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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 10 — May. 20, 2013
  • pp: 12410–12418
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Robustness to mechanical perturbations of center-launching technique for transparent board-to-board and data server interconnects

A. Boletti, P. Boffi, A. Gatto, P. Martelli, E. Centeno Nieves, and M. Martinelli  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 10, pp. 12410-12418 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.012410


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Abstract

Center-launching technique appears as a promising method to allow single-mode propagation in multi-mode fibers, guaranteeing full transparency to the transmitted optical signal also for applications in board-to-board and data server interconnects. In this paper we show that this technique is robust to mechanical perturbations up to about 1 kHz, demonstrating that the vibrations do not affect the transmission performances. Different experimental configurations are tested in order to exclude multimode propagation and to confirm the only fundamental mode propagation. Finally, a theoretical discussion comments the experimental results.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

The exponential growing of demand for bandwidth capacity and the need to develop fast, energy-efficient and low cost solutions in board-to-board and data interconnects inside massive data centers lead to find alternative electrical and optical solutions [1

1. S. Nishimura, K. Shinoda, Y. Lee, G. Ono, K. Fukuda, K. Fukuda, T. Takemoto, H. Toyoda, M. Yamada, S. Tsuji, and N. Ikeda, “Components and interconnection technologies for photonic-assisted routers toward green networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 347–356 (2011). [CrossRef]

4

4. N. Y. Li, C. L. Schow, D. M. Kuchta, F. E. Doany, B. G. Lee, W. Luo, C. Xie, X. Sun, K. P. Jackson, and C. Lei, “High-performance 850 nm VCSEL and photodetector arrays for 25 Gb/s parallel optical interconnects,” in Proceedings OFC/NFOEC 2010, paper OTuP2, San Diego, CA, USA (2010).

]. Recently, multi-mode fibers (MMFs) have assumed a growing interest in datacom networks [5

5. D. Molin, G. Kuyt, M. Bigot-Astruc, and P. Sillard, “Recent advances in MMF technology for data networks,” in Proceedings OFC/NFOEC 2011, paper OWJ6, Los Angeles, CA, USA (2011).

] Usually, the transmission distance in a backplane system is less than 1.5 meters. It has already been demonstrated that MMF is a good choice thanks to its easy handling, flexibility, and high tolerance to alignment offset in fiber-to-transmitter/receiver and fiber-to-fiber connections. Moreover, MMF is currently employed also in short-reach data center interconnections and local-area networks (LAN) in conjunction to directly-modulated vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs), which permit to reach bit rates as high as 10 Gb/s with low costs, low network complexity and low power consumption up to hundreds of meters. When the covered distances are short the impairment induced during propagation by MMF intermodal dispersion does not generally affect data transmission, also in case of high transmission bit rate [6

6. T. Irujo and J. Kamino, “Multimode or single-mode fiber?” www.ofsoptics.com (2012).

]. Since all these advantages are required also in backplane and datacom applications, the exploitation of MMF with fast VCSELs for shorter distances should be mandatory. Moreover, the new optical backplane would be completely compatible with local area networks. To increase the whole transported capacity, in MMFs it is possible even to exploit mode division multiplexing [7

7. S. Berdagué and P. Facq, “Mode division multiplexing in optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 21(11), 1950–1955 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] with standard LP modes [8

8. J. Carpenter, B. C. Thomsen, and T. D. Wilkinson, “2x56-Gb/s Mode-division multiplexed transmission over 2km of OM2 multimode fiber without MIMO equalization,” in Proceeding ECOC 2012, paper Th.2.D.3, Amsterdam, NL (2012).

] or alternative optical vortices [9

9. S. Ramachandran, N. Bozinovic, P. Gregg, S. E. Golowich, and P. Kristensen, “Optical vortices in fibres: a new degree of freedom for mode multiplexing,” Proceedings ECOC2012, paper Tu.3.F.3, Amsterdam, NL (2012).

11

11. P. Martelli, A. Gatto, P. Boffi, and M. Martinelli, “Free-space optical transmission with orbital angular momentum division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 47(17), 972–973 (2011). [CrossRef]

].

Recently, for MMF propagation the mode-field matched (MFM) center-launching technique has been proposed, in which the beam profile of the incident light is precisely matched to the fundamental mode (LP01 mode) of the MMF [15

15. D. H. Sim, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “High-speed multimode fiber transmission by using mode - field matched center-launching technique,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(8), 1018–1026 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Exploiting this technique, since only the fundamental mode of MMF is excited, it is possible to directly connect the input SMF to the MMF ensuring the transparency to the transmitted signal and SMF-like propagation [16

16. H. S. Chung, S. H. Chang, and K. Kim, “6 x 86 Gb/s WDM transmission over 2 km multimode fiber using center launching technique and multi-level modulation,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8098–8102 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,17

17. P. Boffi, A. Gatto, A. Boletti, P. Martelli, and M. Martinelli, “12.5 Gbit/s VCSEL-based transmission over legacy MMFs by centre-launching technique,” Electron. Lett. 48(20), 1289–1290 (2012). [CrossRef]

].

On the other hand, ETSI standards [18

18. European Standards: ETSI EN 300 019-2-2 V2.2.1 (2012-01); ETSI EN 300 019-2-3 V2.2.2 (2003-04); ETSI EN 300 019-2-4 V2.2.2 (2003-04).

] recommend the robustness to mechanical perturbations required to the telecommunications equipment. If MFM center-launching condition is exploited, in case of external perturbations the system transmission performances could be deteriorated due to higher order modes excitation in MMF. Hence, it is mandatory to investigate the impact of mechanical perturbations on the performances of these board-to-board MMF systems in order to guarantee error-free transmission [19

19. D. H. Sim, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Robustness evaluation of MMF transmission link using mode-field matched center-launching technique,” in Proceedings OFC/NFOEC 2008, paper OWR3, San Diego, CA, USA (2008) [CrossRef]

].

In this paper we present the analysis of the robustness of the center-launching technique in MMF in presence of mechanical vibrations up to about 1 kHz applied to the system. Polarization analysis and transmission performances at 1-Gb/s bit rate are evaluated in case of propagation along 2 m of a standard graded-index legacy MMF, when the mechanical perturbation is applied. To reproduce different operating conditions in backplane applications, we have analyzed two experimental configurations: at first, the transmitted signal is received directly on a receiver, set on the board in the internal network; later, the transmitted signal is transferred into another external network in a transparent way passing through the MMF backplane. In the former configuration a simple free-space photodiode is adopted at the receiver side, while in the latter one a SMF pigtailed photodiode is used.

2. Experimental validation of the robustness to mechanical vibrations of the center-launching technique in 2-m MMF link

The transparent connection achieved in a MMF by exploiting the center-launching technique was subjected to mechanical tests. The experimental set up used for the mechanical characterization is shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup in case of free-space PD detection (a) and in case of spatial filtering by SMF coupling before PD detection (b). In the inset the light spot at the MMF output after center-launching is shown.
. The transmitter employed in our experimentation was a single-mode VCSEL source [20

20. A. Gatto, A. Boletti, P. Boffi, E. Ronneberg, C. Neumeyr, M. Ortsiefer, and M. Martinelli, “1.3 μm VCSEL transmission performance up to 12.5 Gbit/s for metro access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(12), 778–780 (2009). [CrossRef]

,21

21. A. Gatto, A. Boletti, P. Boffi, and M. Martinelli, “Adjustable-chirp VCSEL-to-VCSEL injection locking for 10-Gb/s transmission at 1.55 microm,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21748–21753 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] suitable for high-speed applications. The VCSEL was pigtailed by a standard step-index SMF; the output power was about 1 mW at 1335 nm with a bias current about 11 mA in uncooled conditions. Direct modulation at 1 Gb/s with NRZ data (231-1 PRBS pattern length) was performed.

In order to achieve the optimal center-launching condition into the MMF, the SMF pigtail was fusion-spliced directly to the MMF spoil of the length of 2m. The mode field pattern coming from the SMF matched very well with the fundamental mode of the standard graded-index MMF, which is a OM2 fiber with 50-μm core diameter, characterized by overfilled launch (OFL) bandwidth of 2000 MHz*km at 1310 nm. If inaccurate SMF-MMF coupling is performed mode-field mismatch occurs and the higher-order modes are excited into the MMF with a power comparable with the one of the fundamental mode. The center-launching technique effectiveness was estimated without any applied vibration in presence of a free-space photodiode (PD) at the output. The measured power losses of the optical signal between the output of the pigtailed input SMF and the output of the MMF was about 0.4 dB. The intensity profile at the MMF output was monitored thanks to a CCD camera (in the inset of Fig. 1 the detected light spot is shown). The very low power loss and the Gaussian intensity pattern visible after MMF propagation sustain the effectiveness of the realized center-launching technique.

Then, the MMF was rigidly fixed on the shaker, therefore the fiber doesn’t move with respect to the shaker, when the vibration is applied, as shown in Fig. 1. A sinusoidal signal at different frequencies (between 10 Hz and 800 Hz) was applied on a shaker to generate the vibration on the optical fiber. To verify the real mechanical transfer of the vibration to the MMF link, we chose to analyze the impact of the vibration on the state of polarization of the optical signal by means of a linear polarizer placed at the fiber output, before the free-space PD. In Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Measured polarization response when a vibration of 18 Hz (on the left) and 38 Hz (on the right) is applied to the MMF. The range of amplitude values is normalized, with value 0 corresponding to polarization orthogonal to the analyzer and value 1 corresponding to polarization aligned to the analyzer.
some examples of the signal at the output of the MMF are reported. Due to frequency response of the shaker checked by a suitable accelerometer the signal transferred to the MMF is very distorted at very low vibration frequencies. As the vibration frequency increases, it becomes more regular up to a good sine shape.

In order to verify the stability of the center-launching technique, a temporal BER analysis is carried out. The receiver power is fixed to be about −10.3dBm. Every 10 minutes the condition of the system was changed alternatively with no vibration and with vibration at different frequency. No significant BER variation around the value of 10−6 induced by the vibration is noticed (Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Temporal BER measurements at different vibration frequencies and fixed receiver power in the 2-m MMF configuration.
). BER fluctuations are limited in the normal error measurement range. These results demonstrate that the vibration does not modify the initial condition of the system and the polarization changes do not impair the system performances.

Finally, to check if the effects of the vibration change for different positions of the applied vibration on the system, we placed the shaker on the first SMF span of the VCSEL pigtail. The measures were repeated in the same condition explained previously. Also in this case the vibrations do not affect the performances system.

3. Theoretical discussions

It is important to know what value of frequency can induce the rise of high-order modes in the fiber. Generally, the external vibration produces an acoustic grating with a determined βeq, which can permit the energy flow from one mode to the other [22

22. J. N. Blake, B. Y. Kim, and H. J. Shaw, “Fiber-optic modal coupler using periodic microbending,” Opt. Lett. 11(3), 177–179 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. To make possible this transfer the βeq of the grating must be similar to the difference of the propagation coefficient Δβ between the two modes. More a mode is close to another one in terms of propagation coefficient, more the energy transfer between them is possible. Furthermore, in order to have a significant coupling efficiency, the spatial pattern of the perturbation must show the symmetry for matching one mode to another.

4. Experimental validation of the robustness to mechanical vibrations of the center-launching technique in presence of large modal dispersion

Also in case of long MMF propagation, we monitored the output intensity profile with a CCD camera, also both in free space and SMF-filter configuration, before and during the vibration, without detecting any significant changing.

5. Conclusion

We have shown that the exploitation of center-launching technique guarantees an almost SMF-like propagation in MMF. The transmission of a 1-Gb/s NRZ OOK signal remains robust to mechanical perturbations as required by ETSI recommendations, demonstrating that no higher order modes are generated owing to the applied vibrations.

The actual account of the mechanical perturbation frequency that can induce the generation of the first higher order mode has been achieved by suitable simulations, obtaining a frequency of about 1 MHz, much larger than the frequencies characteristic of the realistic environmental perturbations.

Therefore, from the mechanical point of view, center-launching technique appears as a promising method to ensure full transparency to the transmitted signals for applications in board-to-board and data server interconnects.

Acknowledgment

The authors wish to thank VERTILAS company for the VCSEL supply.

References and links

1.

S. Nishimura, K. Shinoda, Y. Lee, G. Ono, K. Fukuda, K. Fukuda, T. Takemoto, H. Toyoda, M. Yamada, S. Tsuji, and N. Ikeda, “Components and interconnection technologies for photonic-assisted routers toward green networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 347–356 (2011). [CrossRef]

2.

N. Fehratović and S. Aleksić, “Power consumption and scalability of optically switched interconnects for high-capacity network elements,” in Proceedings OFC/NFOEC 2011, paper JWA84, Los Angeles, CA, USA (2011).

3.

M. A. Taubenblatt, “Optical interconnects for high-performance computing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 448–457 (2012). [CrossRef]

4.

N. Y. Li, C. L. Schow, D. M. Kuchta, F. E. Doany, B. G. Lee, W. Luo, C. Xie, X. Sun, K. P. Jackson, and C. Lei, “High-performance 850 nm VCSEL and photodetector arrays for 25 Gb/s parallel optical interconnects,” in Proceedings OFC/NFOEC 2010, paper OTuP2, San Diego, CA, USA (2010).

5.

D. Molin, G. Kuyt, M. Bigot-Astruc, and P. Sillard, “Recent advances in MMF technology for data networks,” in Proceedings OFC/NFOEC 2011, paper OWJ6, Los Angeles, CA, USA (2011).

6.

T. Irujo and J. Kamino, “Multimode or single-mode fiber?” www.ofsoptics.com (2012).

7.

S. Berdagué and P. Facq, “Mode division multiplexing in optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 21(11), 1950–1955 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

J. Carpenter, B. C. Thomsen, and T. D. Wilkinson, “2x56-Gb/s Mode-division multiplexed transmission over 2km of OM2 multimode fiber without MIMO equalization,” in Proceeding ECOC 2012, paper Th.2.D.3, Amsterdam, NL (2012).

9.

S. Ramachandran, N. Bozinovic, P. Gregg, S. E. Golowich, and P. Kristensen, “Optical vortices in fibres: a new degree of freedom for mode multiplexing,” Proceedings ECOC2012, paper Tu.3.F.3, Amsterdam, NL (2012).

10.

A. Gatto, M. Tacca, P. Martelli, P. Boffi, and M. Martinelli, “Free-space orbital angular momentum division multiplexing with Bessel beams,” J. Opt. 13(064018), 1–5 (2011).

11.

P. Martelli, A. Gatto, P. Boffi, and M. Martinelli, “Free-space optical transmission with orbital angular momentum division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 47(17), 972–973 (2011). [CrossRef]

12.

G. Charlet, E. Corbel, J. Lazaro, A. Klekamp, R. Dischler, P. Tran, W. Idler, H. Mardovan, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, and S. Bigo, “WDM transmission at 6-Tbit/s capacity over transatlantic distance, using 42.7-Gb/s differential phase-shift keying without pulse carver,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 104–107 (2005). [CrossRef]

13.

P. Boffi, M. Ferrario, L. Marazzi, P. Martelli, P. Parolari, A. Righetti, R. Siano, and M. Martinelli, “Stable 100-Gb/s POLMUX-DQPSK transmission with automatic polarization stabilization,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(11), 745–747 (2009). [CrossRef]

14.

P. Pepeljugoski, D. Kuchta, and A. Risteski, “Modal noise BER calculations in 10-Gb/s multimode fiber LAN links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(12), 2586–2588 (2005). [CrossRef]

15.

D. H. Sim, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “High-speed multimode fiber transmission by using mode - field matched center-launching technique,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(8), 1018–1026 (2009). [CrossRef]

16.

H. S. Chung, S. H. Chang, and K. Kim, “6 x 86 Gb/s WDM transmission over 2 km multimode fiber using center launching technique and multi-level modulation,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8098–8102 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

P. Boffi, A. Gatto, A. Boletti, P. Martelli, and M. Martinelli, “12.5 Gbit/s VCSEL-based transmission over legacy MMFs by centre-launching technique,” Electron. Lett. 48(20), 1289–1290 (2012). [CrossRef]

18.

European Standards: ETSI EN 300 019-2-2 V2.2.1 (2012-01); ETSI EN 300 019-2-3 V2.2.2 (2003-04); ETSI EN 300 019-2-4 V2.2.2 (2003-04).

19.

D. H. Sim, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Robustness evaluation of MMF transmission link using mode-field matched center-launching technique,” in Proceedings OFC/NFOEC 2008, paper OWR3, San Diego, CA, USA (2008) [CrossRef]

20.

A. Gatto, A. Boletti, P. Boffi, E. Ronneberg, C. Neumeyr, M. Ortsiefer, and M. Martinelli, “1.3 μm VCSEL transmission performance up to 12.5 Gbit/s for metro access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(12), 778–780 (2009). [CrossRef]

21.

A. Gatto, A. Boletti, P. Boffi, and M. Martinelli, “Adjustable-chirp VCSEL-to-VCSEL injection locking for 10-Gb/s transmission at 1.55 microm,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21748–21753 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

J. N. Blake, B. Y. Kim, and H. J. Shaw, “Fiber-optic modal coupler using periodic microbending,” Opt. Lett. 11(3), 177–179 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

A. Li, A. Al Amin, X. Chen, and W. Shieh, “Reception of mode and polarization multiplexed 107-Gb/s COOFDM signal over a two-mode fiber,” in Proceedings OFC/NFOEC 2011, paper PDPB8, Los Angeles, CA, USA (2011).

OCIS Codes
(060.2330) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics communications
(200.4650) Optics in computing : Optical interconnects

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: February 1, 2013
Revised Manuscript: March 20, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: April 3, 2013
Published: May 14, 2013

Citation
A. Boletti, P. Boffi, A. Gatto, P. Martelli, E. Centeno Nieves, and M. Martinelli, "Robustness to mechanical perturbations of center-launching technique for transparent board-to-board and data server interconnects," Opt. Express 21, 12410-12418 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-10-12410


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References

  1. S. Nishimura, K. Shinoda, Y. Lee, G. Ono, K. Fukuda, K. Fukuda, T. Takemoto, H. Toyoda, M. Yamada, S. Tsuji, and N. Ikeda, “Components and interconnection technologies for photonic-assisted routers toward green networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 347–356 (2011). [CrossRef]
  2. N. Fehratović and S. Aleksić, “Power consumption and scalability of optically switched interconnects for high-capacity network elements,” in Proceedings OFC/NFOEC 2011, paper JWA84, Los Angeles, CA, USA (2011).
  3. M. A. Taubenblatt, “Optical interconnects for high-performance computing,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(4), 448–457 (2012). [CrossRef]
  4. N. Y. Li, C. L. Schow, D. M. Kuchta, F. E. Doany, B. G. Lee, W. Luo, C. Xie, X. Sun, K. P. Jackson, and C. Lei, “High-performance 850 nm VCSEL and photodetector arrays for 25 Gb/s parallel optical interconnects,” in Proceedings OFC/NFOEC 2010, paper OTuP2, San Diego, CA, USA (2010).
  5. D. Molin, G. Kuyt, M. Bigot-Astruc, and P. Sillard, “Recent advances in MMF technology for data networks,” in Proceedings OFC/NFOEC 2011, paper OWJ6, Los Angeles, CA, USA (2011).
  6. T. Irujo and J. Kamino, “Multimode or single-mode fiber?” www.ofsoptics.com (2012).
  7. S. Berdagué and P. Facq, “Mode division multiplexing in optical fibers,” Appl. Opt.21(11), 1950–1955 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Carpenter, B. C. Thomsen, and T. D. Wilkinson, “2x56-Gb/s Mode-division multiplexed transmission over 2km of OM2 multimode fiber without MIMO equalization,” in Proceeding ECOC 2012, paper Th.2.D.3, Amsterdam, NL (2012).
  9. S. Ramachandran, N. Bozinovic, P. Gregg, S. E. Golowich, and P. Kristensen, “Optical vortices in fibres: a new degree of freedom for mode multiplexing,” Proceedings ECOC2012, paper Tu.3.F.3, Amsterdam, NL (2012).
  10. A. Gatto, M. Tacca, P. Martelli, P. Boffi, and M. Martinelli, “Free-space orbital angular momentum division multiplexing with Bessel beams,” J. Opt.13(064018), 1–5 (2011).
  11. P. Martelli, A. Gatto, P. Boffi, and M. Martinelli, “Free-space optical transmission with orbital angular momentum division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett.47(17), 972–973 (2011). [CrossRef]
  12. G. Charlet, E. Corbel, J. Lazaro, A. Klekamp, R. Dischler, P. Tran, W. Idler, H. Mardovan, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, and S. Bigo, “WDM transmission at 6-Tbit/s capacity over transatlantic distance, using 42.7-Gb/s differential phase-shift keying without pulse carver,” J. Lightwave Technol.23(1), 104–107 (2005). [CrossRef]
  13. P. Boffi, M. Ferrario, L. Marazzi, P. Martelli, P. Parolari, A. Righetti, R. Siano, and M. Martinelli, “Stable 100-Gb/s POLMUX-DQPSK transmission with automatic polarization stabilization,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(11), 745–747 (2009). [CrossRef]
  14. P. Pepeljugoski, D. Kuchta, and A. Risteski, “Modal noise BER calculations in 10-Gb/s multimode fiber LAN links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(12), 2586–2588 (2005). [CrossRef]
  15. D. H. Sim, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “High-speed multimode fiber transmission by using mode - field matched center-launching technique,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(8), 1018–1026 (2009). [CrossRef]
  16. H. S. Chung, S. H. Chang, and K. Kim, “6 x 86 Gb/s WDM transmission over 2 km multimode fiber using center launching technique and multi-level modulation,” Opt. Express17(10), 8098–8102 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. P. Boffi, A. Gatto, A. Boletti, P. Martelli, and M. Martinelli, “12.5 Gbit/s VCSEL-based transmission over legacy MMFs by centre-launching technique,” Electron. Lett.48(20), 1289–1290 (2012). [CrossRef]
  18. European Standards: ETSI EN 300 019-2-2 V2.2.1 (2012-01); ETSI EN 300 019-2-3 V2.2.2 (2003-04); ETSI EN 300 019-2-4 V2.2.2 (2003-04).
  19. D. H. Sim, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Robustness evaluation of MMF transmission link using mode-field matched center-launching technique,” in Proceedings OFC/NFOEC 2008, paper OWR3, San Diego, CA, USA (2008) [CrossRef]
  20. A. Gatto, A. Boletti, P. Boffi, E. Ronneberg, C. Neumeyr, M. Ortsiefer, and M. Martinelli, “1.3 μm VCSEL transmission performance up to 12.5 Gbit/s for metro access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(12), 778–780 (2009). [CrossRef]
  21. A. Gatto, A. Boletti, P. Boffi, and M. Martinelli, “Adjustable-chirp VCSEL-to-VCSEL injection locking for 10-Gb/s transmission at 1.55 microm,” Opt. Express17(24), 21748–21753 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. N. Blake, B. Y. Kim, and H. J. Shaw, “Fiber-optic modal coupler using periodic microbending,” Opt. Lett.11(3), 177–179 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. A. Li, A. Al Amin, X. Chen, and W. Shieh, “Reception of mode and polarization multiplexed 107-Gb/s COOFDM signal over a two-mode fiber,” in Proceedings OFC/NFOEC 2011, paper PDPB8, Los Angeles, CA, USA (2011).

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