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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 1 — Jan. 14, 2013
  • pp: 508–518
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Full 160-Gb/s OTDM to 16x10-Gb/s WDM conversion with a single nonlinear interaction

Keith G. Petrillo and Mark A. Foster  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 1, pp. 508-518 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.000508


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Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate full simultaneous error-free demultiplexing of a 160-Gb/s OTDM data stream to 16x10-Gb/s WDM channels in a single nonlinear optical device. A temporal Fourier processor based upon a four-wave mixing (FWM) time lens is used to perform the demultiplexing operation. The FWM pump pulses are chirped such that they temporally overlap to allow for continuous operation; a necessary feature for full demultiplexing. We identify the fundamental challenges of operating in this continuous regime and characterize their impact on the system performance. We determine the main performance impairments to be crosstalk from adjacent WDM channels and crosstalk arising from non-degenerate FWM amongst the OTDM signal and the temporally overlapping pump pulses.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

A commonly employed demultiplexing scheme for OTDM channel separation uses an all-optical switch, such as a four-wave mixing (FWM) device, to extract a single lower data rate channel, allowing detection with conventional receivers [6

6. H. C. Hansen Mulvad, L. K. Oxenløwe, M. Galili, A. T. Clausen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and P. Jeppesen, “1.28 Tbit/s single-polarisation serial OOK optical data generation, and demultiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 45(5), 280–281 (2009). [CrossRef]

13

13. K.-Y. Wang, K. G. Petrillo, M. A. Foster, and A. C. Foster, “Ultralow-power all-optical processing of high-speed data signals in deposited silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24600–24606 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Critically, the resource requirements (e.g. power, size, cost) of this approach scale with the number of channels since each channel requires a dedicated switch. This scaling makes full demultiplexing of an ultrahigh-capacity signal extremely demanding. For example, to fully convert a 1.28-Tbaud OTDM signal to 10-Gbaud channels, 128 devices would generally be required. To alleviate these scaling issues, much research has focused on creating optical demultiplexers that can switch multiple channels simultaneously in a single device [14

14. M. Wang, J. Wu, J. Li, K. Xu, X. Hong, and J. Lin, “All-optical serial-to-parallel converter for simultaneous multiple-channel OTDM demultiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 45(9), 474–475 (2009). [CrossRef]

27

27. E. Palushani, T. Richter, R. Ludwig, C. Schubert, H. C. H. Mulvad, A. Clausen, and L. Oxenløwe, “OTDM-to-WDM conversion of complex modulation formats by time-domain optical Fourier transformation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OTh3H.2.

]. These approaches have included multiple modulators and optical paths [16

16. M. L. Dennis, W. I. Kaechele, W. K. Burns, T. F. Carruthers, and I. N. Duling, “Photonic serial-parallel conversion of high-speed OTDM data,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(11), 1561–1563 (2000). [CrossRef]

], multicasting the signal source [17

17. C. S. Brès, A. O. J. Wiberg, B. P. Kuo, J. M. Chavez-Boggio, C. F. Marki, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Optical demultiplexing of 320 Gb/s to 8 x 40 Gb/s in single parametric gate,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 434–442 (2010). [CrossRef]

], multicasting the pump source or using multiple pump sources [18

18. M. V. Drummond, A. L. J. Teixeira, P. P. Monteiro, and R. N. Nogueira, “Flexible OTDM to WDM converter enabled by a programmable optical processor,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1783–1789 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 19

19. H. N. Tan, Q. Nguyen-The, M. Matsuura, and N. Kishi, “Reconfigurable all-optical OTDM-to-WDM conversion using a multiwavelength ultrashort pulse source based on Raman compression,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(6), 853–863 (2012). [CrossRef]

], and chirping the pump pulses [20

20. T. Morioka, S. Kawanishi, H. Takara, and M. Saruwatari, “Multiple-output, 100 Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexer based on multichannel four-wave mixing pumped by a linearly-chirped square pulse,” Electron. Lett. 30(23), 1959–1960 (1994). [CrossRef]

23

23. K. Uchiyama, S. Kawanishi, and M. Saruwatari, “Multiple-channel output all-optical OTDM demultiplexer using XPM-induced chirp compensation (MOXIC),” Electron. Lett. 34(6), 575–576 (1998). [CrossRef]

].

Here, we experimentally investigate full OTDM demultiplexing using a single temporal Fourier processor. We demonstrate error-free (bit error rate < 10−9) demultiplexing of a 160-Gb/s OTDM signal to 16x10-Gb/s WDM channels for the first time using this architecture. To achieve full demultiplexing, the FWM pump pulses are chirped sufficiently to cause temporal overlap with the adjacent pump pulses. This allows all of the OTDM channels to be extracted in a single FWM interaction. Extending the temporal aperture of the pump pulses reduces crosstalk from adjacent channels that impact channels on the edges of the generated WDM spectrum. However, this reduction in crosstalk comes at the expense of additional crosstalk on channels in the center of the WDM spectrum due to non-degenerate FWM processes. We find the tradeoff between these two sources of crosstalk is the primary limiting factor in system performance. By striking a balance between these effects through the choice of the pump bandwidth, we are able to simultaneously achieve a bit error rate (BER) of less than 10−9 for all 16 generated WDM channels.

2. Principle of operation

A temporal Fourier processor is implemented using the principles of the space-time duality of electromagnetic waves [28

28. B. H. Kolner, “Space-time duality and the theory of temporal imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 30(8), 1951–1963 (1994). [CrossRef]

]. This duality indicates that analogies can be drawn between spatial propagation of a beam of light and temporal dispersive propagation of a light pulse. One example of this duality is the temporal Fourier processor. Specifically, a lens positioned a focal length away from an object will produce an image at the opposite focal plane that is the two-dimensional Fourier transform of the object. Similarly, using the principles of the space-time duality, if a temporal optical waveform is dispersed through a focal length of dispersion, imparted with a temporally quadratic phase shift (known as a time lens [24

24. K. G. Petrillo and M. A. Foster, “Scalable ultrahigh-speed optical transmultiplexer using a time lens,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14051–14059 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

37

37. R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Optical time lens based on four-wave mixing on a silicon chip,” Opt. Lett. 33(10), 1047–1049 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]), and subsequently dispersed with a second focal length of dispersive propagation, the one-dimensional Fourier transform of the input waveform will be generated at the output of the system. This process is referred to as a temporal Fourier processor (Fig. 1
Fig. 1 A temporal Fourier processor is created using a FWM time lens. The incoming signal waveform is chirped prior to FWM, combine with a pump pulse chirped by twice the amount of the signal, and the resulting converted waveform propagates through an equivalent but opposite dispersion length to the signal. The resulting temporal waveform is a scaled version of the incident spectrum and likewise the generated spectrum is a scaled version of the incident temporal waveform.
) [24

24. K. G. Petrillo and M. A. Foster, “Scalable ultrahigh-speed optical transmultiplexer using a time lens,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14051–14059 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27

27. E. Palushani, T. Richter, R. Ludwig, C. Schubert, H. C. H. Mulvad, A. Clausen, and L. Oxenløwe, “OTDM-to-WDM conversion of complex modulation formats by time-domain optical Fourier transformation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OTh3H.2.

,30

30. M. T. Kauffman, W. C. Banyai, A. A. Godil, and D. M. Bloom, “Time-to-frequency converter for measuring picosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(3), 270–272 (1994). [CrossRef]

36

36. D. H. Broaddus, M. A. Foster, O. Kuzucu, A. C. Turner-Foster, K. W. Koch, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Temporal-imaging system with simple external-clock triggering,” Opt. Express 18(13), 14262–14269 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Here we use FWM with a chirped optical pump pulse to impose a quadratic temporal phase shift (a time lens) on a given signal [37

37. R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Optical time lens based on four-wave mixing on a silicon chip,” Opt. Lett. 33(10), 1047–1049 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. This has been shown previously to enable optical waveform magnification, compression, and Fourier transformation [32

32. M. A. Foster, R. Salem, D. F. Geraghty, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Silicon-chip-based ultrafast optical oscilloscope,” Nature 456(7218), 81–84 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

36

36. D. H. Broaddus, M. A. Foster, O. Kuzucu, A. C. Turner-Foster, K. W. Koch, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Temporal-imaging system with simple external-clock triggering,” Opt. Express 18(13), 14262–14269 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The temporal Fourier processor performs the Fourier transform of the optical waveform over the temporal aperture of the chirped pump pulse used for FWM. This process converts the temporal features of the input waveform to the spectrum of the output waveform and the spectral features of the input waveform to the temporal waveform of the output as depicted in Fig. 1. Experimental realizations of this functionality originally focused on enabling measurement of ultrahigh-speed optical waveforms by converting the task into a relatively simple spectral measurement at the output of the system [30

30. M. T. Kauffman, W. C. Banyai, A. A. Godil, and D. M. Bloom, “Time-to-frequency converter for measuring picosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(3), 270–272 (1994). [CrossRef]

,32

32. M. A. Foster, R. Salem, D. F. Geraghty, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Silicon-chip-based ultrafast optical oscilloscope,” Nature 456(7218), 81–84 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Recent research has extended the applications of the process to the conversion of multiple channels of an OTDM signal to parallel wavelengths channels and thereby conversion of OTDM to a WDM signaling scheme [24

24. K. G. Petrillo and M. A. Foster, “Scalable ultrahigh-speed optical transmultiplexer using a time lens,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14051–14059 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27

27. E. Palushani, T. Richter, R. Ludwig, C. Schubert, H. C. H. Mulvad, A. Clausen, and L. Oxenløwe, “OTDM-to-WDM conversion of complex modulation formats by time-domain optical Fourier transformation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OTh3H.2.

]. Importantly, the temporal and spectral spans at the output of the system can be controlled through the choice of the time-lens focal length (i.e. the dispersive lengths) and for OTDM to WDM conversion allows the WDM signal to be generated with a spectrally efficient industry standard channel spacing.

3. Principal challenges for continuous operation

Crosstalk from adjacent channels

Channels that overlap with the temporal edge of the pump pulse will experience lower conversion efficiency and reduced spectral compression since the pump pulse intensity declines in this region. This causes increased crosstalk amongst adjacent channels and therefore leads to an increased power penalty for channels at the edge of the generated WDM spectrum. Increasing the overlap of adjacent pump pulses reduces the impact of this impairment.

Additionally, the performance of the temporal Fourier processor relies on achieving pure group-velocity dispersion in the dispersive paths. Third-order dispersion will cause aberrations in the time lens leading to reduced spectral compression and therefore increased crosstalk from adjacent channels at impacted regions of the WDM spectrum. To mitigate this impairment we use matched optical fibers with opposing third-order dispersion in the dispersive paths.

Crosstalk from non-degenerate FWM

Figure 2(b) illustrates the origin of crosstalk due to non-degenerate FWM. Since the pump pulses temporally overlap, the overlapping regions can act as unique non-degenerate pumps in the FWM stage. As depicted in Fig. 2(b), due to energy conservation, these two separate pumps mixing with the OTDM signal will reproduce channel 1 onto channel 3′s output frequency, for example. In general, the non-degenerate FWM processes cause crosstalk from channels at the edge of the WDM spectrum onto channels at the center of the WDM spectrum [24

24. K. G. Petrillo and M. A. Foster, “Scalable ultrahigh-speed optical transmultiplexer using a time lens,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14051–14059 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Interestingly, as shown in Fig. 2(b), this crosstalk appears between the bit slots of the impacted channels. Decreasing the overlap of adjacent pump pulses reduces the impact of this impairment.

Crosstalk balance

Ancillary nonlinear effects

Partially-degenerate FWM amongst the temporally overlapping regions of the pump pulse will convert pump energy to wavelengths immediately surrounding the pump spectrum. Additionally, self-phase modulation (SPM) and cross-phase modulation (XPM) will cause aberrations in the time-lens performance as well as spectral broadening of the pump source during the interaction. To mitigate these impairments, the pump power is kept sufficiently low and a spectral guard band between the pump laser and the generated WDM spectrum is utilized.

4. Experimental setup

The experimental setup to demonstrate full 160-Gb/s OTDM to 16x10-Gb/s WDM conversion is shown in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimental setup showing the generation of the OTDM test source as well as the temporal Fourier processor. BPF and TBPF represent optical bandpass filter and tunable optical bandpass filter, respectively. For BPFs, the optical wavelength range passed through the filter are indicated under the block as 1529nm→1538nm and 1554nm→1563nm. WDM stands for wavelength division multiplexer, APD is an avalanche photodiode, BERT is a bit error rate tester, EOM is an electrooptic modulator, MZI is a highly asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer, and D3 and D38 represent optical fiber with dispersion parameters of 3 ps/nm-km (Vascade LS + ) and 38 ps/nm-km (Vascade S2000) respectively. The autocorrelation trace of the 160-Gb/s OTDM test source is shown as an inset above the OTDM test source stage.
. An 80/20 coupler splits the output of a 10-GHz harmonically mode locked erbium fiber laser tuned to 1560 nm to generate both the OTDM data source and the FWM time-lens pump source. The OTDM signal and the FWM pump are generated at unique wavelengths through subsequent spectral broadening and filtering in each arm as follows.

OTDM signal

The 20% output of the coupler seeds the OTDM signal pulses. In this path, the 1560-nm laser spectrum is broadened through SPM in 620-m of highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF) and is spectrally filtered to create the test signal at 1536 nm. The HNLF used in this experiment (OFS HNLF Zero-Slope) has a nonlinear coefficient of 11 W−1km−1, zero dispersion-slope, and zero-dispersion at 1550 nm. This signal is filtered to a bandwidth of 2.25 nm to create transform limited pulses of 2.1 ps and therefore a 33% fill factor when the signal is later multiplexed to a 160-Gb/s return to zero format. A lithium niobate electro-optic amplitude modulator encodes the test signal with a 231-1 pseudorandom bit sequence (PRBS) generated by the bit error rate tester (BERT). Four stages of highly asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZI) with delays set to maintain a PRBS length of 29-1 and with amplifiers before the MZI stages and after the second MZI stage, multiplex the PRBS test signal to 160 Gb/s. Prior to the dispersive components of the time lens, the signal is compressed in single mode fiber (SMF-28) to the transform limit. An autocorrelation trace of this test signal is shown as an inset of Fig. 4 above the FWM stage. Two stages of dispersion fiber (165-m of Corning Vascade LS + and 415-m of Vascade S2000) provide the proper dispersion for the optical Fourier transform (OFT). These fibers possess opposing third-order dispersion and the combination of lengths is chosen to eliminate third-order dispersion from this dispersive path while achieving the proper amount of group-velocity dispersion. The 160-Gb/s test signal is then amplified to have a power of about 175 mW in the FWM stage and combined with the control pump in a wavelength division multiplexer (WDM).

Time lens pump source

The 80% output of the 80/20 coupler is used to generate the pump source for the FWM time lens. The laser pulses are spectrally broadened through SPM in 190-m of the Vascade LS + to create a spectrally flat pump source. An approximately 10-nm spectral range centered at 1560 nm is filtered with a tunable bandpass filter to create pump pulses with sufficient bandwidth for the OFT. Two stages of the dispersive fiber (310-m of Corning Vascade LS + and 1086-m of Vascade S2000) provide proper pump dispersion to create the OFT while eliminating third-order dispersion from the path. A tunable delay is used to align the pump pulses with the OTDM data and an erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) boosts the dispersed pump prior to combining with the test signal in a WDM which yields 800 mW of optical pump power in the FWM stage.

Time lens FWM stage and detection

The FWM stage of the OFT is performed using 30-m of HNLF which is placed after the wavelength division multiplexer. An L-band filter separates the converted WDM signal (spanning from 1577 nm to 1590 nm) from the test source and control pump pulse before the signal is amplified using an L-band EDFA. Finally, each individual WDM channel is isolated with a tunable bandpass filter and detected on an avalanche photodiode (APD) and BERT. The received power is measured immediately prior to the APD for BER characterization.

5. Experimental results

Figure 5(a)
Fig. 5 (a) The full experimental spectrum after the FWM stage. (b) The idler spectrum after L-band amplifier for all 16 channels (red solid line), with half of the channels blocked (black dashed line), and the filtered spectrum for channel 16 prior to detection (purple dotted line). The resolution bandwidth of (a) and (b) is 0.01 nm with (a) 0.2 nm and (b) 0.08 nm between data points.
shows the full spectrum exiting the FWM stage of the system. The 160-Gb/s OTDM test signal is centered at 1536 nm and spans 2.25 nm at full width half maximum (FWHM). This test signal undergoes FWM with the pump, which is centered at 1560 nm, spans 4 nm at 3-dB bandwidth, and 8 nm at 10-dB bandwidth. After dispersion, the 3-dB bandwidth stretches to 60% of the pump period and the 10-dB bandwidth stretches to 120% of the pump period. The temporal overlap of the pump pulses causes partially-degenerate FWM amongst the pump pulses and generates the spectral features at 1550 nm and 1570 nm. After FWM with the pump, the OTDM signal is converted to a WDM signal as observed in the 16 idlers toward the long wavelength side of the spectrum. The 16 idlers have a spacing of 108 GHz, a span from 1577 nm to 1590 nm and a 7.5-dB variation in amplitude among the channels. The majority of this variation is attributed to the flatness of the pump pulse’s spectrum which can be improved through more sophisticated spectral shaping [25

25. H. C. H. Mulvad, E. Palushani, H. Hu, H. Ji, M. Lillieholm, M. Galili, A. T. Clausen, M. Pu, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, P. Jeppesen, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “Ultra-high-speed optical serial-to-parallel data conversion by time-domain optical Fourier transformation in a silicon nanowire,” Opt. Express 19(26), B825–B835 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27

27. E. Palushani, T. Richter, R. Ludwig, C. Schubert, H. C. H. Mulvad, A. Clausen, and L. Oxenløwe, “OTDM-to-WDM conversion of complex modulation formats by time-domain optical Fourier transformation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OTh3H.2.

]. Figure 5(b) shows an expanded view of the generated WDM spectrum after passing through the L-band amplifier (red solid line). The purple dotted line shows the filtered spectrum when detecting channel 16. Similar bandwidth was used to detect each channel.

To illustrate the effect of non-degenerate FWM from the OTDM signal and the temporally overlapping pump regions we block half of the OTDM channels (channels 5 through 12) by disconnecting the delay line in the first MZI stage. The black dashed line in Fig. 5(b) shows the idler spectrum in this configuration. As is shown, four erroneous channels appear in the center of the generated WDM spectrum due to the non-degenerate FWM processes.

As shown in Fig. 7, we are able to achieve error-free performance (BER < 10−9) for all of the generated WDM channels. Full demultiplexing of all 16 channels is acquired with power penalties between 1.5 dB and 12 dB at a BER of 10−9 (Fig. 7). The BER curves that correspond to the eye diagrams in Fig. 6 as well as the back to back (B2B) curve are indicated in the legend. The B2B curve is taken by bypassing the MZI stages and feeding the 10-Gb/s data signal directly to the detector. The rest of the WDM channels are shown as red solid lines. An expanded view of the idler spectrum with the corresponding channel numbers is shown in Fig. 7(b). The received power necessary to achieve a BER of 10−9 and the resulting power penalty relative to a back-to-back measurement for each channel are shown in Fig. 7(d). Note that the channels with higher power penalties appear both towards the edge and near the center of the WDM spectrum and are impacted by adjacent channel crosstalk (edges) and crosstalk due to non-degenerate FWM (center). The poorest performing channels are the center channels such as 9 and 7 and less focused edge channels such as 15 and 14. While there is a large spread in power penalties for BER < 10−9 performance, the BER curves do not significantly diverge until BER < 10−6. Therefore, for systems with a more relaxed bit error rate requirement, such as those with error-correction, all of the power penalties are within 3 dB of the B2B at a BER of 10−6, as shown in Fig. 7(c).

6. Discussion

Thermal drift causes a slow wavelength shift in the idlers and was observed during operation. This was manually corrected using the tunable delay on the pump arm and will require a feedback circuit in a deployed system. Rapid fluctuations such as timing jitter due to clock recovery will lead to frequency jitter in the generated WDM channels and thereby increases the impact of crosstalk as depicted in Fig. 3. For minimal impact on the performance the RMS timing jitter between the pump laser and the OTDM signal should be maintained below approximately 2 ps.

The pump spectral shape for the simulations shown in Fig. 3 is 16th-order super-Gaussian. When the pump flatness is reduced and the spectral cutoff is more gradual (e.g. as seen in this experiment), our simulations indicate that the adjacent channel crosstalk is reduced while the FWM crosstalk is increased. This causes the optimal 3-dB pump pulse bandwidth to decrease and thereby decreases the signal power in the edge channels. As a result, the signal-to-noise ratio of the edge channels suffers yielding poorer BER performance. For this reason, we expect a flatter and sharper pump pulse shape, which can be achieved with more sophisticated pulse shaping techniques [25

25. H. C. H. Mulvad, E. Palushani, H. Hu, H. Ji, M. Lillieholm, M. Galili, A. T. Clausen, M. Pu, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, P. Jeppesen, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “Ultra-high-speed optical serial-to-parallel data conversion by time-domain optical Fourier transformation in a silicon nanowire,” Opt. Express 19(26), B825–B835 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], to improve the power penalty difference among the channels in future systems.

The spectral components found at 1550 nm and 1570 nm from partially-degenerate FWM of temporally overlapping pump pulses necessitate the use of a spectral guard band between the pump laser and the generated WDM spectrum. This increases the bandwidth usage of the device relative to a system that switches only a subset of the OTDM channels and therefore does not have temporal overlap of the pump pulses. Despite this increase in bandwidth, the system presented here is still more efficient in its use of bandwidth (~6.9 THz) than other methods based on multicasting which we estimate to require over 15 THz for a 160-Gb/s OTDM to 16x10-Gb/s WDM system based on our OTDM fill factor of 33%. The spectral features found at 1530 nm and 1543 nm arise from SPM and cross-phase modulation on the signal pulses in the FWM stage. Since they are well separated from the pump and generated WDM idlers, no increase in bandwidth usage is necessary to accommodate these features.

Although limited to 10 Gb/s here due to the available BERT, full demultiplexing can be carried out in a similar manner with 40-Gb/s WDM channels. In our simulations, we find little change in the crosstalk characteristics when the entire OTDM stream is demultiplexed to 4x40 Gb/s with a 400-GHz WDM spacing. However, if the channel spacing relative to the channel bandwidth is modified (e.g. 40-Gb/s WDM channels with 100-GHz spacing) we find an increase in the adjacent channel crosstalk leading to reduced overall system performance.

7. Conclusion

We experimentally demonstrate full simultaneous error-free (BER < 10−9) demultiplexing of all channels of a 160-Gb/s OTDM data stream to 16x10-Gb/s WDM channels for the first time using a single OFT device. Unlike other approaches to full OTDM demultiplexing with a single device, the WDM channels are generated with a spectrally efficient 108-GHz spacing in the telecommunications L-band. The primary impairments to system performance are found to be adjacent channel crosstalk and crosstalk from non-degenerate FWM with the temporally overlapping regions of the pump pulses. These impairments primarily impact the edge channels and center channels, respectively. These two sources of crosstalk must be balanced though choice of the pump spectral width to maximize the overall performance of the device, which leads to error-free operation of all channels with a “W”-shaped power penalty versus channel number. This demonstration shows that OTDM signals can be demultiplexed in both a resource efficient (e.g. power, size, cost) and spectrally efficient manner and facilitates the incorporation of OTDM into future resource efficient ultrahigh-bandwidth optical communications architectures. Furthermore, this approach is compatible with any FWM device and we anticipate further advances in resource efficiency can be made through the use of power efficient and compact integrated nonlinear elements [9

9. M. Galili, J. Xu, H. C. Mulvad, L. K. Oxenløwe, A. T. Clausen, P. Jeppesen, B. Luther-Davis, S. Madden, A. Rode, D.-Y. Choi, M. Pelusi, F. Luan, and B. J. Eggleton, “Breakthrough switching speed with an all-optical chalcogenide glass chip: 640 Gbit/s demultiplexing,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2182–2187 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13

13. K.-Y. Wang, K. G. Petrillo, M. A. Foster, and A. C. Foster, “Ultralow-power all-optical processing of high-speed data signals in deposited silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24600–24606 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,25

25. H. C. H. Mulvad, E. Palushani, H. Hu, H. Ji, M. Lillieholm, M. Galili, A. T. Clausen, M. Pu, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, P. Jeppesen, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “Ultra-high-speed optical serial-to-parallel data conversion by time-domain optical Fourier transformation in a silicon nanowire,” Opt. Express 19(26), B825–B835 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the DARPA Young Faculty Award program under award number N66001-11-1-4153.

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M. D. Pelusi, V. G. Ta’eed, M. R. E. Lamont, S. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Ultra-high nonlinear As2 S3 planar waveguide for 160-Gb/s optical time-division demultiplexing by four-wave mixing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(19), 1496–1498 (2007). [CrossRef]

9.

M. Galili, J. Xu, H. C. Mulvad, L. K. Oxenløwe, A. T. Clausen, P. Jeppesen, B. Luther-Davis, S. Madden, A. Rode, D.-Y. Choi, M. Pelusi, F. Luan, and B. J. Eggleton, “Breakthrough switching speed with an all-optical chalcogenide glass chip: 640 Gbit/s demultiplexing,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2182–2187 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

F. Li, M. Pelusi, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, and D. J. Moss, “Error-free all-optical demultiplexing at 160Gb/s via FWM in a silicon nanowire,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3905–3910 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

T. D. Vo, H. Hu, M. Galili, E. Palushani, J. Xu, L. K. Oxenløwe, S. J. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, D. A. P. Bulla, M. D. Pelusi, J. Schröder, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic chip based transmitter optimization and receiver demultiplexing of a 1.28 Tbit/s OTDM signal,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17252–17261 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

H. Ji, M. Pu, H. Hu, M. Galili, L. K. Oxenløwe, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, and P. Jeppesen, “Optical waveform sampling and error-free demultiplexing of 1.28 Tb/s serial data in a nanoengineered silicon waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(4), 426–431 (2011). [CrossRef]

13.

K.-Y. Wang, K. G. Petrillo, M. A. Foster, and A. C. Foster, “Ultralow-power all-optical processing of high-speed data signals in deposited silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24600–24606 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

M. Wang, J. Wu, J. Li, K. Xu, X. Hong, and J. Lin, “All-optical serial-to-parallel converter for simultaneous multiple-channel OTDM demultiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 45(9), 474–475 (2009). [CrossRef]

15.

M. A. Summerfield, J. P. R. Lacey, A. J. Lowery, and R. S. Tucker, “All-optical TDM to WDM conversion in a semiconductor optical amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 30(3), 255–256 (1994). [CrossRef]

16.

M. L. Dennis, W. I. Kaechele, W. K. Burns, T. F. Carruthers, and I. N. Duling, “Photonic serial-parallel conversion of high-speed OTDM data,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(11), 1561–1563 (2000). [CrossRef]

17.

C. S. Brès, A. O. J. Wiberg, B. P. Kuo, J. M. Chavez-Boggio, C. F. Marki, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Optical demultiplexing of 320 Gb/s to 8 x 40 Gb/s in single parametric gate,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 434–442 (2010). [CrossRef]

18.

M. V. Drummond, A. L. J. Teixeira, P. P. Monteiro, and R. N. Nogueira, “Flexible OTDM to WDM converter enabled by a programmable optical processor,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1783–1789 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

H. N. Tan, Q. Nguyen-The, M. Matsuura, and N. Kishi, “Reconfigurable all-optical OTDM-to-WDM conversion using a multiwavelength ultrashort pulse source based on Raman compression,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(6), 853–863 (2012). [CrossRef]

20.

T. Morioka, S. Kawanishi, H. Takara, and M. Saruwatari, “Multiple-output, 100 Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexer based on multichannel four-wave mixing pumped by a linearly-chirped square pulse,” Electron. Lett. 30(23), 1959–1960 (1994). [CrossRef]

21.

K. Uchiyama, H. Takara, T. Morioka, S. Kawanishi, and M. Saruwatari, “100Gbit/s multiple-channel output all-optical demultiplexing based on TDM-WDM conversion in a nonlinear optical loop mirror,” Electron. Lett. 32(21), 1989–1990 (1996). [CrossRef]

22.

K. Uchiyama, S. Kawanishi, and M. Saruwatari, “100-Gb/s multiple-channel output all-optical OTDM demultiplexing using multichannel four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(6), 890–892 (1998). [CrossRef]

23.

K. Uchiyama, S. Kawanishi, and M. Saruwatari, “Multiple-channel output all-optical OTDM demultiplexer using XPM-induced chirp compensation (MOXIC),” Electron. Lett. 34(6), 575–576 (1998). [CrossRef]

24.

K. G. Petrillo and M. A. Foster, “Scalable ultrahigh-speed optical transmultiplexer using a time lens,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14051–14059 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

H. C. H. Mulvad, E. Palushani, H. Hu, H. Ji, M. Lillieholm, M. Galili, A. T. Clausen, M. Pu, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, P. Jeppesen, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “Ultra-high-speed optical serial-to-parallel data conversion by time-domain optical Fourier transformation in a silicon nanowire,” Opt. Express 19(26), B825–B835 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

E. Palushani, H. C. H. Mulvad, M. Galili, H. Hu, L. K. Oxenlowe, A. T. Clausen, and P. Jeppesen, “OTDM-to-WDM conversion based on time-to-frequency mapping by time-domain optical Fourier transform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 681–688 (2012). [CrossRef]

27.

E. Palushani, T. Richter, R. Ludwig, C. Schubert, H. C. H. Mulvad, A. Clausen, and L. Oxenløwe, “OTDM-to-WDM conversion of complex modulation formats by time-domain optical Fourier transformation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OTh3H.2.

28.

B. H. Kolner, “Space-time duality and the theory of temporal imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 30(8), 1951–1963 (1994). [CrossRef]

29.

C. V. Bennet, R. P. Scott, and B. H. Kolner, “Temporal magnification and reversal of 100 Gb/s optical data with an up-conversion time microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(20), 2513–2515 (1994). [CrossRef]

30.

M. T. Kauffman, W. C. Banyai, A. A. Godil, and D. M. Bloom, “Time-to-frequency converter for measuring picosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(3), 270–272 (1994). [CrossRef]

31.

J. Azaña, “Time-to-frequency conversion using a single time lens,” Opt. Commun. 217(1-6), 205–209 (2003). [CrossRef]

32.

M. A. Foster, R. Salem, D. F. Geraghty, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Silicon-chip-based ultrafast optical oscilloscope,” Nature 456(7218), 81–84 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

33.

M. A. Foster, R. Salem, Y. Okawachi, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Ultrafast waveform compression using a time-domain telescope,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 581–585 (2009). [CrossRef]

34.

J. Schröder, F. Wang, A. Clarke, E. Ryckeboer, M. Pelusi, M. A. F. Roelens, and B. J. Eggleton, “Aberration-free ultra-fast optical oscilloscope using a four-wave mixing based time-lens,” Opt. Commun. 283(12), 2611–2614 (2010). [CrossRef]

35.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “High-speed optical sampling using a silicon-chip temporal magnifier,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4324–4329 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

36.

D. H. Broaddus, M. A. Foster, O. Kuzucu, A. C. Turner-Foster, K. W. Koch, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Temporal-imaging system with simple external-clock triggering,” Opt. Express 18(13), 14262–14269 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

37.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Optical time lens based on four-wave mixing on a silicon chip,” Opt. Lett. 33(10), 1047–1049 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(060.2360) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics links and subsystems
(060.7140) Fiber optics and optical communications : Ultrafast processes in fibers

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: October 22, 2012
Revised Manuscript: December 13, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: December 21, 2012
Published: January 7, 2013

Citation
Keith G. Petrillo and Mark A. Foster, "Full 160-Gb/s OTDM to 16x10-Gb/s WDM conversion with a single nonlinear interaction," Opt. Express 21, 508-518 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-1-508


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References

  1. G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-optic Communication Systems (John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2002).
  2. H. G. Weber, R. Ludwig, S. Ferber, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, M. Kroh, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, and C. Shubert, “Ultrahigh-speed OTDM-transmission technology,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(12), 4616–4627 (2006). [CrossRef]
  3. A. A. M. Saleh and J. M. Simmons, “Evolution toward the next-generation core optical network,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(9), 3303–3321 (2006). [CrossRef]
  4. M. Nakazawa, T. Yamamoto, and K. R. Tamura, “1.28 Tbit/s-70 km OTDM transmission using third- and fourth-order simultaneous dispersion compensation with a phase modulator,” Electron. Lett.36(24), 2027–2029 (2000). [CrossRef]
  5. T. Richter, E. Palushani, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, L. Molle, M. Nölle, and C. Schubert, “Transmission of single-channel 16-QAM data signals at terabaud symbol rates,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(4), 504–511 (2012). [CrossRef]
  6. H. C. Hansen Mulvad, L. K. Oxenløwe, M. Galili, A. T. Clausen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and P. Jeppesen, “1.28 Tbit/s single-polarisation serial OOK optical data generation, and demultiplexing,” Electron. Lett.45(5), 280–281 (2009). [CrossRef]
  7. H. C. Hansen Mulvad, M. Galili, L. K. Oxenløwe, H. Hu, A. T. Clausen, J. B. Jensen, C. Peucheret, and P. Jeppesen, “Demonstration of 5.1 Tbit/s data capacity on a single-wavelength channel,” Opt. Express18(2), 1438–1443 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. D. Pelusi, V. G. Ta’eed, M. R. E. Lamont, S. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Ultra-high nonlinear As2 S3 planar waveguide for 160-Gb/s optical time-division demultiplexing by four-wave mixing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(19), 1496–1498 (2007). [CrossRef]
  9. M. Galili, J. Xu, H. C. Mulvad, L. K. Oxenløwe, A. T. Clausen, P. Jeppesen, B. Luther-Davis, S. Madden, A. Rode, D.-Y. Choi, M. Pelusi, F. Luan, and B. J. Eggleton, “Breakthrough switching speed with an all-optical chalcogenide glass chip: 640 Gbit/s demultiplexing,” Opt. Express17(4), 2182–2187 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. F. Li, M. Pelusi, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, and D. J. Moss, “Error-free all-optical demultiplexing at 160Gb/s via FWM in a silicon nanowire,” Opt. Express18(4), 3905–3910 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. D. Vo, H. Hu, M. Galili, E. Palushani, J. Xu, L. K. Oxenløwe, S. J. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, D. A. P. Bulla, M. D. Pelusi, J. Schröder, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic chip based transmitter optimization and receiver demultiplexing of a 1.28 Tbit/s OTDM signal,” Opt. Express18(16), 17252–17261 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. H. Ji, M. Pu, H. Hu, M. Galili, L. K. Oxenløwe, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, and P. Jeppesen, “Optical waveform sampling and error-free demultiplexing of 1.28 Tb/s serial data in a nanoengineered silicon waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol.29(4), 426–431 (2011). [CrossRef]
  13. K.-Y. Wang, K. G. Petrillo, M. A. Foster, and A. C. Foster, “Ultralow-power all-optical processing of high-speed data signals in deposited silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express20(22), 24600–24606 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Wang, J. Wu, J. Li, K. Xu, X. Hong, and J. Lin, “All-optical serial-to-parallel converter for simultaneous multiple-channel OTDM demultiplexing,” Electron. Lett.45(9), 474–475 (2009). [CrossRef]
  15. M. A. Summerfield, J. P. R. Lacey, A. J. Lowery, and R. S. Tucker, “All-optical TDM to WDM conversion in a semiconductor optical amplifier,” Electron. Lett.30(3), 255–256 (1994). [CrossRef]
  16. M. L. Dennis, W. I. Kaechele, W. K. Burns, T. F. Carruthers, and I. N. Duling, “Photonic serial-parallel conversion of high-speed OTDM data,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.12(11), 1561–1563 (2000). [CrossRef]
  17. C. S. Brès, A. O. J. Wiberg, B. P. Kuo, J. M. Chavez-Boggio, C. F. Marki, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Optical demultiplexing of 320 Gb/s to 8 x 40 Gb/s in single parametric gate,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(4), 434–442 (2010). [CrossRef]
  18. M. V. Drummond, A. L. J. Teixeira, P. P. Monteiro, and R. N. Nogueira, “Flexible OTDM to WDM converter enabled by a programmable optical processor,” Opt. Express20(2), 1783–1789 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. H. N. Tan, Q. Nguyen-The, M. Matsuura, and N. Kishi, “Reconfigurable all-optical OTDM-to-WDM conversion using a multiwavelength ultrashort pulse source based on Raman compression,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(6), 853–863 (2012). [CrossRef]
  20. T. Morioka, S. Kawanishi, H. Takara, and M. Saruwatari, “Multiple-output, 100 Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexer based on multichannel four-wave mixing pumped by a linearly-chirped square pulse,” Electron. Lett.30(23), 1959–1960 (1994). [CrossRef]
  21. K. Uchiyama, H. Takara, T. Morioka, S. Kawanishi, and M. Saruwatari, “100Gbit/s multiple-channel output all-optical demultiplexing based on TDM-WDM conversion in a nonlinear optical loop mirror,” Electron. Lett.32(21), 1989–1990 (1996). [CrossRef]
  22. K. Uchiyama, S. Kawanishi, and M. Saruwatari, “100-Gb/s multiple-channel output all-optical OTDM demultiplexing using multichannel four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.10(6), 890–892 (1998). [CrossRef]
  23. K. Uchiyama, S. Kawanishi, and M. Saruwatari, “Multiple-channel output all-optical OTDM demultiplexer using XPM-induced chirp compensation (MOXIC),” Electron. Lett.34(6), 575–576 (1998). [CrossRef]
  24. K. G. Petrillo and M. A. Foster, “Scalable ultrahigh-speed optical transmultiplexer using a time lens,” Opt. Express19(15), 14051–14059 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. H. C. H. Mulvad, E. Palushani, H. Hu, H. Ji, M. Lillieholm, M. Galili, A. T. Clausen, M. Pu, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, P. Jeppesen, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “Ultra-high-speed optical serial-to-parallel data conversion by time-domain optical Fourier transformation in a silicon nanowire,” Opt. Express19(26), B825–B835 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. E. Palushani, H. C. H. Mulvad, M. Galili, H. Hu, L. K. Oxenlowe, A. T. Clausen, and P. Jeppesen, “OTDM-to-WDM conversion based on time-to-frequency mapping by time-domain optical Fourier transform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(2), 681–688 (2012). [CrossRef]
  27. E. Palushani, T. Richter, R. Ludwig, C. Schubert, H. C. H. Mulvad, A. Clausen, and L. Oxenløwe, “OTDM-to-WDM conversion of complex modulation formats by time-domain optical Fourier transformation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OTh3H.2.
  28. B. H. Kolner, “Space-time duality and the theory of temporal imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.30(8), 1951–1963 (1994). [CrossRef]
  29. C. V. Bennet, R. P. Scott, and B. H. Kolner, “Temporal magnification and reversal of 100 Gb/s optical data with an up-conversion time microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett.65(20), 2513–2515 (1994). [CrossRef]
  30. M. T. Kauffman, W. C. Banyai, A. A. Godil, and D. M. Bloom, “Time-to-frequency converter for measuring picosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(3), 270–272 (1994). [CrossRef]
  31. J. Azaña, “Time-to-frequency conversion using a single time lens,” Opt. Commun.217(1-6), 205–209 (2003). [CrossRef]
  32. M. A. Foster, R. Salem, D. F. Geraghty, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Silicon-chip-based ultrafast optical oscilloscope,” Nature456(7218), 81–84 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. M. A. Foster, R. Salem, Y. Okawachi, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Ultrafast waveform compression using a time-domain telescope,” Nat. Photonics3(10), 581–585 (2009). [CrossRef]
  34. J. Schröder, F. Wang, A. Clarke, E. Ryckeboer, M. Pelusi, M. A. F. Roelens, and B. J. Eggleton, “Aberration-free ultra-fast optical oscilloscope using a four-wave mixing based time-lens,” Opt. Commun.283(12), 2611–2614 (2010). [CrossRef]
  35. R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “High-speed optical sampling using a silicon-chip temporal magnifier,” Opt. Express17(6), 4324–4329 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. D. H. Broaddus, M. A. Foster, O. Kuzucu, A. C. Turner-Foster, K. W. Koch, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Temporal-imaging system with simple external-clock triggering,” Opt. Express18(13), 14262–14269 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Optical time lens based on four-wave mixing on a silicon chip,” Opt. Lett.33(10), 1047–1049 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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