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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 1 — Jan. 14, 2013
  • pp: 1317–1323
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Single-mode 2.65 µm InGaAsSb/AlInGaAsSb laterally coupled distributed-feedback diode lasers for atmospheric gas detection

Ryan M. Briggs, Clifford Frez, Mahmood Bagheri, Carl E. Borgentun, James A. Gupta, Mark F. Witinski, James G. Anderson, and Siamak Forouhar  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 1, pp. 1317-1323 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.001317


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Abstract

We demonstrate index-coupled distributed-feedback diode lasers at 2.65 µm that are capable of tuning across strong absorption lines of HDO and other isotopologues of H2O. The lasers employ InGaAsSb/AlInGaAsSb multi-quantum-well structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaSb, and single-mode emission is generated using laterally coupled second-order Bragg gratings etched alongside narrow ridge waveguides. We verify near-critical coupling of the gratings by analyzing the modal characteristics of lasers of different length. With an emission facet anti-reflection coating, 2-mm-long lasers exhibit a typical current threshold of 150 mA at 20 °C and are capable of emitting more than 25 mW in a single longitudinal mode, which is significantly higher than the output power reported for loss-coupled distributed-feedback lasers operating at similar wavelengths.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

Tunable high-power single-mode lasers operating in the 2.6 to 3.0 µm range can be used in absorption spectroscopy instruments for many gas monitoring applications. In this spectral window, greenhouse gases and atmospheric tracers such as CO2 and H2O exhibit far stronger absorption than in the near-infrared regime, which is commonly targeted due to the wide availability of lasers operating closer to the visible spectrum [1

1. A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 165–176 (2008). [CrossRef]

3

3. C. G. Tarsitano and C. R. Webster, “Multilaser Herriott cell for planetary tunable laser spectrometers,” Appl. Opt. 46(28), 6923–6935 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. We report here on the development of 2.65 µm single-mode diode lasers designed for integration into next-generation instruments to measure atmospheric concentrations of H2O and HDO [2

2. D. S. Sayres, E. J. Moyer, T. F. Hanisco, J. M. St Clair, F. N. Keutsch, A. O’Brien, N. T. Allen, L. Lapson, J. N. Demusz, M. Rivero, T. Martin, M. Greenberg, C. Tuozzolo, G. S. Engel, J. H. Kroll, J. B. Paul, and J. G. Anderson, “A new cavity based absorption instrument for detection of water isotopologues in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(4), 044102 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,4

4. D. S. Sayres, L. Pfister, T. F. Hanisco, E. J. Moyer, J. B. Smith, J. M. St. Clair, A. S. O’Brien, M. F. Witinski, M. Legg, and J. G. Anderson, “The influence of convection on the water isotopic composition of the tropical tropopause layer and tropical stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D00J20 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. The technology can also be adapted to slightly longer wavelengths near 3 µm for simultaneous detection of CO2 and its isotopologues. While CO2 exhibits even stronger absorption in the mid-infrared region between 4 to 5 µm, the semiconductor quantum cascade lasers required to access these features remain relatively expensive and require high input power, which has limited their incorporation into widely deployed instruments. Operating at wavelengths shorter than 3 µm also enables the use of higher-performance detectors and lower-cost optical components compared to longer infrared wavelengths, and by monitoring CO2 between 2.6 and 3.0 µm, water vapor concentrations can be measured with the same laser. This is a key advantage over detection near 4 to 5 µm, where water does not absorb strongly, since a water vapor correction is required to accurately report dry air mixing ratios of CO2. Without reliable humidity measurements, the well-known dilution effect, combined with water-induced spectral broadening, leads to inaccuracies in measured fractional gas concentrations.

Wavelengths significantly longer than 2 µm are inaccessible using InP-based interband laser structures developed for telecommunication applications [5

5. S. Forouhar, A. Ksendzov, A. Larsson, and H. Temkin, “InGaAs/InGaAsP/InP strained-layer quantum well lasers at ~2 μm,” Electron. Lett. 28(15), 1431–1432 (1992). [CrossRef]

], and emission below 3 µm is difficult to achieve with intersubband quantum cascade devices due to band-offset limitations. For some time, GaSb-based diode lasers have proven to be a viable technology for the 2 to 3 µm regime [6

6. H. K. Choi and S. J. Eglash, “High-power multiple-quantum-well GaInAsSb/AlGaAsSb diode lasers emitting at 2.1 µm with low threshold current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(10), 1154–1156 (1992). [CrossRef]

,7

7. D. Z. Garbuzov, H. Lee, V. Khalfin, R. Martinelli, J. C. Connolly, and G. L. Belenky, “2.3-2.7 µm room temperature CW operation of InGaAsSb/A1GaAsSb broad waveguide SCH-QW diode lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(7), 794–796 (1999). [CrossRef]

]; however, there has been limited development of distributed-feedback (DFB) single-mode lasers of this type due to the difficulty of epitaxial regrowth on grating structures etched into GaSb-based alloys. Laterally coupled distributed-feedback (LC-DFB) lasers have been shown to produce efficient single-mode emission without semiconductor regrowth [8

8. R. D. Martin, S. Forouhar, S. Keo, R. J. Lang, R. G. Hunspreger, R. Tiberio, and P. F. Chapman, “CW performance of an InGAs-GaAs-AlGaAs laterally-coupled distributed feedback (LC-DFB) ridge laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(3), 244–246 (1995). [CrossRef]

], and the design concept has been successfully applied to GaSb-based lasers with loss-coupled metal gratings [9

9. A. Salhi, D. Barat, D. Romanini, Y. Rouillard, A. Ouvrard, R. Werner, J. Seufert, J. Koeth, A. Vicet, and A. Garnache, “Single-frequency Sb-based distributed-feedback lasers emitting at 2.3 µm above room temperature for application in tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 45(20), 4957–4965 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,10

10. J. A. Gupta, P. J. Barrios, J. Lapointe, G. C. Aers, C. Storey, and P. Waldron, “Modal gain of 2.4-µm InGaAsSb-AlGaAsSb complex-coupled distributed-feedback lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1532–1534 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. However, metal gratings result in unwanted absorption, which has prompted the recent development of GaSb-based LC-DFB laser designs that use etched gratings to introduce index modulation without additional loss, resulting in relatively higher output power and narrow spectral linewidth near 2 µm [11

11. S. Forouhar, R. M. Briggs, C. Frez, K. J. Franz, and A. Ksendzov, “High-power laterally coupled distributed-feedback GaSb-based diode lasers at 2 µm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(3), 031107 (2012). [CrossRef]

,12

12. A. Ksendzov, S. Forouhar, R. M. Briggs, C. Frez, K. J. Franz, and M. Bagheri, “Linewidth measurement of high power diode laser at 2 µm for carbon dioxide detection,” Electron. Lett. 48(9), 520–522 (2012). [CrossRef]

].

Here, we extend this approach to wavelengths near 2.65 µm, using etched second-order lateral Bragg gratings to produce single-mode emission from InGaAsSb/AlInGaAsSb multi-quantum-well structures. To efficiently generate light at 2.65 µm, we employ optimized quinary barriers to improve both injection efficiency and quantum-well confinement. These LC-DFB lasers produce more than 25 mW of continuous-wave (CW) emission from a single facet at room temperature and are tunable across frequencies spanning a distinct H2O/HDO absorption line pair at 2.648 µm (3777 cm−1 in wavenumbers). We report on devices exhibiting mode-hop-free tuning over a broad range of operation as well as lasers emitting in distinct DFB modes at different temperatures and injection currents, which provides a means for characterizing the LC-DFB grating coupling strength.

2. LC-DFB laser design and fabrication

Interband multi-quantum-well laser structures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy in a custom V90 system with valved cracker sources for As2 and Sb2 and effusion cells for the group-III elements and dopants. Growth was performed on a 50-mm-diameter Te-doped GaSb(001) substrate with a 1° miscut toward the (011) direction. The laser active region was grown with seven 6.6 nm In0.55Ga0.45As0.21Sb0.79 quantum wells separated by 20 nm Al0.2In0.2Ga0.6As0.19Sb0.81 barriers, with additional 215 nm quinary barriers separating the quantum wells from upper and lower cladding layers, as shown in Fig. 1(a)
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the LC-DFB laser structure without the SiNx barrier layer and electroplated Au contact. (b) Calculated electric field intensity for the fundamental TE00 mode supported by the fabricated waveguide geometry. (c) Scanning electron micrograph of a fabricated laser ridge. (d) Cross section of the laterally coupled gratings, with a high- magnification view of the InGaAsSb/AlInGaAsSb multi-quantum-well active region.
. The quinary barriers are similar to those used for lasers emitting near 3.2 µm [13

13. M. Grau, C. Lin, O. Dier, C. Lauer, and M. C. Amann, “Room-temperature operation of 3.26 µm GaSb-based type-I lasers with quinternary AlGaInAsSb barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 241104 (2005). [CrossRef]

,14

14. J. A. Gupta, A. Bezinger, P. J. Barrios, J. Lapointe, D. Poitras, and P. Waldron, “High-resolution methane spectroscopy using InGaAsSb/AlInGaAsSb laterally-coupled index-grating distributed feedback laser diode at 3.23um,” Electron. Lett. 48(7), 396–397 (2012). [CrossRef]

] and have been shown to improve laser performance by increasing the valence band offset relative to the wells while reducing the conduction band offset. This band alignment configuration simultaneously improves both hole confinement and electron injection compared with structures employing traditional AlGaAsSb quaternary barriers. Layers of 2-µm-thick Te- and Be-doped Al0.6Ga0.4As0.052Sb0.948 were grown for the lower and upper cladding, respectively. A heavily doped p-type GaSb layer was grown as a low-resistivity top contact, and graded AlGaAsSb layers were used to transition from the cladding regions to the GaSb top contact and substrate.

Optical lithography and lift-off metallization were used to define Ti/Pt/Au ridge contacts, and laser ridges were defined by Cl2/BCl3 inductively coupled plasma etching with a SiNx hard mask. As shown in Fig. 1, 4 µm-wide ridges were etched into the top AlGaAsSb cladding to within 500 nm of the upper quinary barrier layer, resulting in a structure that supports only the fundamental transverse-electric (TE00) mode at a free-space wavelength of 2.65 µm. Second-order LC-DFB gratings with a pitch of Λ = 755 nm were defined alongside the ridges using electron-beam lithography and etched approximately to the cladding-waveguide interface. During etching, the ridges limit the solid angle over which neutral etching species can reach the sample surface [15

15. D. Keil, B. A. Helmer, G. Mueller, and E. Wagganer, “Oxide dual damascene trench etch profile control,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 148(7), G383–G388 (2001). [CrossRef]

]; therefore, we observe slight rounding where the etched surface meets the ridge sidewalls. Due to this rounding at the base of the ridges, the gratings do not penetrate into the top AlInGaAsSb barrier layer close to the ridges, as shown in Fig. 1(c), but begin to do so far from the ridges, as shown in the grating cross section in Fig. 1(d). Following the grating etch, a 400 nm film of SiNx was deposited onto the devices using plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition. After etching away the SiNx on top of the ridges and depositing a thin Au seed layer over the ridge structure, a 10-µm-thick layer of Au was electroplated on top of the devices. Mode calculations show that, with the 400-nm-thick SiNx barrier, absorption loss from the Au contact is less than 1.4 cm−1. Using the coupled-mode theory analysis reported elsewhere [11

11. S. Forouhar, R. M. Briggs, C. Frez, K. J. Franz, and A. Ksendzov, “High-power laterally coupled distributed-feedback GaSb-based diode lasers at 2 µm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(3), 031107 (2012). [CrossRef]

,16

16. W.-Y. Choi, J. C. Chen, and C. G. Fonstad, “Evaluation of coupling coefficients for laterally-coupled distributed feedback lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(Part 1, No. 9A), 4654–4659 (1996). [CrossRef]

], the grating coupling coefficient was estimated to be κ ≈6 cm−1, based on the overlap of the mode with the etched grating.

The laser wafer was thinned to around 100 µm prior to depositing a backside ohmic contact, and rows of lasers were cleaved into 1- or 2-mm-long bars. The emission facets were coated with a Y2O3/Al2O3/Si/Al2O3 anti-reflection (AR) coating, while the back facets were coated with a Y2O3/Al2O3 passivation coating. Using reference substrates, we measured 2% and 30% reflectivity at 2.65 µm for the AR and passivation coatings, respectively. Finally, the lasers were attached to Au-coated Cu submounts using AuSn eutectic solder.

3. Laser performance

Mounted LC-DFB laser diodes were tested on a temperature-controlled stage, and emission was collected using either a calibrated thermopile detector for power measurements or a Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer with an external HgCdTe detector for spectral measurements. The voltage and CW light output of a typical laser with a cavity length of L = 2 mm is shown in Fig. 2(a)
Fig. 2 (a) CW light-current-voltage (LIV) characteristics of a 2-mm-long LC-DFB laser at different heat-sink temperatures. The dip in the output power at 10 °C is due to the laser tuning across an ambient H2O absorption line at 3779.5 cm−1. (b) Comparison of the efficiency and LIV characteristics (inset) of 1- and 2-mm-long LC-DFB lasers with the same facet coatings.
at different heat-sink temperatures. Figure 2(b) shows a comparison between the performance of the same 2 mm laser and a 1 mm laser with identical facet coatings. Despite the increased facet losses with the shorter cavity, the wall-plug efficiency of the 1 mm laser reaches a higher maximum value; however, the longer lasers are useful for high-power applications, since they exhibit greater efficiency at higher injection currents. The current density in the inset of Fig. 2(b) was determined from the area of the etched laser ridge and is therefore an upper bound on the current density in the unetched active region, where lateral current spreading occurs.

4. LC-DFB grating characteristics and mode structure

Consistent with coupled-mode theory analysis of DFB lasers [17

17. H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, “Coupled-wave theory of distributed feedback lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 43(5), 2327–2335 (1972). [CrossRef]

], some of the devices tested for this work exhibited laser emission in multiple distinct longitudinal modes. Modulation of the real part of the refractive index for a DFB laser with perfectly non-reflective facets results in modes displaced symmetrically from the Bragg frequency; however, facets with asymmetric non-zero reflectivity lead to a more complicated longitudinal mode structure. Furthermore, the relative phase of the DFB modulation at the laser facets affects the characteristics of a particular laser [18

18. W. Streifer, W. D. Burnham, and D. R. Scifres, “Effect of external reflectors on longitudinal modes of distributed feedback lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11(4), 154–161 (1975). [CrossRef]

], although this parameter is not easily controlled during the cleaving process.

Due to inevitable variations in phase at the laser facets, it is reasonable to expect different lasers to show mode hops at different temperature and current conditions, or, as was the case with certain lasers characterized in this work, to show no mode hops over a given range of operation. We note, however, that among lasers of the same length exhibiting an abrupt frequency shift, the spectral width of the shift was similar. In addition, the performance of a given laser, including the position of any mode hops, was repeatable given the same temperature and current conditions. Consequently, we are able to use the separation between these distinct DFB modes to reliably extract information about the grating coupling strength.

Since GaSb-based alloys exhibit a relatively pronounced decrease in bandgap energy with increasing temperature [19

19. J. G. Kim, L. Shterengas, R. U. Martinelli, G. L. Belenky, D. Z. Garbuzov, and W. K. Chan, “Room-temperature 2.5 µm InGaAsSb/AlGaAsSb diode lasers emitting 1 W continuous waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3146–3148 (2002). [CrossRef]

], the laser gain spectrum shifts to longer wavelengths with increasing current more rapidly than the Bragg wavelength. As observed previously with GaSb-based LC-DFB lasers near 2 µm [11

11. S. Forouhar, R. M. Briggs, C. Frez, K. J. Franz, and A. Ksendzov, “High-power laterally coupled distributed-feedback GaSb-based diode lasers at 2 µm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(3), 031107 (2012). [CrossRef]

], laser oscillation can appear in Fabry-Perot modes away from than the Bragg wavelength as injection current is increased, particularly when the laser is undercoupled (κL < 1). Figure 4(a)
Fig. 4 (a) Emission spectra from 1- and 2-mm-long LC-DFB lasers at 30 °C, measured over the same range of current density. The spectra are offset vertically for clarity, and the relevant DFB and Fabry-Perot frequency differences are indicated. (b) Normalized facet loss and frequency shift for the two longitudinal DFB modes closest to the Bragg frequency (δ = 0), calculated for different values of grating coupling strength, κL. (c) Frequency difference between the modes represented in (b) as a function of κL. The measured frequency spacing for DFB modes of the 1- and 2-mm-long lasers are shown for comparison.
shows emission spectra collected from two LC-DFB lasers, with lengths L = 1 mm and 2 mm, over a range of injection current. Based on the estimated grating coupling coefficient of κ = 6 cm−1 from mode calculations, the 1 mm laser is undercoupled (κL = 0.6), and, at high current densities, we indeed observe Fabry-Perot modes redshifted from the Bragg frequency with a clear regular mode spacing. However, for the slightly overcoupled 2 mm laser (κL = 1.2), DFB operation is sustained at higher current densities.

To calculate the expected DFB mode spacing and verify the estimated coupling coefficient, we use the technique of Streifer, et al., taking the reflectivity of the facets to be 2% and 30% and assuming a grating phase shift of 0 at the AR-coated emission facet and π at the back facet [18

18. W. Streifer, W. D. Burnham, and D. R. Scifres, “Effect of external reflectors on longitudinal modes of distributed feedback lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11(4), 154–161 (1975). [CrossRef]

]. The normalized facet loss, αL, and frequency shift, δL, calculated for the two DFB modes closest to the Bragg frequency are shown in Fig. 4(b). Although the frequency shift between DFB modes is independent of diffraction order, we note that, for a second-order DFB laser, first-order diffraction into radiation modes introduces additional loss that is not accounted for in this analysis.

5. Summary

Acknowledgments

This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), operated by the California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. We gratefully acknowledge critical infrastructure and support provided by the JPL Microdevices Laboratory, and we thank R. E. Muller, P. M. Echternach, and K. J. Franz for technical assistance.

References and links

1.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 165–176 (2008). [CrossRef]

2.

D. S. Sayres, E. J. Moyer, T. F. Hanisco, J. M. St Clair, F. N. Keutsch, A. O’Brien, N. T. Allen, L. Lapson, J. N. Demusz, M. Rivero, T. Martin, M. Greenberg, C. Tuozzolo, G. S. Engel, J. H. Kroll, J. B. Paul, and J. G. Anderson, “A new cavity based absorption instrument for detection of water isotopologues in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(4), 044102 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

C. G. Tarsitano and C. R. Webster, “Multilaser Herriott cell for planetary tunable laser spectrometers,” Appl. Opt. 46(28), 6923–6935 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

D. S. Sayres, L. Pfister, T. F. Hanisco, E. J. Moyer, J. B. Smith, J. M. St. Clair, A. S. O’Brien, M. F. Witinski, M. Legg, and J. G. Anderson, “The influence of convection on the water isotopic composition of the tropical tropopause layer and tropical stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D00J20 (2010). [CrossRef]

5.

S. Forouhar, A. Ksendzov, A. Larsson, and H. Temkin, “InGaAs/InGaAsP/InP strained-layer quantum well lasers at ~2 μm,” Electron. Lett. 28(15), 1431–1432 (1992). [CrossRef]

6.

H. K. Choi and S. J. Eglash, “High-power multiple-quantum-well GaInAsSb/AlGaAsSb diode lasers emitting at 2.1 µm with low threshold current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(10), 1154–1156 (1992). [CrossRef]

7.

D. Z. Garbuzov, H. Lee, V. Khalfin, R. Martinelli, J. C. Connolly, and G. L. Belenky, “2.3-2.7 µm room temperature CW operation of InGaAsSb/A1GaAsSb broad waveguide SCH-QW diode lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(7), 794–796 (1999). [CrossRef]

8.

R. D. Martin, S. Forouhar, S. Keo, R. J. Lang, R. G. Hunspreger, R. Tiberio, and P. F. Chapman, “CW performance of an InGAs-GaAs-AlGaAs laterally-coupled distributed feedback (LC-DFB) ridge laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(3), 244–246 (1995). [CrossRef]

9.

A. Salhi, D. Barat, D. Romanini, Y. Rouillard, A. Ouvrard, R. Werner, J. Seufert, J. Koeth, A. Vicet, and A. Garnache, “Single-frequency Sb-based distributed-feedback lasers emitting at 2.3 µm above room temperature for application in tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 45(20), 4957–4965 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

J. A. Gupta, P. J. Barrios, J. Lapointe, G. C. Aers, C. Storey, and P. Waldron, “Modal gain of 2.4-µm InGaAsSb-AlGaAsSb complex-coupled distributed-feedback lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(20), 1532–1534 (2009). [CrossRef]

11.

S. Forouhar, R. M. Briggs, C. Frez, K. J. Franz, and A. Ksendzov, “High-power laterally coupled distributed-feedback GaSb-based diode lasers at 2 µm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(3), 031107 (2012). [CrossRef]

12.

A. Ksendzov, S. Forouhar, R. M. Briggs, C. Frez, K. J. Franz, and M. Bagheri, “Linewidth measurement of high power diode laser at 2 µm for carbon dioxide detection,” Electron. Lett. 48(9), 520–522 (2012). [CrossRef]

13.

M. Grau, C. Lin, O. Dier, C. Lauer, and M. C. Amann, “Room-temperature operation of 3.26 µm GaSb-based type-I lasers with quinternary AlGaInAsSb barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 241104 (2005). [CrossRef]

14.

J. A. Gupta, A. Bezinger, P. J. Barrios, J. Lapointe, D. Poitras, and P. Waldron, “High-resolution methane spectroscopy using InGaAsSb/AlInGaAsSb laterally-coupled index-grating distributed feedback laser diode at 3.23um,” Electron. Lett. 48(7), 396–397 (2012). [CrossRef]

15.

D. Keil, B. A. Helmer, G. Mueller, and E. Wagganer, “Oxide dual damascene trench etch profile control,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 148(7), G383–G388 (2001). [CrossRef]

16.

W.-Y. Choi, J. C. Chen, and C. G. Fonstad, “Evaluation of coupling coefficients for laterally-coupled distributed feedback lasers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(Part 1, No. 9A), 4654–4659 (1996). [CrossRef]

17.

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, “Coupled-wave theory of distributed feedback lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 43(5), 2327–2335 (1972). [CrossRef]

18.

W. Streifer, W. D. Burnham, and D. R. Scifres, “Effect of external reflectors on longitudinal modes of distributed feedback lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11(4), 154–161 (1975). [CrossRef]

19.

J. G. Kim, L. Shterengas, R. U. Martinelli, G. L. Belenky, D. Z. Garbuzov, and W. K. Chan, “Room-temperature 2.5 µm InGaAsSb/AlGaAsSb diode lasers emitting 1 W continuous waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3146–3148 (2002). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.3490) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, distributed-feedback
(140.5960) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers
(280.3420) Remote sensing and sensors : Laser sensors

ToC Category:
Remote Sensing

History
Original Manuscript: November 9, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: December 19, 2012
Published: January 11, 2013

Citation
Ryan M. Briggs, Clifford Frez, Mahmood Bagheri, Carl E. Borgentun, James A. Gupta, Mark F. Witinski, James G. Anderson, and Siamak Forouhar, "Single-mode 2.65 µm InGaAsSb/AlInGaAsSb laterally coupled distributed-feedback diode lasers for atmospheric gas detection," Opt. Express 21, 1317-1323 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-1-1317


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References

  1. A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B90(2), 165–176 (2008). [CrossRef]
  2. D. S. Sayres, E. J. Moyer, T. F. Hanisco, J. M. St Clair, F. N. Keutsch, A. O’Brien, N. T. Allen, L. Lapson, J. N. Demusz, M. Rivero, T. Martin, M. Greenberg, C. Tuozzolo, G. S. Engel, J. H. Kroll, J. B. Paul, and J. G. Anderson, “A new cavity based absorption instrument for detection of water isotopologues in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.80(4), 044102 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. G. Tarsitano and C. R. Webster, “Multilaser Herriott cell for planetary tunable laser spectrometers,” Appl. Opt.46(28), 6923–6935 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. S. Sayres, L. Pfister, T. F. Hanisco, E. J. Moyer, J. B. Smith, J. M. St. Clair, A. S. O’Brien, M. F. Witinski, M. Legg, and J. G. Anderson, “The influence of convection on the water isotopic composition of the tropical tropopause layer and tropical stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res.115, D00J20 (2010). [CrossRef]
  5. S. Forouhar, A. Ksendzov, A. Larsson, and H. Temkin, “InGaAs/InGaAsP/InP strained-layer quantum well lasers at ~2 μm,” Electron. Lett.28(15), 1431–1432 (1992). [CrossRef]
  6. H. K. Choi and S. J. Eglash, “High-power multiple-quantum-well GaInAsSb/AlGaAsSb diode lasers emitting at 2.1 µm with low threshold current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett.61(10), 1154–1156 (1992). [CrossRef]
  7. D. Z. Garbuzov, H. Lee, V. Khalfin, R. Martinelli, J. C. Connolly, and G. L. Belenky, “2.3-2.7 µm room temperature CW operation of InGaAsSb/A1GaAsSb broad waveguide SCH-QW diode lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.11(7), 794–796 (1999). [CrossRef]
  8. R. D. Martin, S. Forouhar, S. Keo, R. J. Lang, R. G. Hunspreger, R. Tiberio, and P. F. Chapman, “CW performance of an InGAs-GaAs-AlGaAs laterally-coupled distributed feedback (LC-DFB) ridge laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.7(3), 244–246 (1995). [CrossRef]
  9. A. Salhi, D. Barat, D. Romanini, Y. Rouillard, A. Ouvrard, R. Werner, J. Seufert, J. Koeth, A. Vicet, and A. Garnache, “Single-frequency Sb-based distributed-feedback lasers emitting at 2.3 µm above room temperature for application in tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt.45(20), 4957–4965 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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