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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 1 — Jan. 14, 2013
  • pp: 681–689
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All-diode-pumped quasi-continuous burst-mode laser for extended high-speed planar imaging

Mikhail N. Slipchenko, Joseph D. Miller, Sukesh Roy, James R. Gord, and Terrence R. Meyer  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 1, pp. 681-689 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.000681


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Abstract

An all-diode-pumped, multistage Nd:YAG amplifier is investigated as a means of extending the duration of high-power, burst-mode laser pulse sequences to an unprecedented 30 ms or more. The laser generates 120 mJ per pulse at 1064.3 nm with a repetition rate of 10 kHz, which is sufficient for a wide range of planar laser diagnostics based on fluorescence, Raman scattering, and Rayleigh scattering, among others. The utility of the technique is evaluated for image sequences of formaldehyde fluorescence in a lifted methane–air diffusion flame. The advantages and limitations of diode pumping are discussed, along with long-pulse diode-bar performance characteristics to guide future designs.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

The study of chemical species and thermodynamic quantities (e.g., temperature, heat release, etc.) in reacting flows is critical for understanding the performance and emissions of power-generation and propulsion systems. Recently, several research groups have employed high-repetition-rate planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) to investigate combustion intermediates in turbulent reacting flows using continuously pulsed diode-pumped solid state (DPSS) laser technology [1

1. M. Cundy and V. Sick, “Hydroxyl radical imaging at kHz rates using a frequency-quadrupled Nd:YLF laser,” Appl. Phys. B 96(2-3), 241–245 (2009). [CrossRef]

7

7. W. Paa, D. Müller, H. Stafast, and W. Triebel, “Flame turbulences recorded at 1 kHz using planar laser induced fluorescence upon hot band excitation of OH radicals,” Appl. Phys. B 86(1), 1–5 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. Laser system requirements include tunable ultraviolet (UV) output, narrow spectral bandwidth for efficient frequency conversion and excitation of combustion intermediates, high repetition rate for investigation of transient phenomena, short pulse width for discrimination against background interferences, and high pulse energies for planar measurements. High pulse energy limits the use of continuously pulsed, multi-kHz-rate DPSS lasers because of the difficulty in achieving very high average optical power (kW range) while satisfying other system requirements. Hence, the per-pulse energies of current DPSS-based high-speed imaging systems are insufficient to pump solid-state optical parametric oscillators (OPO’s) and require dye lasers, which are limited by saturation and degradation of the laser dye, for frequency conversion. Furthermore, multi-photon absorption within conventional solid-state crystals can limit the average power and, correspondingly, the UV conversion efficiency. The low pulse energy ultimately restricts the number of flow parameters that can be measured and inhibits the use of diagnostic techniques such as Raman scattering, Rayleigh scattering, laser-induced incandescence, and PLIF of some key fuel tracers and combustion species. Hence, only a few combustion species have been investigated, and the maximum repetition rate is typically ~10 kHz because of the limited laser energy of current laser hardware [1

1. M. Cundy and V. Sick, “Hydroxyl radical imaging at kHz rates using a frequency-quadrupled Nd:YLF laser,” Appl. Phys. B 96(2-3), 241–245 (2009). [CrossRef]

7

7. W. Paa, D. Müller, H. Stafast, and W. Triebel, “Flame turbulences recorded at 1 kHz using planar laser induced fluorescence upon hot band excitation of OH radicals,” Appl. Phys. B 86(1), 1–5 (2006). [CrossRef]

].

To overcome the challenges associated with conventional high-average-power continuously pulsed DPSS lasers, it is possible to employ burst-mode laser technology in which the pulse sequence can reach energies of 100’s of mJ per individual pulse up to MHz rates, while maintaining low average power [8

8. P. P. Wu and R. B. Miles, “High-energy pulse-burst laser system for megahertz-rate flow visualization,” Opt. Lett. 25(22), 1639–1641 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12

12. N. Jiang, M. C. Webster, and W. R. Lempert, “Advances in generation of high-repetition-rate burst mode laser output,” Appl. Opt. 48(4), B23–B31 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. This technology has been demonstrated for high-speed measurements of temperature [13

13. R. Patton, K. Gabet, N. Jiang, W. Lempert, and J. Sutton, “Multi-kHz temperature imaging in turbulent non-premixed flames using planar Rayleigh scattering,” Appl. Phys. B 108(2), 377–392 (2012). [CrossRef]

]; mixture fraction [14

14. R. Patton, K. Gabet, N. Jiang, W. Lempert, and J. Sutton, “Multi-kHz mixture fraction imaging in turbulent jets using planar Rayleigh scattering,” Appl. Phys. B 106(2), 457–471 (2012). [CrossRef]

]; PLIF of OH [10

10. J. D. Miller, M. Slipchenko, T. R. Meyer, N. Jiang, W. R. Lempert, and J. R. Gord, “Ultrahigh-frame-rate OH fluorescence imaging in turbulent flames using a burst-mode optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1309–1311 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 15

15. C. F. Kaminski, J. Hult, and M. Aldén, “High repetition rate planar laser induced fluorescence of OH in a turbulent non-premixed flame,” Appl. Phys. B 68(4), 757–760 (1999). [CrossRef]

], NO [12

12. N. Jiang, M. C. Webster, and W. R. Lempert, “Advances in generation of high-repetition-rate burst mode laser output,” Appl. Opt. 48(4), B23–B31 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 16

16. N. Jiang and W. R. Lempert, “Ultrahigh-frame-rate nitric oxide planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2236–2238 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 17

17. N. Jiang, M. Webster, W. R. Lempert, J. D. Miller, T. R. Meyer, C. B. Ivey, and P. M. Danehy, “MHz-rate nitric oxide planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging in a Mach 10 hypersonic wind tunnel,” Appl. Opt. 50(4), A20–A28 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], CH [18

18. N. Jiang, R. A. Patton, W. R. Lempert, and J. A. Sutton, “Development of high-repetition rate CH PLIF imaging in turbulent nonpremixed flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 33(1), 767–774 (2011). [CrossRef]

20

20. J. D. Miller, S. R. Engel, T. R. Meyer, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, “High-speed CH planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging using a multimode-pumped optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 36(19), 3927–3929 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and CH2O [21

21. K. Gabet, R. Patton, N. Jiang, W. Lempert, and J. Sutton, “High-speed CH2O PLIF imaging in turbulent flames using a pulse-burst laser system,” Appl. Phys. B 106(3), 569–575 (2012). [CrossRef]

, 22

22. M. N. Slipchenko, J. D. Miller, S. Roy, J. R. Gord, S. A. Danczyk, and T. R. Meyer, “Quasi-continuous burst-mode laser for high-speed planar imaging,” Opt. Lett. 37(8), 1346–1348 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]; and Raman line imaging of O2, N2, CH4, and H2 [23

23. K. Gabet, N. Jiang, W. Lempert, and J. Sutton, “Demonstration of high-speed 1D Raman scattering line imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 101(1-2), 1–5 (2010). [CrossRef]

], with measurements ranging from 1 kHz to 1 MHz. One approach to burst-mode operation is to utilize multiple oscillator–amplifier chains in a parallel configuration, allowing up to eight high-energy pulses in a time-correlated sequence [15

15. C. F. Kaminski, J. Hult, and M. Aldén, “High repetition rate planar laser induced fluorescence of OH in a turbulent non-premixed flame,” Appl. Phys. B 68(4), 757–760 (1999). [CrossRef]

]. To increase the number of pulses, it is also possible to amplify a sequence of low-energy pulses from a chopped continuous-wave (cw) master oscillator through a series of flashlamp-pumped amplifiers [8

8. P. P. Wu and R. B. Miles, “High-energy pulse-burst laser system for megahertz-rate flow visualization,” Opt. Lett. 25(22), 1639–1641 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The duration of a discharge through the flashlamps determines the duration of the burst and has been previously limited to ~1 ms. However, many reacting flows of practical interest have characteristic oscillation periods of 10’s of μs to 10’s of ms [6

6. P. Weigand, W. Meier, X. Duan, R. Giezendanner-Thoben, and U. Meier, “Laser diagnostic study of the mechanism of a periodic combustion instability in a gas turbine model combustor,” Flow, Turbul. Combust. 75(1-4), 275–292 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. Therefore, conventional pulse-burst laser (PBL) systems are not suitable for investigation of turbulent combustion over such a broad range of time scales.

While high-power, 10-ms-long burst durations open a variety of applications for PBL systems, it is of interest to further extend the burst sequence to study many low-frequency processes, including flame instabilities due to acoustic noise [25

25. S. Kotake and K. Takamoto, “Combustion noise: effects of the velocity turbulence of unburned mixture,” J. Sound Vibrat. 139(1), 9–20 (1990). [CrossRef]

], blowout processes [26

26. Y.-C. Chao, Y.-L. Chang, C.-Y. Wu, and T.-S. Cheng, “An experimental investigation of the blowout process of a jet flame,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28(1), 335–342 (2000). [CrossRef]

], and chemical kinetics–driven instabilities [27

27. T. Lieuwen, Y. Neumeier, and B. T. Zinn, “The role of unmixedness and chemical kinetics in driving combustion instabilities in lean premixed combustors,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 135(1-6), 193–211 (1998). [CrossRef]

], which have characteristic frequencies as low as 20 Hz. Therefore, another order of magnitude increase in burst duration up to 100 ms is desirable to capture the full range of frequencies in reacting flows of practical interest.

Because high discharge energy expected for burst durations of up to 100 ms results in fast degradation of flashlamp lifetime [28

28. W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer Science + Business Media, Inc., New York, 2006).

], it is of interest to replace flashlamp-pumped amplifiers by diode-pumped amplifiers, which have about tenfold the electrical-to-optical efficiency. However, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, there are no data available for diode-bar life expectancy at pulse durations longer than a few ms. Because of the high cost of diode bars, it is also important to evaluate the diode-bar performance at such conditions. Additionally, while 10-ms burst durations result in a fairly uniform pulse sequence in time, long sequences of 10’s of ms could trigger a change in the temperature-dependent characteristics of the diode bars and lead to thermal gradients in the amplifier rods. Data on the evolution of beam profile for burst-mode lasers are not currently available, but such data are instrumental for extending the pulse durations of next-generation systems.

To address the aforementioned issues, we demonstrate an all-diode-pumped, QCBML with an unprecedented burst duration of 30 ms and show its utility for PLIF of formaldehyde using the frequency-tripled output at 354.8 nm. We furthermore evaluate the effects of burst duration on the spatial mode, explore a range of repetition rates, provide the first life-test data for long-pulse operation of different types of diode bars, and discuss the advantages and potential limitations of diode-bar amplifiers for burst-mode laser design.

2. Experimental setup

The all-diode-pumped QCBML layout is shown in Fig. 1(a)
Fig. 1 (a) Optical layout of all-diode-pumped quasi-continuous burst-mode laser system. Symbols: OI - optical isolator, EOM - electro-optic modulator, PH - pinhole, HWP - half-wave plate, DWP - dual-wavelength wave plate, QR - quartz rotator, HS - harmonic separator, and BD - beam dump. Numbers are focal lengths of spherical lenses. (b) Dependence of the single-pass and double-pass gain of amplifier #3 on driving current. (c) Dependence of energy per pulse on repetition rate within the burst. Fitting parameters a = 646, b = 0.81.
. A commercial pulsed Yb-doped fiber laser generates a continuous 100-kHz train of pulses at 1064.3-nm wavelength with per-pulse energy of 10 µJ. The fiber-laser pulse duration is 13 ns, and the linewidth is less than 2 GHz. The utilization of a polarization-maintaining single-mode fiber results in a Gaussian beam profile with an M2 factor of 1.3. To control the pulse-train repetition rate, the output of the fiber is collimated and directed into a pulse picker based on a 1-MHz bandwidth EOM. The EOM is used in a double-pass configuration along with an optical isolator (see Fig. 1(a)), resulting in an extinction ratio of 2 × 103. This high extinction ratio serves to completely suppress ASE from the fiber laser so that the pulse train can be effectively amplified to a high level within the amplifier chain.

The burst from the fiber amplifier is then passed through a spatial filter before being amplified in two 2-mm-diameter Nd:YAG-rod diode-pumped amplifiers. To prevent build-up of ASE from the diode amplifiers, a relay optical arrangement with a spatial filter is placed between the amplifiers. To compensate for thermally induced birefringence, a quartz rotator is placed between the two amplifiers. The total gain of the first two amplifier stages reaches 103 with output pulse energy of 4 mJ. In order to maximize the energy extraction, we use a third 5-mm-diameter Nd:YAG-rod diode-pumped amplifier in a double-pass configuration, as shown in Fig. 1(a). The third amplifier single-pass and double-pass gain dependence on driving current is shown in Fig. 1(b) for a 10-kHz burst with 1-mJ input pulse energy. The amplifier is separated from the initial two stages by an optical isolator and a spatial filter to avoid feedback and reduce build-up of ASE. In order to further reduce ASE, the first pass is relay imaged back to the amplifier with a spatial filter inserted in the focal plane of the relay optics. Because of the high pulse energy after a single pass, a spatial filter is installed inside a custom vacuum cell to prevent air ionization in the beam focus. The amplifiers are fired at 0.25-Hz repetition rate to allow thermal relaxation of the Nd:YAG rods.

Finally, the fundamental output is converted via third-harmonic generation (THG) to 354.8 nm by using two LBO Type I crystals for doubling and tripling, respectively. The first LBO crystal (used in the noncritical phase-matching configuration) is placed in an oven heated to 149.7 C°. The second crystal is heated to 60 C° to increase damage threshold and obtain stable phase matching. To control the fundamental beam polarization for optimal THG generation, a dual-wavelength waveplate (λ/2 for 532 nm, λ for 1064 nm) is used between the two nonlinear crystals. The dependence of 1064-nm pulse energy on repetition rate is shown in Fig. 1(c).

To test durability of the diode bars at long-driving-pulse conditions, we evaluated three types of AlGaAs bars: continuous wave (CW), quasi-continuous wave (QCW), and special-package QCW diode bars. CW bars have a 1.2-mm resonator length and 50 emitters per bar, each of which is 100 μm wide. QCW bars have a 1-mm resonator length and 52 emitters per bar, each of which is 150 μm wide. In the special-package QCW bars, indium solder bonds are replaced with AuSn.

To monitor the evolution of the beam profile, high-speed, single-pulse beam profiling was performed using 1% of the fundamental beam, which is expanded to 25 mm and projected onto a white screen. A Photron SA5 camera was synchronized with the QCBML, and high-resolution images of each pulse profile were recorded. Image pixels were binned 2 × 2 to reduce speckle, and horizontal and vertical profiles were averaged and fit to a Gaussian line shape. The beam diameter (1/e2) was calculated from fit parameters and known magnification.

3. Results and discussion

To address the long-pulse life expectancy of the three types of AlGaAs diode bars, n = 6 bars were tested for over 2 million pulses each with drive currents of 50 A and 70 A and pulse widths of 5 ms and 15 ms. Figure 2
Fig. 2 Output power of the three types of diode bars measured at four different driving-pulse conditions as indicated. Six diode bars of each type were tested. The noise is due to detector.
shows the output power for each sample and condition. All samples (with one exception) fared well through the 70-A, 15-ms step. The special-package QCW was screened out during burn-in as it failed because of manufacturing defects. The post-test microscope inspection of all samples showed no evidence of solder creep, which is the major degradation pathway due to thermal stress from long driving current pulses. Because of time constrains, only ~0.5 million pulses were fired at each test condition, with a total of over 2 million pulses. However, because of the low burst-repetition rate of the QCBML (0.25 Hz), this corresponds to over 2000 hours of operation. Since no degradation was observed, we anticipate up to an order of magnitude longer life time than that tested.

Parameter optimization for long-pulse diode-pumped amplifier operation was established by evaluating the temporal profile of the stored energy in the Nd:YAG rod. Since the stored energy inside the Nd:YAG rod is released either as heat or spontaneous emission, it can be evaluated by observing the intensity of spontaneous emission. Figure 3
Fig. 3 Spontaneous emission (SE) for amplifier #3 as a function of time. (a–e) SE profile for driving-pulse current ranging from 40 A to 80 A. Black and Red curves correspond to 20°C and 30°C cooling water, respectively.
shows the drive current and temperature dependence of spontaneous emission from the 5-mm-diameter Nd:YAG amplifier pumped with a 50-ms driving pulse. Temperature-induced shift of the emission wavelength (0.3 nm/K) as the diode-bar temperature rises during the long drive pulse can shift the emission peak off the maximum absorption wavelength of Nd:YAG at 808 nm. By optimizing the temperature of the diode-bar cooling water, the initial emission wavelength can be controlled. At low current, as shown in Fig. 3(a), the temperature change is small and the energy pumped into the rod is nearly constant (10% change for 30°C curve). As the current increases, the amount of pumped energy drops with time; at the highest current of 80 A, as shown in Fig. 3(e), the efficient pumping window shrinks to ~10 ms. By lowering the cooling-water temperature from 30°C to 20°C, the uniform emission window is extended up to 40 ms at 60-A drive-pulse current, as shown in Fig. 3(c).

A second important characteristic is beam size and shape. To date, few details on the shot-to-shot fluctuations of beam quality have been reported for burst-mode laser systems. Of particular interest is the evolution of these characteristics over the relatively long burst durations of next-generation systems (>10 ms). To analyze this effect, we imaged the beam intensity distribution at 10 kHz, allowing pulse-to-pulse variations to be characterized. The change in beam profile for a single 20-ms burst is shown in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Beam-intensity distribution during a single burst for a driving current of 45 A for the first two amplifiers and 60 A for the third amplifier. The intensity distribution in the color scale is normalized by the peak intensity. The full sequence is available online as Media 1.
at several points in time.

Note that the beam-profile change is not a simple change in size as one would expect from a thermal lensing effect. Instead, the beam-profile change is also partially induced by the change in flux of the diode-bar radiation throughout the rod cross section. This change in flux produces a complex gain profile across the rod, which is manifested in a pentagonal shape of the beam at burst durations longer than 10 ms. The evolution of the diode-bar illumination pattern is due to shifting of the emission wavelength from the absorption maximum of Nd:YAG as discussed above and can be alleviated through proper selection of the diode-bar initial temperature and driving current.

Both temperature and diode-current conditions for long-pulse operation of the diode-pumped amplifiers were determined by evaluation of intensity and beam diameter for each pulse in the burst sequence. Figure 5
Fig. 5 Beam-diameter and intensity time profiles. (a–b) Beam-diameter time profiles at 20°C and 30°C diode-bar cooling-water temperature. Beam diameter is 1/e2. (c–d) Pulse-intensity profiles at 20°C and 30°C diode-bar cooling water temperature. Driving currents for the first two amplifiers and for the third amplifier are indicated.
summarizes the time dependence of the 1064-nm-output pulse intensities and diameters at different cooling-water temperatures and drive-pulse currents. The immediate onset of variation in the beam diameter cannot be explained by the thermal gradient induced by heat diffusion from the central part of the rod to the cold outer layer. The onset of the thermal gradient depends on the thermal time constant of the rods, which for 2-mm- and 5-mm-diameter rods are calculated to be 0.2 s and 1.25 s, respectively, much longer than the duration of the burst [29

29. W. Koechner, “Transient thermal profile in optically pumped laser rods,” J. Appl. Phys. 44(7), 3162–3170 (1973). [CrossRef]

]. Instead, we attribute the observed change in beam diameter over time to the instantaneous thermal gradient due to absorption of the diode-bar radiation, which is partially converted to heat.

To qualitatively understand the observed change of beam diameter with time shown in Figs. 5(a) and 5(b), we can consider two extreme conditions. The first is with the diode-bar emission at the peak of the absorption of Nd:YAG. In this case the outer layer strongly absorbs radiation from the diode bar and is heated to a higher temperature compared to the central part of the rod, thus producing a negative lensing effect [30

30. S. Epstein, “Temperature-induced changes in optical path length for a Nd-doped glass rod during pumping,” J. Appl. Phys. 38(7), 2715–2719 (1967). [CrossRef]

, 31

31. G. D. Baldwin and E. P. Riedel, “Measurements of dynamic optical distortion in Nd-doped glass laser rods,” J. Appl. Phys. 38(7), 2726–2738 (1967). [CrossRef]

]. The second is with the diode-bar emission shifted from the absorption peak. In that case the diode-bar radiation is absorbed less by the outer layer and is concentrated in the center, producing a positive lensing effect. In the experimental data of Figs. 5(a) and 5(b), the initial temperature of the rod and the current both affect the time profile of the beam diameter. At a cooling-water temperature of 20°C, the diode bar initial wavelength is blue shifted from the absorption maximum. At low driving current, the initial beam diameter slightly increases for several ms and, after reaching a maximum value, rapidly drops, reaching a minimum after 20 ms, as shown in Fig. 5(a). The change in beam diameter is more profound at higher driving current. For 30°C cooling water, the diode-bar output is at the absorption maximum of the Nd:YAG, and time profiles for all driving currents start from a maximum value and drop to a minimum at ~15 ms, as shown in Fig. 5(b). The corresponding intensity profiles for 20°C and 30°C cooling-water temperatures are shown in Figs. 5(c) and 5(d), respectively. Similar to the diameter profiles, the 20°C intensity-profile maximum is shifted beyond the 10-ms burst duration, while the 30°C intensity profile exhibits a maximum intensity at only a few ms. In contrast to the fast change in beam diameter with time, the pulse-intensity profile is flatter. Even though the diode-bar absorption pattern changes, most of the emission is absorbed and extracted by the pulse train.

From the data in Fig. 6, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) varies from a minimum of 6 at the beginning of the sequence to 40 at the middle of the 30-ms sequence. This minimum is greater than some burst-mode PLIF work with durations of only 1 ms [18

18. N. Jiang, R. A. Patton, W. R. Lempert, and J. A. Sutton, “Development of high-repetition rate CH PLIF imaging in turbulent nonpremixed flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 33(1), 767–774 (2011). [CrossRef]

] and should be useful for studies of turbulent combustion dynamics.

The system can be easily expanded to higher energy per pulse by adding larger diode-pumped amplifiers to the three that were used in the current work. For example, a diode-pumped Nd:YAG amplifier with a 188-mm-long, 10-mm-diameter rod can be pumped with up to 36 kW peak power. For 100-µs separation between pulses in a 10-kHz burst, this corresponds to 3.6 J. Ideally as high as 40% of this energy can be converted to 1064-nm output, which corresponds to 1.4 J per pulse. Considering a fill factor of 0.6, one can obtain up to 0.9 J per pulse. By adding more amplifiers the energy per pulse can be increased until it reaches the Nd:YAG damage threshold of 15 J/cm2 (for an uncoated, 10-mm-diameter rod). Additional increases in pulse energy can be accomplished with further increases in the rod diameter.

4. Conclusions and outlook

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to C. Dedic of Iowa State University for technical assistance. This work was funded by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (Dr. Chiping Li, Program Manager) and the AFRL under contract No. FA8650-12-C-2200.

References and links

1.

M. Cundy and V. Sick, “Hydroxyl radical imaging at kHz rates using a frequency-quadrupled Nd:YLF laser,” Appl. Phys. B 96(2-3), 241–245 (2009). [CrossRef]

2.

I. Boxx, M. Stöhr, C. Carter, and W. Meier, “Sustained multi-kHz flamefront and 3-component velocity-field measurements for the study of turbulent flames,” Appl. Phys. B 95(1), 23–29 (2009). [CrossRef]

3.

B. Böhm, C. Heeger, R. Gordon, and A. Dreizler, “New perspectives on turbulent combustion: multi-parameter high-speed planar laser diagnostics,” Flow, Turbul. Combust. 86(3-4), 313–341 (2011). [CrossRef]

4.

M. Juddoo and A. R. Masri, “High-speed OH-PLIF imaging of extinction and re-ignition in non-premixed flames with various levels of oxygenation,” Combust. Flame 158(5), 902–914 (2011). [CrossRef]

5.

A. Johchi, M. Tanahashi, M. Shimura, J.-M. Choi, and T. Miyauchi, “High repetition rate simultaneous CH/OH PLIF in turbulent jet flame,” in 16th Int. Symp. on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics(Lisbon, Portugal, 2012).

6.

P. Weigand, W. Meier, X. Duan, R. Giezendanner-Thoben, and U. Meier, “Laser diagnostic study of the mechanism of a periodic combustion instability in a gas turbine model combustor,” Flow, Turbul. Combust. 75(1-4), 275–292 (2005). [CrossRef]

7.

W. Paa, D. Müller, H. Stafast, and W. Triebel, “Flame turbulences recorded at 1 kHz using planar laser induced fluorescence upon hot band excitation of OH radicals,” Appl. Phys. B 86(1), 1–5 (2006). [CrossRef]

8.

P. P. Wu and R. B. Miles, “High-energy pulse-burst laser system for megahertz-rate flow visualization,” Opt. Lett. 25(22), 1639–1641 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

B. Thurow, N. Jiang, M. Samimy, and W. Lempert, “Narrow-linewidth megahertz-rate pulse-burst laser for high-speed flow diagnostics,” Appl. Opt. 43(26), 5064–5073 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

J. D. Miller, M. Slipchenko, T. R. Meyer, N. Jiang, W. R. Lempert, and J. R. Gord, “Ultrahigh-frame-rate OH fluorescence imaging in turbulent flames using a burst-mode optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1309–1311 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

B. S. Thurow, A. Satija, and K. Lynch, “Third-generation megahertz-rate pulse burst laser system,” Appl. Opt. 48(11), 2086–2093 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

N. Jiang, M. C. Webster, and W. R. Lempert, “Advances in generation of high-repetition-rate burst mode laser output,” Appl. Opt. 48(4), B23–B31 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

R. Patton, K. Gabet, N. Jiang, W. Lempert, and J. Sutton, “Multi-kHz temperature imaging in turbulent non-premixed flames using planar Rayleigh scattering,” Appl. Phys. B 108(2), 377–392 (2012). [CrossRef]

14.

R. Patton, K. Gabet, N. Jiang, W. Lempert, and J. Sutton, “Multi-kHz mixture fraction imaging in turbulent jets using planar Rayleigh scattering,” Appl. Phys. B 106(2), 457–471 (2012). [CrossRef]

15.

C. F. Kaminski, J. Hult, and M. Aldén, “High repetition rate planar laser induced fluorescence of OH in a turbulent non-premixed flame,” Appl. Phys. B 68(4), 757–760 (1999). [CrossRef]

16.

N. Jiang and W. R. Lempert, “Ultrahigh-frame-rate nitric oxide planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2236–2238 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

N. Jiang, M. Webster, W. R. Lempert, J. D. Miller, T. R. Meyer, C. B. Ivey, and P. M. Danehy, “MHz-rate nitric oxide planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging in a Mach 10 hypersonic wind tunnel,” Appl. Opt. 50(4), A20–A28 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

N. Jiang, R. A. Patton, W. R. Lempert, and J. A. Sutton, “Development of high-repetition rate CH PLIF imaging in turbulent nonpremixed flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 33(1), 767–774 (2011). [CrossRef]

19.

J. D. Miller, S. R. Engel, J. W. Tröger, T. R. Meyer, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, “Characterization of a CH planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging system using a kHz-rate multimode-pumped optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Opt. 51(14), 2589–2600 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

J. D. Miller, S. R. Engel, T. R. Meyer, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, “High-speed CH planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging using a multimode-pumped optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 36(19), 3927–3929 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

K. Gabet, R. Patton, N. Jiang, W. Lempert, and J. Sutton, “High-speed CH2O PLIF imaging in turbulent flames using a pulse-burst laser system,” Appl. Phys. B 106(3), 569–575 (2012). [CrossRef]

22.

M. N. Slipchenko, J. D. Miller, S. Roy, J. R. Gord, S. A. Danczyk, and T. R. Meyer, “Quasi-continuous burst-mode laser for high-speed planar imaging,” Opt. Lett. 37(8), 1346–1348 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

K. Gabet, N. Jiang, W. Lempert, and J. Sutton, “Demonstration of high-speed 1D Raman scattering line imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 101(1-2), 1–5 (2010). [CrossRef]

24.

F. Fuest, M. J. Papageorge, W. R. Lempert, and J. A. Sutton, “Ultrahigh laser pulse energy and power generation at 10 kHz,” Opt. Lett. 37(15), 3231–3233 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

S. Kotake and K. Takamoto, “Combustion noise: effects of the velocity turbulence of unburned mixture,” J. Sound Vibrat. 139(1), 9–20 (1990). [CrossRef]

26.

Y.-C. Chao, Y.-L. Chang, C.-Y. Wu, and T.-S. Cheng, “An experimental investigation of the blowout process of a jet flame,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28(1), 335–342 (2000). [CrossRef]

27.

T. Lieuwen, Y. Neumeier, and B. T. Zinn, “The role of unmixedness and chemical kinetics in driving combustion instabilities in lean premixed combustors,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 135(1-6), 193–211 (1998). [CrossRef]

28.

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer Science + Business Media, Inc., New York, 2006).

29.

W. Koechner, “Transient thermal profile in optically pumped laser rods,” J. Appl. Phys. 44(7), 3162–3170 (1973). [CrossRef]

30.

S. Epstein, “Temperature-induced changes in optical path length for a Nd-doped glass rod during pumping,” J. Appl. Phys. 38(7), 2715–2719 (1967). [CrossRef]

31.

G. D. Baldwin and E. P. Riedel, “Measurements of dynamic optical distortion in Nd-doped glass laser rods,” J. Appl. Phys. 38(7), 2726–2738 (1967). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(120.1740) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Combustion diagnostics
(140.3280) Lasers and laser optics : Laser amplifiers
(300.2530) Spectroscopy : Fluorescence, laser-induced
(140.3538) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, pulsed

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: November 8, 2012
Revised Manuscript: December 19, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: December 19, 2012
Published: January 7, 2013

Citation
Mikhail N. Slipchenko, Joseph D. Miller, Sukesh Roy, James R. Gord, and Terrence R. Meyer, "All-diode-pumped quasi-continuous burst-mode laser for extended high-speed planar imaging," Opt. Express 21, 681-689 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-1-681


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References

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  11. B. S. Thurow, A. Satija, and K. Lynch, “Third-generation megahertz-rate pulse burst laser system,” Appl. Opt.48(11), 2086–2093 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. N. Jiang, M. C. Webster, and W. R. Lempert, “Advances in generation of high-repetition-rate burst mode laser output,” Appl. Opt.48(4), B23–B31 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. Patton, K. Gabet, N. Jiang, W. Lempert, and J. Sutton, “Multi-kHz temperature imaging in turbulent non-premixed flames using planar Rayleigh scattering,” Appl. Phys. B108(2), 377–392 (2012). [CrossRef]
  14. R. Patton, K. Gabet, N. Jiang, W. Lempert, and J. Sutton, “Multi-kHz mixture fraction imaging in turbulent jets using planar Rayleigh scattering,” Appl. Phys. B106(2), 457–471 (2012). [CrossRef]
  15. C. F. Kaminski, J. Hult, and M. Aldén, “High repetition rate planar laser induced fluorescence of OH in a turbulent non-premixed flame,” Appl. Phys. B68(4), 757–760 (1999). [CrossRef]
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  19. J. D. Miller, S. R. Engel, J. W. Tröger, T. R. Meyer, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, “Characterization of a CH planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging system using a kHz-rate multimode-pumped optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Opt.51(14), 2589–2600 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  22. M. N. Slipchenko, J. D. Miller, S. Roy, J. R. Gord, S. A. Danczyk, and T. R. Meyer, “Quasi-continuous burst-mode laser for high-speed planar imaging,” Opt. Lett.37(8), 1346–1348 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. K. Gabet, N. Jiang, W. Lempert, and J. Sutton, “Demonstration of high-speed 1D Raman scattering line imaging,” Appl. Phys. B101(1-2), 1–5 (2010). [CrossRef]
  24. F. Fuest, M. J. Papageorge, W. R. Lempert, and J. A. Sutton, “Ultrahigh laser pulse energy and power generation at 10 kHz,” Opt. Lett.37(15), 3231–3233 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. S. Kotake and K. Takamoto, “Combustion noise: effects of the velocity turbulence of unburned mixture,” J. Sound Vibrat.139(1), 9–20 (1990). [CrossRef]
  26. Y.-C. Chao, Y.-L. Chang, C.-Y. Wu, and T.-S. Cheng, “An experimental investigation of the blowout process of a jet flame,” Proc. Combust. Inst.28(1), 335–342 (2000). [CrossRef]
  27. T. Lieuwen, Y. Neumeier, and B. T. Zinn, “The role of unmixedness and chemical kinetics in driving combustion instabilities in lean premixed combustors,” Combust. Sci. Technol.135(1-6), 193–211 (1998). [CrossRef]
  28. W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer Science + Business Media, Inc., New York, 2006).
  29. W. Koechner, “Transient thermal profile in optically pumped laser rods,” J. Appl. Phys.44(7), 3162–3170 (1973). [CrossRef]
  30. S. Epstein, “Temperature-induced changes in optical path length for a Nd-doped glass rod during pumping,” J. Appl. Phys.38(7), 2715–2719 (1967). [CrossRef]
  31. G. D. Baldwin and E. P. Riedel, “Measurements of dynamic optical distortion in Nd-doped glass laser rods,” J. Appl. Phys.38(7), 2726–2738 (1967). [CrossRef]

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