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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 1 — Jan. 14, 2013
  • pp: 618–625
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Fabrication of three-dimensional plasmonic cavity by femtosecond laser-induced forward transfer

Wei Ting Chen, Ming Lun Tseng, Chun Yen Liao, Pin Chieh Wu, Shulin Sun, Yao-Wei Huang, Chia Min Chang, Chung Hao Lu, Lei Zhou, Ding-Wei Huang, Ai Qun Liu, and Din Ping Tsai  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 1, pp. 618-625 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.000618


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Abstract

We fabricated a three-dimensional five-layered plasmonic resonant cavity by low-cost, efficient and high-throughput femtosecond laser-induced forward transfer (fs-LIFT) technique. The fabricated cavity was characterized by optical measurements, showing two different cavity modes within the measured wavelength region which is in good agreement with numerical simulations. The mode volume corresponding to each resonance is found to be squeezed over 104 smaller than the cube of incident wavelength. This property may facilitate many applications in integrated optics, optical nonlinearities, and luminescence enhancement, etc.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

Optical cavity has found many applications in integrated photonics [1

1. Y. Akahane, M. Mochizuki, T. Asano, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, “Design of a channel drop filter by using a donor-type cavity with high-quality factor in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1341–1343 (2003). [CrossRef]

, 2

2. T. Gu, S. Kocaman, X. Yang, J. F. McMillan, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “Deterministic integrated tuning of multi-cavity resonances and phase for slow-light in coupled photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 121103 (2011). [CrossRef]

], micro/nano-laser [3

3. M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7

7. H. Saito, K. Nishi, I. Ogura, S. Sugou, and Y. Sugimoto, “Room-temperature lasing operation of a quantum-dot vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(21), 3140–3142 (1996). [CrossRef]

], luminescence enhancement [8

8. E. F. Schubert, A. M. Vredenberg, N. E. J. Hunt, Y. H. Wong, P. C. Becker, J. M. Poate, D. C. Jacobson, L. C. Feldman, and G. J. Zydzik, “Giant enhancement of luminescence intensity in Er-doped Si/SiO2 resonant cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(12), 1381–1383 (1992). [CrossRef]

10

10. J. S. Xia, Y. Ikegami, Y. Shiraki, N. Usami, and Y. Nakata, “Strong resonant luminescence from Ge quantum dots in photonic crystal microcavity at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201102 (2006). [CrossRef]

] and nonlinear optics [11

11. V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Nonlinear optics and crystalline whispering gallery mode cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(4), 043903 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 12

12. M. Soljacić and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Enhancement of nonlinear effects using photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater. 3(4), 211–219 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. To achieve high performances on above-mentioned applications, an optical cavity with a high Purcell factor Q/Vm is desired, where Q and Vm denotes the quality factor and mode volume. Dielectric optical cavities, such as microdisks [13

13. D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421(6926), 925–928 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], metal cladding [14

14. M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007). [CrossRef]

16

16. K. Yu, A. Lakhani, and M. C. Wu, “Subwavelength metal-optic semiconductor nanopatch lasers,” Opt. Express 18(9), 8790–8799 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and photonic crystals [17

17. S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths,” Science 289(5479), 604–606 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 18

18. Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425(6961), 944–947 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], typically show high quality factors (usually > 103), but, the mode volumes in these systems are limited by the diffraction limit. Moreover, dielectric cavities are too big to be integrated with electronic devices [19

19. K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424(6950), 839–846 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In contrast, plasmonic cavities can squeeze light in volumes significantly smaller than the diffraction limit, so that they have drawn lots of attention recently [20

20. R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 21

21. S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. To fabricate multilayer and/or three-dimensional plasmonic nanostructures, the focused ion beam (FIB) and electron beam lithography (EBL) technique are frequently adopted [22

22. R. Ameling and H. Giessen, “Microcavity plasmonics: strong coupling of photonic cavities and plasmons,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1–29 (2012) /DOI . [CrossRef]

25

25. P. C. Wu, W. T. Chen, K.-Y. Yang, C. T. Hsiao, G. Sun, A. Q. Liu, N. I. Zheludev, and D. P. Tsai, “Magnetic plasmon induced transparency in three-dimensional metamolecules,” Nanophoton. 1, 131–138 (2012).

]. However, using above-mentioned technique, the alignment error is difficult to overcome [23

23. S. Larouche, Y.-J. Tsai, T. Tyler, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Infrared metamaterial phase holograms,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 450–454 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and the processing time is proportional to the number of layers in the structure. These drawbacks make the applications of EBL and FIB technique to multilayer metamaterials less attractive for industrial in-line mass production. In contrast, laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) as a kind of laser-direct writing technique [26

26. S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional microfabrication of materials by femtosecond lasers for photonics applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(5), 051101 (2009). [CrossRef]

31

31. C. H. Chu, C. D. Shiue, H. W. Cheng, M. L. Tseng, H.-P. Chiang, M. Mansuripur, and D. P. Tsai, “Laser-induced phase transitions of Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films used in optical and electronic data storage and in thermal lithography,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18383–18393 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] is very useful in fabricating photonic devices because of its low costing and simple experimental setup [32

32. A. I. Kuznetsov, R. Kiyan, and B. N. Chichkov, “Laser fabrication of 2D and 3D metal nanoparticle structures and arrays,” Opt. Express 18(20), 21198–21203 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

35

35. M. L. Tseng, P. C. Wu, S. Sun, C. M. Chang, W. T. Chen, C. H. Chu, P.-L. Chen, L. Zhou, D.-W. Huang, T.-J. Yen, and D. P. Tsai, “Fabrication of multilayer metamaterials by femtosecond laser-induced forward-transfer technique,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6(5), 702–707 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. Under focused laser illumination, the local material on the precoated substrate (so called donor) can be transferred to the opposite substrate (so called receiver). LIFT technique is very versatile, the processed materials can be not only solid materials [33

33. K. S. Kaur, A. Z. Subramanian, Y. J. Ying, D. P. Banks, M. Feinaeugle, P. Horak, V. Apostolopoulos, C. L. Sones, S. Mailis, and R. W. Eason, “Waveguide mode filters fabricated using laser-induced forward transfer,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9814–9819 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

38

38. M. Feinaeugle, A. P. Alloncle, P. Delaporte, C. L. Sones, and R. W. Eason, “Time-resolved shadowgraph imaging of femtosecond laser-induced forward transfer of solid materials,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 258(22), 8475–8483 (2012). [CrossRef]

] but also liquid [39

39. C. B. Arnold, P. Serra, and A. Pique, “Laser direct-write techniques for printing of complex materials,” MRS Bull. 32(01), 23–32 (2007). [CrossRef]

], bio-materials [40

40. M. Colina, P. Serra, J. M. Fernández-Pradas, L. Sevilla, and J. L. Morenza, “DNA deposition through laser induced forward transfer,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(8), 1638–1642 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and powders [41

41. J. Xu, J. Liu, D. H. Cui, M. Gerhold, A. Y. Wang, M. Nagel, and T. K. Lippert, “Laser-assisted forward transfer of multi-spectral nanocrystal quantum dot emitters,” Nanotechnology 18(2), 025403 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. In particular, we recently demonstrated that, with tightly contacted donor-receiver pair, multilayer plasmonic structures can be fabricated on donor by LIFT process [35

35. M. L. Tseng, P. C. Wu, S. Sun, C. M. Chang, W. T. Chen, C. H. Chu, P.-L. Chen, L. Zhou, D.-W. Huang, T.-J. Yen, and D. P. Tsai, “Fabrication of multilayer metamaterials by femtosecond laser-induced forward-transfer technique,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6(5), 702–707 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. Since the processing rate [34

34. A. I. Kuznetsov, A. B. Evlyukhin, M. R. Gonçalves, C. Reinhardt, A. Koroleva, M. L. Arnedillo, R. Kiyan, O. Marti, and B. N. Chichkov, “Laser fabrication of large-scale nanoparticle arrays for sensing applications,” ACS Nano 5(6), 4843–4849 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and controllability [42

42. S. Mailis, I. Zergioti, G. Koundourakis, A. Ikiades, A. Patentalaki, P. Papakonstantinou, N. A. Vainos, and C. Fotakis, “Etching and printing of diffractive optical microstructures by a femtosecond excimer laser,” Appl. Opt. 38(11), 2301–2308 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] of LIFT can be much better in comparison with other maskless fabrication techniques, LIFT technique is very fascinating for the throughput and fast prototyping of various nanophotonic devices.

In this paper, we implement the femtosecond LIFT (fs-LIFT) technique to fabricate square-shaped multilayer plasmonic resonant cavities, and study their optical properties by both experiments and numerical simulations. We chose to fabricate this type of plasmonic cavity because such a system was shown to exhibit extremely small mode volume. Using the fs-LIFT technique, the illuminated materials of multilayer thin films on donor are ablated and partially transferred to the tightly contact receiver, which would leave the uniform squared multilayer plasmonic cavities which are surrounded by the cooled-down laser-ablated materials on the donor. We found that the fabricated plasmonic cavity indeed exhibits two cavity modes with mode volume ~10−4 λ3, which is highly desired in many applications.

2. Experimental

3. Results and discussions

Figure 2(b)
Fig. 2 SEM images of the fabricated structures on (a) donor and (b) receiver. (c) Magnified SEM image of receiver.
shows the square patterns surrounded with laser-ablated materials transferred onto the receiver (indicated with red-dashed square). The laser fluence is set at 165 mJ/cm2 (raster speed is fixed as 53.3 μm/s). The square patterns can be transferred to receiver by the laser-ablated materials, which are impressed on the receiver during the fs-LIFT process. Moreover, as shown in the green dashed square in Fig. 2(b) and the corresponding magnified SEM image shown in Fig. 2(c), multilayer films of fabricated patterns can be observed, indicating that the multilayer structures of laser-fabricated pattern are not damaged by the lateral heat dissipation during laser illumination. Since the structures shown in Fig. 2(a) are not completed and uniform, the laser processing condition should be modified.

Figures 3(a)
Fig. 3 SEM images of (a) the fabricated multilayer cavity arrays on donor and (b) the corresponding laser-transferred structures on receiver.
and 3(b) show the SEM images of the fabricated samples on the donor and corresponding receiver, respectively. The fluence of incident laser beam is increased to 170 mJ/cm2, and the raster speed is fixed at 53.3 μm/s. On the donor, regular square patterns which are surrounded by laser-processed materials can be observed on the surface. The SEM images show the length of such square pattern is around 500 nm. The corresponding structures on receiver show rough surface morphology and edges, indicating that the transferred structures are composed of mixed materials of multilayer films (i.e., Au and ZnS-SiO2).

Figure 4
Fig. 4 A comparison transmittance spectra between experimental result (red curve) and simulation result (blue curve). Two resonance modes are marked by I and II from longer to shorter wavelength.
shows the experimental (red solid line) as well as simulated (blue solid line) transmittance spectra of the plasmonic cavity illuminated by a y–polarized light at normal-incidence. The transmittance spectra from λ = 1000 nm to λ = 2500 nm were measured using a Bruker VERTEX 70 Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer with a Bruker HYPERION 1000 infrared microscope (15 × Cassegrain objective, numerical aperture N.A. = 0.4, near-infrared polarizer, and an InGaAs and MCT detector). An iris was used to collect the incident light to a square area of about 50 × 50 µm2. The transmittance spectra are normalized by those of the rare fused silica wafer. The simulation spectra were obtained by the commercial software (Comsol Multiphysics) based on the finite-element method. The dimension of simulated squared plasmonic cavity is 500 nm with its periodicity as 1100 nm and 650 nm in x- and y-direction. Periodic boundary conditions are used to mimic the plasmonic cavity array. The refractive index (n) of the sandwiched ZnS-SiO2 layer was taken as 2.3, considering the ZnS-SiO2 mixture made of 80% ZnS (n = 2.5) with 20% SiO2 (n = 1.5). The permittivity of gold was described by the Drude-Lorentz model with a damping constant of 0.35 eV and a plasma frequency of 8.997 eV [43

43. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972). [CrossRef]

]. We found that two transmittance dips appear around 1280 nm (Mode II) and 1800 nm (Mode I) in both experimental and simulated spectra. The discrepancy between simulation and experiment is due to the fabrication defect in the sample and the inaccuracies of the dielectric parameter taken in simulations.

To understand the origin of these resonance modes, we depicted the electromagnetic field patterns for two modes in Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Analysis of plasmonic resonance modes. The first and second column corresponds to mode II and mode I. The first row show electric field distribution of z-component (Ez) corresponding to xz plane. The second and the third row show the magnetic field of x-component (Hx) and electric field of z-component (Ez) corresponding to xy plane at height z = 85 nm, respectively. Colorful scale bar shows relative intensity in arbitrary unit.
. To gain a complete picture of the two cavity modes, we showed the Ez field at the y = 0 nm plane, the Ez and Hx fields at the z = 85 nm plane (center symmetry plane of upper ZnS-SiO2 layer), respectively. For mode I, half-wavelength standing wave behaviors along three dimensions demonstrate that it is the resonance mode with index (1,1,1) [44

44. X. Yang, J. Yao, J. Rho, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Experimental realization of three-dimensional indefinite cavities at the nanoscale with anomalous scaling laws,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 450–454 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. Recalling that the size of the plasmonic cavity is 500 nm × 500 nm × 120 nm, we found that such a resonance mode (with λ ~1800 nm) exhibits subwavelength property with high energy storage ability. Similar analysis revealed that mode II is a resonance mode with index (1,2,1). Considering the distances of plasmonic cavities are different along x and y direction, the case of electric field polarized along x direction has also been studied. It was found that the electromagnetic field distributions of the plasmonic resonant modes are similar with the above-mentioned y-polarized case due to the symmetry of square-shaped cavity, except for about 200 nm blue shift of the plasmonic resonant wavelengths.

For a given resonance mode, the quality factor Q is determined by the photon life time, and the mode volume Vm quantifies the electromagnetic field strength per photon. According to our simulation spectra, we calculated the quality factors of the two modes and found that they are 3.2 and 8.3, respectively. Indeed, the quality factor Q of such a plasmonic cavity is very low due to the absorption loss of metal. However, our plasmonic cavities have smaller mode volumes (Vm) compared to dielectric micro-cavities. The mode volume Vm is calculated by [44

44. X. Yang, J. Yao, J. Rho, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Experimental realization of three-dimensional indefinite cavities at the nanoscale with anomalous scaling laws,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 450–454 (2012). [CrossRef]

, 45

45. J. Yao, X. D. Yang, X. B. Yin, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional nanometer-scale optical cavities of indefinite medium,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(28), 11327–11331 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]
Vm=1max(Wav(r))Wav(r)d3r
(1)
where Wav is the time averaged electromagnetic energy density calculated by [46

46. R. Loudon, “The propagation of electromagnetic energy through an absorbing dielectric,” J. Phys. A. 3(3), 233–245 (1970). [CrossRef]

, 47

47. R. Ruppin, “Electromagnetic energy density in a dispersive and absorptive material,” Phys. Lett. A 299(2-3), 309–312 (2002). [CrossRef]

]
Wav=ε04(ε+2ωεΓe)|E|2+μ04|H|2
(2)
whereΓe, εandε are the damping frequency, the real part and image part of permittivity. The max (Wav) is chosen at the maximum energy density excluding the sharp peak at the corner, since it strongly depends on the mesh quality at the corner. Our calculations revealed that the mode volume Vm can go down to 1.68 × 10−4 λ3 and 2.8 × 10−4 λ3 for mode I, and mode II, in consistency with our expectation that a plasmonic cavity can confine electromagnetic energy far below the diffraction limit. Together with the quality factor Q of the cavity resonance, this enables Q/Vm in the case of the fs-laser fabricated multilayered plasmonic cavity to be comparable with dielectric optical cavities. Nevertheless, the multilayered plasmonic cavity fabricated by fs-LIFT has relatively smaller geometrical size, and therefore shows the feasibility to be highly integrated in a given chip with low-cost, high throughput and efficiency.

4. Conclusion

We successfully demonstrated a low-cost, efficient and simple fabrication technique for manufacturing multilayered plasmonic resonance cavity by femtosecond laser-induced forward transfer technique. We have found the optimized laser fluence (170 mJ/cm2) and laser raster speed (53.3 μm/s) on the multilayer films for making the fabricated multilayer structure uniform and smooth. Two resonance modes are found in near infrared region, showing electromagnetic energy mainly stored in the sandwiched dielectric layer with subwavelength property. The optical properties of laser-fabricated plasmonic cavity quantitatively agree with simulations results. These unique properties of multilayered cavity increase the optical density of state and therefore could be applied to light-matter interactions, such as integrated optics, optical nonlinearities, and luminescence enhancement, etc. This work demonstrates the potential of fs-LIFT technique in fabrications of various kinds of three-dimensional nanostructures: People can readily find the optimization of processing parameters for the desired layered structures, and fabricate the designed photonic devices on the arbitrary substrates. Our strategy can be further improved by the integration with other laser-direct writing technique such as laser micro-lens array photolithography [48

48. N. R. Han, Z. C. Chen, C. S. Lim, B. Ng, and M. H. Hong, “Broadband multi-layer terahertz metamaterials fabrication and characterization on flexible substrates,” Opt. Express 19(8), 6990–6998 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and laser ablation by a laser beam of flat-top profile [49

49. D. P. Banks, C. Grivas, I. Zergioti, and R. W. Eason, “Ballistic laser-assisted solid transfer (BLAST) from a thin film precursor,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3249–3254 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge financial support from National Science Council, Taiwan under grant numbers 100-2923-M-002-007-MY3, 101-3113-P-002-021, 101-2112-M-002-023, 101-2911-I-002-107, and 100-2221-E-002-134, respectively. They are also grateful to National Center for Theoretical Sciences, Taipei Office, Molecular Imaging Center of National Taiwan University, National Center for High-Performance Computing, Taiwan, and Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taiwan for their support. LZ thanks financial supports from National Science Foundation of China (60990320, 60990321, 60990324, and 11174055) and Program of Shanghai Subject Chief Scientist (12XD1400700).

References and links

1.

Y. Akahane, M. Mochizuki, T. Asano, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, “Design of a channel drop filter by using a donor-type cavity with high-quality factor in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1341–1343 (2003). [CrossRef]

2.

T. Gu, S. Kocaman, X. Yang, J. F. McMillan, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “Deterministic integrated tuning of multi-cavity resonances and phase for slow-light in coupled photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 121103 (2011). [CrossRef]

3.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. M. Bagnall, B. Ullrich, H. Sakai, and Y. Segawa, “Micro-cavity lasing of optically excited CdS thin films at room temperature,” J. Cryst. Growth 214, 1015–1018 (2000). [CrossRef]

6.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity,” Nature 415(6872), 621–623 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

H. Saito, K. Nishi, I. Ogura, S. Sugou, and Y. Sugimoto, “Room-temperature lasing operation of a quantum-dot vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(21), 3140–3142 (1996). [CrossRef]

8.

E. F. Schubert, A. M. Vredenberg, N. E. J. Hunt, Y. H. Wong, P. C. Becker, J. M. Poate, D. C. Jacobson, L. C. Feldman, and G. J. Zydzik, “Giant enhancement of luminescence intensity in Er-doped Si/SiO2 resonant cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(12), 1381–1383 (1992). [CrossRef]

9.

K. Tanaka, E. Plum, J. Y. Ou, T. Uchino, and N. I. Zheludev, “Multifold enhancement of quantum dot luminescence in plasmonic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(22), 227403 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

J. S. Xia, Y. Ikegami, Y. Shiraki, N. Usami, and Y. Nakata, “Strong resonant luminescence from Ge quantum dots in photonic crystal microcavity at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201102 (2006). [CrossRef]

11.

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Nonlinear optics and crystalline whispering gallery mode cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(4), 043903 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

M. Soljacić and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Enhancement of nonlinear effects using photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater. 3(4), 211–219 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421(6926), 925–928 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. De Vries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007). [CrossRef]

15.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. A. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010). [CrossRef]

16.

K. Yu, A. Lakhani, and M. C. Wu, “Subwavelength metal-optic semiconductor nanopatch lasers,” Opt. Express 18(9), 8790–8799 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths,” Science 289(5479), 604–606 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425(6961), 944–947 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424(6950), 839–846 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

R. Ameling and H. Giessen, “Microcavity plasmonics: strong coupling of photonic cavities and plasmons,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1–29 (2012) /DOI . [CrossRef]

23.

S. Larouche, Y.-J. Tsai, T. Tyler, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Infrared metamaterial phase holograms,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 450–454 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

W. T. Chen, C. J. Chen, P. C. Wu, S. Sun, L. Zhou, G.-Y. Guo, C. T. Hsiao, K.-Y. Yang, N. I. Zheludev, and D. P. Tsai, “Optical magnetic response in three-dimensional metamaterial of upright plasmonic meta-molecules,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12837–12842 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

P. C. Wu, W. T. Chen, K.-Y. Yang, C. T. Hsiao, G. Sun, A. Q. Liu, N. I. Zheludev, and D. P. Tsai, “Magnetic plasmon induced transparency in three-dimensional metamolecules,” Nanophoton. 1, 131–138 (2012).

26.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional microfabrication of materials by femtosecond lasers for photonics applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(5), 051101 (2009). [CrossRef]

27.

M. Malinauskas, P. Danilevičius, and S. Juodkazis, “Three-dimensional micro-/nano-structuring via direct write polymerization with picosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5602–5610 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28.

A. Vailionis, E. G. Gamaly, V. Mizeikis, W. Yang, A. V. Rode, and S. Juodkazis, “Evidence of superdense aluminium synthesized by ultrafast microexplosion,” Nat Commun 2, 445 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

29.

C. M. Chang, M. L. Tseng, B. H. Cheng, C. H. C, Y. Z. Ho, H. W. Huang, Y.-C. Lan, D.-W. Huang, A. Q. Liu, and D. P. Tsai, “Three-dimensional plasmonic micro projector for light manipulation,” Adv. Mater. (2012)/ DOI: . [CrossRef]

30.

M. L. Tseng, Y.-W. Huang, M.-K. Hsiao, H. W. Huang, H. M. Chen, Y. L. Chen, C. H. Chu, N.-N. Chu, Y. J. He, C. M. Chang, W. C. Lin, D.-W. Huang, H.-P. Chiang, R.-S. Liu, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Fast fabrication of a Ag nanostructure substrate using the femtosecond laser for broad-band and tunable plasmonic enhancement,” ACS Nano 6(6), 5190–5197 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

31.

C. H. Chu, C. D. Shiue, H. W. Cheng, M. L. Tseng, H.-P. Chiang, M. Mansuripur, and D. P. Tsai, “Laser-induced phase transitions of Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films used in optical and electronic data storage and in thermal lithography,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18383–18393 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

32.

A. I. Kuznetsov, R. Kiyan, and B. N. Chichkov, “Laser fabrication of 2D and 3D metal nanoparticle structures and arrays,” Opt. Express 18(20), 21198–21203 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

33.

K. S. Kaur, A. Z. Subramanian, Y. J. Ying, D. P. Banks, M. Feinaeugle, P. Horak, V. Apostolopoulos, C. L. Sones, S. Mailis, and R. W. Eason, “Waveguide mode filters fabricated using laser-induced forward transfer,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9814–9819 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

34.

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. B. Evlyukhin, M. R. Gonçalves, C. Reinhardt, A. Koroleva, M. L. Arnedillo, R. Kiyan, O. Marti, and B. N. Chichkov, “Laser fabrication of large-scale nanoparticle arrays for sensing applications,” ACS Nano 5(6), 4843–4849 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

35.

M. L. Tseng, P. C. Wu, S. Sun, C. M. Chang, W. T. Chen, C. H. Chu, P.-L. Chen, L. Zhou, D.-W. Huang, T.-J. Yen, and D. P. Tsai, “Fabrication of multilayer metamaterials by femtosecond laser-induced forward-transfer technique,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6(5), 702–707 (2012). [CrossRef]

36.

M. L. Tseng, C. M. Chang, B. H. Chen, Y.-W. Huang, C. H. Chu, K. S. Chung, Y. J. Liu, H. G. Tsai, N.-N. Chu, D.-W. Huang, H.-P. Chiang, and D. P. Tsai, “Fabrication of plasmonic devices using femtosecond laser-induced forward transfer technique,” Nanotechnology 23(44), 444013 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

37.

M. L. Tseng, B. H. Chen, C. H. Chu, C. M. Chang, W. C. Lin, N.-N. Chu, M. Mansuripur, A. Q. Liu, and D. P. Tsai, “Fabrication of phase-change chalcogenide Ge2Sb2Te5 patterns by laser-induced forward transfer,” Opt. Express 19(18), 16975–16984 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

38.

M. Feinaeugle, A. P. Alloncle, P. Delaporte, C. L. Sones, and R. W. Eason, “Time-resolved shadowgraph imaging of femtosecond laser-induced forward transfer of solid materials,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 258(22), 8475–8483 (2012). [CrossRef]

39.

C. B. Arnold, P. Serra, and A. Pique, “Laser direct-write techniques for printing of complex materials,” MRS Bull. 32(01), 23–32 (2007). [CrossRef]

40.

M. Colina, P. Serra, J. M. Fernández-Pradas, L. Sevilla, and J. L. Morenza, “DNA deposition through laser induced forward transfer,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(8), 1638–1642 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

41.

J. Xu, J. Liu, D. H. Cui, M. Gerhold, A. Y. Wang, M. Nagel, and T. K. Lippert, “Laser-assisted forward transfer of multi-spectral nanocrystal quantum dot emitters,” Nanotechnology 18(2), 025403 (2007). [CrossRef]

42.

S. Mailis, I. Zergioti, G. Koundourakis, A. Ikiades, A. Patentalaki, P. Papakonstantinou, N. A. Vainos, and C. Fotakis, “Etching and printing of diffractive optical microstructures by a femtosecond excimer laser,” Appl. Opt. 38(11), 2301–2308 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

43.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972). [CrossRef]

44.

X. Yang, J. Yao, J. Rho, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Experimental realization of three-dimensional indefinite cavities at the nanoscale with anomalous scaling laws,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 450–454 (2012). [CrossRef]

45.

J. Yao, X. D. Yang, X. B. Yin, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional nanometer-scale optical cavities of indefinite medium,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(28), 11327–11331 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

46.

R. Loudon, “The propagation of electromagnetic energy through an absorbing dielectric,” J. Phys. A. 3(3), 233–245 (1970). [CrossRef]

47.

R. Ruppin, “Electromagnetic energy density in a dispersive and absorptive material,” Phys. Lett. A 299(2-3), 309–312 (2002). [CrossRef]

48.

N. R. Han, Z. C. Chen, C. S. Lim, B. Ng, and M. H. Hong, “Broadband multi-layer terahertz metamaterials fabrication and characterization on flexible substrates,” Opt. Express 19(8), 6990–6998 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

49.

D. P. Banks, C. Grivas, I. Zergioti, and R. W. Eason, “Ballistic laser-assisted solid transfer (BLAST) from a thin film precursor,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3249–3254 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(140.3390) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials processing
(140.4780) Lasers and laser optics : Optical resonators
(240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
(160.3918) Materials : Metamaterials
(220.4241) Optical design and fabrication : Nanostructure fabrication
(250.5403) Optoelectronics : Plasmonics

ToC Category:
Laser Microfabrication

History
Original Manuscript: November 21, 2012
Revised Manuscript: December 18, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: December 19, 2012
Published: January 7, 2013

Citation
Wei Ting Chen, Ming Lun Tseng, Chun Yen Liao, Pin Chieh Wu, Shulin Sun, Yao-Wei Huang, Chia Min Chang, Chung Hao Lu, Lei Zhou, Ding-Wei Huang, Ai Qun Liu, and Din Ping Tsai, "Fabrication of three-dimensional plasmonic cavity by femtosecond laser-induced forward transfer," Opt. Express 21, 618-625 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-1-618


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  25. P. C. Wu, W. T. Chen, K.-Y. Yang, C. T. Hsiao, G. Sun, A. Q. Liu, N. I. Zheludev, and D. P. Tsai, “Magnetic plasmon induced transparency in three-dimensional metamolecules,” Nanophoton.1, 131–138 (2012).
  26. S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional microfabrication of materials by femtosecond lasers for photonics applications,” J. Appl. Phys.106(5), 051101 (2009). [CrossRef]
  27. M. Malinauskas, P. Danilevičius, and S. Juodkazis, “Three-dimensional micro-/nano-structuring via direct write polymerization with picosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express19(6), 5602–5610 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. A. Vailionis, E. G. Gamaly, V. Mizeikis, W. Yang, A. V. Rode, and S. Juodkazis, “Evidence of superdense aluminium synthesized by ultrafast microexplosion,” Nat Commun2, 445 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. C. M. Chang, M. L. Tseng, B. H. Cheng, C. H. C, Y. Z. Ho, H. W. Huang, Y.-C. Lan, D.-W. Huang, A. Q. Liu, and D. P. Tsai, “Three-dimensional plasmonic micro projector for light manipulation,” Adv. Mater. (2012)/ DOI: . [CrossRef]
  30. M. L. Tseng, Y.-W. Huang, M.-K. Hsiao, H. W. Huang, H. M. Chen, Y. L. Chen, C. H. Chu, N.-N. Chu, Y. J. He, C. M. Chang, W. C. Lin, D.-W. Huang, H.-P. Chiang, R.-S. Liu, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Fast fabrication of a Ag nanostructure substrate using the femtosecond laser for broad-band and tunable plasmonic enhancement,” ACS Nano6(6), 5190–5197 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. C. H. Chu, C. D. Shiue, H. W. Cheng, M. L. Tseng, H.-P. Chiang, M. Mansuripur, and D. P. Tsai, “Laser-induced phase transitions of Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films used in optical and electronic data storage and in thermal lithography,” Opt. Express18(17), 18383–18393 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. A. I. Kuznetsov, R. Kiyan, and B. N. Chichkov, “Laser fabrication of 2D and 3D metal nanoparticle structures and arrays,” Opt. Express18(20), 21198–21203 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. K. S. Kaur, A. Z. Subramanian, Y. J. Ying, D. P. Banks, M. Feinaeugle, P. Horak, V. Apostolopoulos, C. L. Sones, S. Mailis, and R. W. Eason, “Waveguide mode filters fabricated using laser-induced forward transfer,” Opt. Express19(10), 9814–9819 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  35. M. L. Tseng, P. C. Wu, S. Sun, C. M. Chang, W. T. Chen, C. H. Chu, P.-L. Chen, L. Zhou, D.-W. Huang, T.-J. Yen, and D. P. Tsai, “Fabrication of multilayer metamaterials by femtosecond laser-induced forward-transfer technique,” Laser Photon. Rev.6(5), 702–707 (2012). [CrossRef]
  36. M. L. Tseng, C. M. Chang, B. H. Chen, Y.-W. Huang, C. H. Chu, K. S. Chung, Y. J. Liu, H. G. Tsai, N.-N. Chu, D.-W. Huang, H.-P. Chiang, and D. P. Tsai, “Fabrication of plasmonic devices using femtosecond laser-induced forward transfer technique,” Nanotechnology23(44), 444013 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. M. L. Tseng, B. H. Chen, C. H. Chu, C. M. Chang, W. C. Lin, N.-N. Chu, M. Mansuripur, A. Q. Liu, and D. P. Tsai, “Fabrication of phase-change chalcogenide Ge2Sb2Te5 patterns by laser-induced forward transfer,” Opt. Express19(18), 16975–16984 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. M. Feinaeugle, A. P. Alloncle, P. Delaporte, C. L. Sones, and R. W. Eason, “Time-resolved shadowgraph imaging of femtosecond laser-induced forward transfer of solid materials,” Appl. Surf. Sci.258(22), 8475–8483 (2012). [CrossRef]
  39. C. B. Arnold, P. Serra, and A. Pique, “Laser direct-write techniques for printing of complex materials,” MRS Bull.32(01), 23–32 (2007). [CrossRef]
  40. M. Colina, P. Serra, J. M. Fernández-Pradas, L. Sevilla, and J. L. Morenza, “DNA deposition through laser induced forward transfer,” Biosens. Bioelectron.20(8), 1638–1642 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. J. Xu, J. Liu, D. H. Cui, M. Gerhold, A. Y. Wang, M. Nagel, and T. K. Lippert, “Laser-assisted forward transfer of multi-spectral nanocrystal quantum dot emitters,” Nanotechnology18(2), 025403 (2007). [CrossRef]
  42. S. Mailis, I. Zergioti, G. Koundourakis, A. Ikiades, A. Patentalaki, P. Papakonstantinou, N. A. Vainos, and C. Fotakis, “Etching and printing of diffractive optical microstructures by a femtosecond excimer laser,” Appl. Opt.38(11), 2301–2308 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972). [CrossRef]
  44. X. Yang, J. Yao, J. Rho, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Experimental realization of three-dimensional indefinite cavities at the nanoscale with anomalous scaling laws,” Nat. Photonics6(7), 450–454 (2012). [CrossRef]
  45. J. Yao, X. D. Yang, X. B. Yin, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional nanometer-scale optical cavities of indefinite medium,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(28), 11327–11331 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  46. R. Loudon, “The propagation of electromagnetic energy through an absorbing dielectric,” J. Phys. A.3(3), 233–245 (1970). [CrossRef]
  47. R. Ruppin, “Electromagnetic energy density in a dispersive and absorptive material,” Phys. Lett. A299(2-3), 309–312 (2002). [CrossRef]
  48. N. R. Han, Z. C. Chen, C. S. Lim, B. Ng, and M. H. Hong, “Broadband multi-layer terahertz metamaterials fabrication and characterization on flexible substrates,” Opt. Express19(8), 6990–6998 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  49. D. P. Banks, C. Grivas, I. Zergioti, and R. W. Eason, “Ballistic laser-assisted solid transfer (BLAST) from a thin film precursor,” Opt. Express16(5), 3249–3254 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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