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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 10 — May. 20, 2013
  • pp: 12657–12667
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Sensing and transmission characteristics of a rocking filter fabricated in a side-hole fiber with zero group birefringence

A. Anuszkiewicz, T. Martynkien, P. Mergo, M. Makara, and W. Urbanczyk  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 10, pp. 12657-12667 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.012657


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Abstract

We report on sensing and transmission characteristics of rocking filters fabricated in a silica side-hole fiber with group birefringence changing its sign at certain wavelength (λG =0), which corresponds to parabolic-like spectral dependence of beat length. Unusual birefringence dispersion of the side-hole fiber is induced by an elliptical germanium doped core located in a narrow glass bridge between two holes. Rocking filters fabricated in such a fiber have two resonances of the same order located on both sides of λG =0. The sensitivity of both resonances has an opposite sign, which makes it possible to double the response of the rocking filter by applying the differential interrogation scheme. We demonstrate that in this way a pressure sensitivity of the rocking filter can be enlarged to 132 nm/MPa. We also show that by fabricating the rocking filter with a period close to maximum beat length a coupling between polarization modes can be obtained in a broad band reaching 240 nm.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

It has been already demonstrated that fabrication of a Bragg grating or long-period grating (LPG) in highly sensitive side-hole fibers or microstructured fibers facilitates interrogation of birefringence changes and opens new application opportunities, including measurements of pressure, temperature and strain [7

7. E. Chmielewska, W. Urbańczyk, and W. J. Bock, “Measurement of pressure and temperature sensitivities of a Bragg grating imprinted in a highly birefringent side-hole fiber,” Appl. Opt. 42(31), 6284–6291 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] or refractive index changes in gases and liquids [8

8. O. Frazão, T. Martynkien, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, W. Urbanczyk, and J. Wojcik, “Optical refractometer based on a birefringent Bragg grating written in an H-shaped fiber,” Opt. Lett. 34(1), 76–78 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Also rocking filters (RFs), which resonantly couple orthogonally polarized fundamental modes, can be used for interrogation of subtle changes in fiber birefringence, which are transferred into displacement of the resonance wavelength [9

9. J. A. Croucher, L. Gomez-Rojas, S. Kanellopoulos, and V. A. Handerek, “Approach to highly sensitive pressure measurements using side-hole fibre,” Electron. Lett. 34(2), 208–209 (1998). [CrossRef]

,10

10. G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, A. Anuszkiewicz, W. Urbanczyk, and J. Wojcik, “Sensing characteristics of rocking filter fabricated in microstructured birefringent fiber using fusion arc splicer,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17249–17268 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Using this interrogation concept, the record high sensitivity to pressure, exceeding −177 nm/MPa, for the rocking filter fabricated in a specially designed microstructured fiber was reported in [11

11. A. Anuszkiewicz, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, T. Borsukowski, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, T. Geernaert, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Sensing characteristics of the rocking filters in microstructured fibers optimized for hydrostatic pressure measurements,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23320–23330 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. This number is about 100 times greater than the pressure sensitivity of Bragg gratings fabricated in the same fiber [12

12. R. Kaul, “Pressure sensitivity of rocking filters fabricated in an elliptical-core optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 20(9), 1000–1001 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

2. Side-hole fiber with zero group birefringence

3. Rocking filters fabrication and characterization

The black curves represent transmission of the excited mode measured for parallel orientation of the polarizer and the analyzer placed respectively at the fiber input and output. The red curve shows the cross coupling between the polarization modes and is measured for the polarizer and the analyzer crossed. In Fig. 5(b) we present the calculated transmission characteristics for the rocking filter with the same geometrical parameters as the fabricated one. For the numerical simulations we used Jones matrix formalism and the birefringence dispersion curve shown in Fig. 2(a). The measured and the calculated transmission characteristics are in a good agreement, which proves that the lengths of the successive segments of the filter and the twist angles are controlled with sufficient precision in the fabrication process.

To measure the sensitivity to pressure, a rocking filter was installed in a specially designed pressure chamber filled with oil and subjected to pressure cycles in the range from 0.1 (atmospheric pressure) to 10 MPa at stabilized temperature. The transmission characteristics of the filter were registered for increasing and decreasing pressure using OSA, Fig. 6(a)
Fig. 6 Displacement of the transmission characteristics (a) and the resonance wavelengths (b) of the rocking filter RF1 induced by pressure changes. Differential response of the rocking filter RF1 to pressure (c).
. As it is shown in Fig. 6(b) the left resonance moved out of the OSA range already at 7 MPa. The response of the right resonance to pressure is slightly nonlinear, therefore, we estimated the differential sensitivity only for the low pressure range (up to 3 MPa), d(λRL)/dp0.1-3 = 99 nm/MPa. This value is very high in comparison to the sensitivity of the rocking filter fabricated in a D-shaped fiber, which is only 0.5 nm/MPa for the resonance at 640 nm [12

12. R. Kaul, “Pressure sensitivity of rocking filters fabricated in an elliptical-core optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 20(9), 1000–1001 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Similarly, high sensitivity was reported earlier for the rocking filters fabricated in specially designed photonic crystal fibers with the extreme polarimetric sensitivity to pressure [11

11. A. Anuszkiewicz, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, T. Borsukowski, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, T. Geernaert, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Sensing characteristics of the rocking filters in microstructured fibers optimized for hydrostatic pressure measurements,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23320–23330 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

The rocking filter was then subjected to temperature changes in the range of 20 ÷ 220 C. The results of measurements presented in Fig. 7(b)
Fig. 7 Displacement of the transmission characteristics (a) and the resonance wavelengths (b) of the rocking filter RF1 induced by temperature changes. Differential response of the rocking filter RF1 to temperature (c).
show small nonlinearity in the response of the right resonance. The differential sensitivity determined for a low temperature range is equal to d(λRL)/dT22-100 = 1.70 nm/K, which is close to the sensitivity of the LPG presented in [16

16. X. Shu, T. Allsop, B. Gwandu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “High-temperature sensitivity of long-period gratings in B–Ge codoped fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(8), 818–820 (2001). [CrossRef]

].

The flat dependence of the beat length upon the wavelength near the maximum causes that for LB(p) approaching ΛRF2 the resonance is very broad. As it is shown in Fig. 9, for the RF2 the resonance appears at 1.5 MPa, reaches the maximum width (FWHM) of 240 nm at 3 MPa and splits into two resonances at higher pressure. A similar behavior of the transmission and the cross-coupling characteristics was obtained in the numerical simulations, in which we used experimental data for B(λ) and the dependence of LB upon pressure given by Eq. (6), Fig. 8. For pressure greater than 3.5 MPa there are clearly distinguishable two resonance peaks in the transmission characteristics. Therefore in the range 3.5 ÷ 10 MPa we were able to measure the sensitivity for the rocking filter RF2, Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Displacement of the transmission characteristics (a) and the resonance wavelengths (b) of the RF2 induced by pressure changes. Differential response of the rocking filter RF2 to pressure (c).
. In the linear part of the characteristics (3.5 ÷ 6 MPa) the sensitivity for the left resonance is L/dp = −74 nm/MPa, whereas for the right one it equals R/dp = 58 nm/MPa. The differential sensitivity of the RF2 is extremely high and reaches d(λR−λL)/dp = 132 nm/MPa in the pressure range (3.5 ÷ 6 MPa) and drops to 95 nm/MPa at 10 MPa.

4. Conclusions

Finally, we demonstrated that by tuning the maximum beat length close to the period of the rocking filter, it was possible to obtain a very broad coupling between the polarization modes with the FWHM of 240 nm. This effect could be potentially exploited for building a pressure-tunable polarization band-rejection filter.

Acknowledgments

The work presented in this paper was carried out with the support of the National Science Center under the grant no. NN 505 560 439. A. Anuszkiewicz and W. Urbanczyk acknowledge the support of the FNP Program “MISTRZ”.

References and links

1.

H. M. Xie, Ph. Dabkiewicz, R. Ulrich, and K. Okamoto, “Side-hole fiber for fiber-optic pressure sensing,” Opt. Lett. 11(5), 333–335 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

J. R. Clowes, S. Syngellakis, and M. N. Zervas, “Pressure sensitivity of side-hole optical fiber sensors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(6), 857–859 (1998). [CrossRef]

3.

J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, W. Urbanczyk, and W. Bock, “Possibilities of application of the side-hole circular core fibre in monitoring of high pressures,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 47(3), 805–808 (1998). [CrossRef]

4.

S. Tanaka, K. Yoshida, S. Kinugasa, and Y. Ohtsuka, “Birefringent side-hole fiber for use in strain sensor,” Opt. Rev. 4(1), A92–A95 (1997). [CrossRef]

5.

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, T. Geernaert, C. Sonnenfeld, A. Anuszkiewicz, M. K. Szczurowski, K. Tarnowski, M. Makara, K. Skorupski, J. Klimek, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15113–15121 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

C. Wu, J. Li, X. H. Feng, B. O. Guan, and H. Y. Tam, “Side-hole photonic crystal fiber with ultrahigh polarimetric pressure sensitivity,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(7), 943–948 (2011). [CrossRef]

7.

E. Chmielewska, W. Urbańczyk, and W. J. Bock, “Measurement of pressure and temperature sensitivities of a Bragg grating imprinted in a highly birefringent side-hole fiber,” Appl. Opt. 42(31), 6284–6291 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

O. Frazão, T. Martynkien, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, W. Urbanczyk, and J. Wojcik, “Optical refractometer based on a birefringent Bragg grating written in an H-shaped fiber,” Opt. Lett. 34(1), 76–78 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

J. A. Croucher, L. Gomez-Rojas, S. Kanellopoulos, and V. A. Handerek, “Approach to highly sensitive pressure measurements using side-hole fibre,” Electron. Lett. 34(2), 208–209 (1998). [CrossRef]

10.

G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, A. Anuszkiewicz, W. Urbanczyk, and J. Wojcik, “Sensing characteristics of rocking filter fabricated in microstructured birefringent fiber using fusion arc splicer,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17249–17268 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

A. Anuszkiewicz, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, T. Borsukowski, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, T. Geernaert, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Sensing characteristics of the rocking filters in microstructured fibers optimized for hydrostatic pressure measurements,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23320–23330 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

R. Kaul, “Pressure sensitivity of rocking filters fabricated in an elliptical-core optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 20(9), 1000–1001 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

T. Martynkien, M. Szpulak, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, A. Anuszkiewicz, W. Urbanczyk, K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, A. Schwuchow, J. Kirchhof, and H. Bartelt, “Birefringence in microstructure fiber with elliptical GeO2 highly doped inclusion in the core,” Opt. Lett. 33(23), 2764–2766 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

R. Calvani, R. Caponi, and F. Cisternino, “Polarization measurements of single–mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(8), 1187–1196 (1989). [CrossRef]

15.

M. G. Shlyagin, A. V. Khomenko, and D. Tentori, “Birefringence dispersion measurement in optical fibers by wavelength scanning,” Opt. Lett. 20(8), 869–871 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

X. Shu, T. Allsop, B. Gwandu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “High-temperature sensitivity of long-period gratings in B–Ge codoped fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(8), 818–820 (2001). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.2370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics sensors
(350.2770) Other areas of optics : Gratings
(060.4005) Fiber optics and optical communications : Microstructured fibers
(280.5475) Remote sensing and sensors : Pressure measurement

ToC Category:
Sensors

History
Original Manuscript: March 7, 2013
Revised Manuscript: April 29, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: May 2, 2013
Published: May 16, 2013

Citation
A. Anuszkiewicz, T. Martynkien, P. Mergo, M. Makara, and W. Urbanczyk, "Sensing and transmission characteristics of a rocking filter fabricated in a side-hole fiber with zero group birefringence," Opt. Express 21, 12657-12667 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-10-12657


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References

  1. H. M. Xie, Ph. Dabkiewicz, R. Ulrich, and K. Okamoto, “Side-hole fiber for fiber-optic pressure sensing,” Opt. Lett.11(5), 333–335 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. R. Clowes, S. Syngellakis, and M. N. Zervas, “Pressure sensitivity of side-hole optical fiber sensors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.10(6), 857–859 (1998). [CrossRef]
  3. J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, W. Urbanczyk, and W. Bock, “Possibilities of application of the side-hole circular core fibre in monitoring of high pressures,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.47(3), 805–808 (1998). [CrossRef]
  4. S. Tanaka, K. Yoshida, S. Kinugasa, and Y. Ohtsuka, “Birefringent side-hole fiber for use in strain sensor,” Opt. Rev.4(1), A92–A95 (1997). [CrossRef]
  5. T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, T. Geernaert, C. Sonnenfeld, A. Anuszkiewicz, M. K. Szczurowski, K. Tarnowski, M. Makara, K. Skorupski, J. Klimek, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure,” Opt. Express18(14), 15113–15121 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. Wu, J. Li, X. H. Feng, B. O. Guan, and H. Y. Tam, “Side-hole photonic crystal fiber with ultrahigh polarimetric pressure sensitivity,” J. Lightwave Technol.29(7), 943–948 (2011). [CrossRef]
  7. E. Chmielewska, W. Urbańczyk, and W. J. Bock, “Measurement of pressure and temperature sensitivities of a Bragg grating imprinted in a highly birefringent side-hole fiber,” Appl. Opt.42(31), 6284–6291 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. O. Frazão, T. Martynkien, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, W. Urbanczyk, and J. Wojcik, “Optical refractometer based on a birefringent Bragg grating written in an H-shaped fiber,” Opt. Lett.34(1), 76–78 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. A. Croucher, L. Gomez-Rojas, S. Kanellopoulos, and V. A. Handerek, “Approach to highly sensitive pressure measurements using side-hole fibre,” Electron. Lett.34(2), 208–209 (1998). [CrossRef]
  10. G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, A. Anuszkiewicz, W. Urbanczyk, and J. Wojcik, “Sensing characteristics of rocking filter fabricated in microstructured birefringent fiber using fusion arc splicer,” Opt. Express16(22), 17249–17268 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Anuszkiewicz, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, T. Borsukowski, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, T. Geernaert, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Sensing characteristics of the rocking filters in microstructured fibers optimized for hydrostatic pressure measurements,” Opt. Express20(21), 23320–23330 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. Kaul, “Pressure sensitivity of rocking filters fabricated in an elliptical-core optical fiber,” Opt. Lett.20(9), 1000–1001 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. T. Martynkien, M. Szpulak, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, A. Anuszkiewicz, W. Urbanczyk, K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, A. Schwuchow, J. Kirchhof, and H. Bartelt, “Birefringence in microstructure fiber with elliptical GeO2 highly doped inclusion in the core,” Opt. Lett.33(23), 2764–2766 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. Calvani, R. Caponi, and F. Cisternino, “Polarization measurements of single–mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.7(8), 1187–1196 (1989). [CrossRef]
  15. M. G. Shlyagin, A. V. Khomenko, and D. Tentori, “Birefringence dispersion measurement in optical fibers by wavelength scanning,” Opt. Lett.20(8), 869–871 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. X. Shu, T. Allsop, B. Gwandu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “High-temperature sensitivity of long-period gratings in B–Ge codoped fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(8), 818–820 (2001). [CrossRef]

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