mode-area holey fiber,” Opt. Lett.28(20), 1951–1953 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. E. Innerhofer, F. Brunner, S. V. Marchese, R. Paschotta, U. Keller, K. Furusawa, J. C. Baggett, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, “32 W of average power in 24-fs pulses from a passively mode-locked thin disk laser with nonlinear fiber compression,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper TuA3.
  13. C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Pulse compression of a high-power thin disk laser using rod-type fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express19(2), 1395–1407 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. Schriber, M. Golling, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Sub-100 femtosecond pulses from a SESAM modelocked thin disk laser,” Appl. Phys. B106(3), 559–562 (2012) (Rapid Communication). [CrossRef]
  15. S. V. Marchese, C. R. E. Baer, A. G. Engqvist, S. Hashimoto, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond thin disk laser oscillator with pulse energy beyond the 10-microjoule level,” Opt. Express16(9), 6397–6407 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. Herrmann, M. Haas, U. D. Jentschura, F. Kottmann, D. Leibfried, G. Saathoff, C. Gohle, A. Ozawa, V. Batteiger, S. Knunz, N. Kolachevsky, H. A. Schussler, T. W. Hansch, and T. Udem, “Feasibility of coherent xuv spectroscopy on the 1S-2S transition in singly ionized helium,” Phys. Rev. A79(5), 052505 (2009). [CrossRef]
  17. W. G. Rellergert, D. DeMille, R. R. Greco, M. P. Hehlen, J. R. Torgerson, and E. R. Hudson, “Constraining the evolution of the fundamental constants with a solid-state optical frequency reference based on the 229Th nucleus,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(20), 200802 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature482(7383), 68–71 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature436(7048), 234–237 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum ultraviolet via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94(19), 193201 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. I. Hartl, T. R. Schibli, A. Marcinkevicius, D. C. Yost, D. D. Hudson, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Cavity-enhanced similariton Yb-fiber laser frequency comb: 3×1014 W/cm2 peak intensity at 136 MHz,” Opt. Lett.32(19), 2870–2872 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(25), 253901 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. T. K. Allison, A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, and J. Ye, “Extreme nonlinear optics in a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(18), 183903 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Output coupling methods for cavity-based high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Express14(18), 8189–8197 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, and J. Ye, “Efficient output coupling of intracavity high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett.33(10), 1099–1101 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. Y.-Y. Yang, F. Süßmann, S. Zherebtsov, I. Pupeza, J. Kaster, D. Lehr, H.-J. Fuchs, E.-B. Kley, E. Fill, X.-M. Duan, Z.-S. Zhao, F. Krausz, S. L. Stebbings, and M. F. Kling, “Optimization and characterization of a highly-efficient diffraction nanograting for MHz XUV pulses,” Opt. Express19(3), 1954–1962 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. A. Ruehl, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, and I. Hartl, “80 W, 120 fs Yb-fiber frequency comb,” Opt. Lett.35(18), 3015–3017 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. J. J. McFerran, W. C. Swann, B. R. Washburn, and N. R. Newbury, “Suppression of pump-induced frequency noise in fiber-laser frequency combs leading to sub-radian f (ceo) phase excursions,” Appl. Phys. B86(2), 219–227 (2007). [CrossRef]
  29. C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond Yb:Lu(2)O(3) thin disk laser with 63 W of average power,” Opt. Lett.34(18), 2823–2825 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B69(4), 327–332 (1999). [CrossRef]
  31. G. B. Venus, A. Sevian, V. I. Smirnov, and L. B. Glebov, “High-brightness narrow-line laser diode source with volume Bragg-grating feedback,” Proc. SPIE5711, 166–176 (2005).
  32. F. X. Kärtner and U. Keller, “Stabilization of solitonlike pulses with a slow saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett.20(1), 16–18 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. R. Paschotta and U. Keller, “Passive mode locking with slow saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B73(7), 653–662 (2001). [CrossRef]
  34. C. R. E. Baer, O. H. Heckl, C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, C. Kränkel, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Frontiers in passively mode-locked high-power thin disk laser oscillators,” Opt. Express20(7), 7054–7065 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. V. Magni, “Multielement stable resonators containing a variable lens,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A4(10), 1962–1969 (1987). [CrossRef]
  36. C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B16(1), 46–56 (1999). [CrossRef]
  37. C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “SESAMs for high-power oscillators: design guidelines and damage thresholds,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(1), 29–41 (2012). [CrossRef]
  38. J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys.78(4), 1135–1184 (2006). [CrossRef]
  39. S. Pekarek, T. Südmeyer, S. Lecomte, S. Kundermann, J. M. Dudley, and U. Keller, “Self-referenceable frequency comb from a gigahertz diode-pumped solid-state laser,” Opt. Express19(17), 16491–16497 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. D. C. Heinecke, A. Bartels, and S. A. Diddams, “Offset frequency dynamics and phase noise properties of a self-referenced 10 GHz Ti:sapphire frequency comb,” Opt. Express19(19), 18440–18451 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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