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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 10 — May. 20, 2013
  • pp: 12790–12796
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CMOS compatible horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides TE-pass polarizer on silicon-on-insulator platform

Ying Huang, Shiyang Zhu, Huijuan Zhang, Tsung-Yang Liow, and Guo-Qiang Lo  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 10, pp. 12790-12796 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.012790


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Abstract

An ultra-compact broadband TE-pass polarizer was proposed and demonstrated on the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform, using the horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguide (HNSW). Detailed design principle was presented, taking advantage of the distinct confinement region of the TE and TM modes in the HNSW. TM mode cut-off could be achieved when waveguide width was below 210nm. Proof-of-concept devices were subsequently fabricated in a CMOS-compatible process. The optimized device had an active region length of 1μm, three orders of magnitude smaller than similar device previously demonstrated on the SOI platform. More than 16dB polarization extinction ratio was achieved across 80nm wavelength range, with a relatively low insertion loss of 2.2dB. The compact device size and excellent broadband performance could provide a simple yet satisfactory solution to the polarization dependent performance drawback of the silicon photonics devices on the SOI platform.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

Polarization dependent performance has been identified as detrimental on the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform recently, originated from the SOI waveguide’s large structural birefringence and high index contrast [1

1. J. Zhang, T. Y. Liow, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon waveguide based TE mode converter,” Opt. Express 18(24), 25264–25270 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The associated polarization mode dispersion (PMD), polarization dependent loss (PDL) and polarization dependent wavelength shift (PDWS) deteriorate the performance of the devices on the platform [2

2. C. Manolatou, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “High density integrated optics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(9), 1682–1692 (1999). [CrossRef]

, 3

3. L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, and Y. Chen, “Polarization-diversified DWDM receiver on silicon free of polarization-dependent wavelength shift” Proceedings of OFC/NFOEC, 1–3(2012).

]. To circumvent the problem, polarization diversity circuit has been proposed. Orthogonal polarizations are split, rotated and processed separately using polarization beam splitters (PBS) and rotators in the scheme [4

4. H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Silicon photonic circuit with polarization diversity,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4872–4880 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 5

5. T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. A number of PBS and rotators have been subsequently demonstrated [6

6. L. Liu, Y. Ding, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “Silicon-on-insulator polarization splitting and rotating device for polarization diversity circuits,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12646–12651 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9

9. J. Chee, S. Zhu, and G. Q. Lo, “CMOS compatible polarization splitter using hybrid plasmonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 20(23), 25345–25355 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The solution is comprehensive, at the expense of increased system footprint and complexity. When polarization-division multiplex is not necessary, another simple yet satisfactory approach is to design the devices in one single polarization and strip off the unwanted polarization with a polarizer [10

10. M. Z. Alam, J. S. Aitchison, and M. Mojahedi, “Compact and silicon-on-insulator-compatible hybrid plasmonic TE-pass polarizer,” Opt. Lett. 37(1), 55–57 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In addition, integrated polarizer is essential for applications such as polarization filter, optical sensing, advanced optical processing and quantum communications. Various polarizers have been proposed on the SOI platform, utilizing photonic crystal slab [11

11. Y. Cui, Q. Wu, E. Schonbrun, M. Tinker, J. Lee, and W. Park, “Silicon-based 2-D slab photonic crystal TM polarizer at telecommunication wavelength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 641–643 (2008). [CrossRef]

], nanophotonics waveguide [12

12. Q. Wang and S. Ho, “Ultracompact TM-pass silicon nanophotonic waveguide polarizer and design,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(1), 49–56 (2010). [CrossRef]

] and plasmonic waveguide [13

13. T. Ng, M. Khan, A. Al-Jabr, and B. Ooi, “Analysis of CMOS compatible Cu-based TM-pass optical polarizer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(9), 724–726 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. In particular, a transverse-electric (TE)-pass polarizer has been demonstrated using shallowly etched SOI ridge waveguide [14

14. D. Dai, Z. Wang, N. Julian, and J. E. Bowers, “Compact broadband polarizer based on shallowly-etched silicon-on-insulator ridge optical waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27404–27415 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The device is however 1mm-long, making it less attractive due to the precious space on-chip.

A more compact polarizer is needed on the SOI platform. Plasmonic waveguide could provide an answer, with its well-known capability to confine light below the diffraction limit [15

15. D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. Two independent groups have shown theoretically that micron-size polarizer is achievable using plasmonic waveguides [10

10. M. Z. Alam, J. S. Aitchison, and M. Mojahedi, “Compact and silicon-on-insulator-compatible hybrid plasmonic TE-pass polarizer,” Opt. Lett. 37(1), 55–57 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 13

13. T. Ng, M. Khan, A. Al-Jabr, and B. Ooi, “Analysis of CMOS compatible Cu-based TM-pass optical polarizer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(9), 724–726 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. To the best of our knowledge, no plasmonic polarizer has been demonstrated experimentally on the SOI platform. On the other hand, we recently presented a plasmonic platform using the horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguide (HNSW). The platform offers advantages of compact device size, relatively low propagation loss, high coupling efficiency to conventional silicon photonics devices and compatibility with the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) fabrication process [16

16. S. Zhu, T. Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon-based horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides for on-chip integration,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8888–8902 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Various devices have been realized, including an ultra-compact power splitter [17

17. S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Nanoplasmonic power splitters based on the horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031112 (2011). [CrossRef]

] and modulator [18

18. S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Electro-absorption modulation in horizontal metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(151114), 1 (2011) (Introduction.).

]. The HNSW-platform thus presents an ideal approach to address the long-device-length constraint of the integrated polarizer on the SOI platform. In this paper, we propose and realize an ultra-compact TE-pass polarizer based on the HNSW.

2. Design principle and simulations

The schematic diagram of the proposed HNSW-based polarizer is shown in Fig. 1(a)
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the proposed HNSW-based polarizer with axis labeled. (b) X-Y cross-section of the HNSW in the active region.
. The entire structure sits on a commercially available SOI wafer. The device consists of five parts: i) an 500nm-wide input channel waveguide, ii) a linearly-tapered coupler of length Lc, iii) the HNSW active region of width Wp and length Lp, iv) another linearly-tapered coupler of the same length Lc, and v) an 500nm-wide output channel waveguide. To avoid ambiguity, part (iii) is named as the active region while polarizer refers to the entire structure. The cross-section of the HNSW in the active region is illustrated in Fig. 1(b). A ~10nm-thick (h) thermal oxide (SiO2) slot is inserted between the copper (Cu) and silicon (Si) core, capable to support the propagation of optical waves. Copper (Cu) is chosen as the metal material due to its CMOS-compatibility, as well as the low ohmic loss originated from the small imaginary part of the its permittivity (~-109 + 9.8i) at 1550nm wavelength. The coupler length (Lc) is set at 1µm throughout this work, sufficient to ensure a low coupling loss [16

16. S. Zhu, T. Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon-based horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides for on-chip integration,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8888–8902 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The HNSW height (H) is kept at 340nm, corresponding to the un-etched silicon device layer thickness of the incoming SOI wafer. The polarizer can thus be defined in a single full-etch step to reduce fabrication complexity for yield enhancement.

IL(dB)=10×log10(PoutTEPinTE)=2×LosstaperTE+LosspropTE,
(1a)
PER(dB)=10×log10(PoutTEPinTE×PinTMPoutTM),
(1b)

3. Fabrication and experiments

As a proof-of-concept, we fabricated the proposed TE-pass polarizer in a CMOS-compatible process using an 8-inch SOI wafer with 340-nm-thick (H) silicon device layer and 2-μm-thick BOX layer. The entire process flow is illustrated in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Illustration of the fabrication process flow for the TE-pass polarizer.
. The silicon waveguides were first defined using the 248nm DUV lithography, without the photo-resist trimming process [16

16. S. Zhu, T. Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon-based horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides for on-chip integration,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8888–8902 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Instead, high energy exposure is used to create the narrow HNSW width. This will allow a better fabrication control of the waveguide dimensions, in addition to the inherent process simplification. With the help of a 70-nm-thick SiO2 hard mask deposited, the polarizer was formed by reactive ion etching (RIE) of the silicon through to the BOX layer [Fig. 4(b)]. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the fabricated device after this step is shown in Fig. 5(a)
Fig. 5 (a) SEM image of the fabricated polarizer after silicon etch; Enlarged XTEM images for (b) set S1 and (c) set S2, with a measured HNSW-width of 71nm and 144nm respectively; (d) Simulation (solid lines) and measurement (points) results of 144nm-width polarizer with different active region length, for both the TE (red, circle) and TM (black, triangle) modes.
. After removing the SiO2 hard mask, a 75-nm-thick Si3N4 layer and a 1-μm-thick SiO2 layer were deposited sequentially in a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process. Windows were then opened by removing the SiO2 layers in the designed copper (Cu) window [Fig. 4(c)]. A combination of dry and wet etch processes are employed to avoid over-etch the SiO2 layer, while ensuring a reasonable process time. The remaining Si3N4 layer was subsequently wet-etched, followed by thermal oxidation to form the ~10-nm-thick SiO2 layer (h) on the exposed Si core [Fig. 4(d)]. Si3N4 is chosen as the etch stop layer, due to its relatively high etch selectivity (1:20) with respect to silicon. Next, 1-μm-thick Cu was deposited on the whole wafer, followed by Cu chemical mechanical polishing (Cu-CMP) to remove those outside the intended window [Fig. 4(e)]. A 1-μm-thick SiO2 was further deposited as the upper cladding. Finally, Deep trench was form with > 100-μm-depth etch into the silicon substrate [Fig. 4(f)]. The deep trench eliminates the need of end-facet polishing for fiber coupling.

Figure 6
Fig. 6 Measured TE (solid lines) and TM modes (dotted lines) transmission spectrum for 71nm-width (black) and 144nm-width (red) polarizer with 1µm active region length.
illustrates the transmission spectrum of the TE and TM modes for both sets of devices with 1µm active region length. An amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source is used as the light source for this experiment. The power meter is also replaced by an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA) for output detection. Greater than 16dB polarization extinction ratio are achieved for both devices across the measured wavelength range from 1525nm to 1605nm, which is limited by the spectrum flatness from our ASE source. Further PER enhancement can be achieved through the introduction of 90-degree sharp bend into the polarizer active region [16

16. S. Zhu, T. Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon-based horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides for on-chip integration,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8888–8902 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The average insertion losses are 2.2dB and 2.4dB for 144nm wide and 71nm-wide devices, respectively. A relatively flat transmission spectrum is obtained for the TE wave. The small fluctuation (<1dB) is believed to be originated from the experimental set-up and ASE source. The case for the TM input light is completely different, in which significant spectrum oscillation is observed. This could be again due to the propagation of light in the BOX layer, which also explains the similar TM mode insertion loss measured for both sets of devices. One possible solution to reduce such oscillation is to introduce a large horizontal miss-alignment between the input and out waveguides to the lensed fiber.

5. Conclusions

In summary, we have proposed and demonstrated an ultra-compact broadband TE-pass polarizer using the HNSW on the SOI platform. The design principle was clearly illustrated, utilizing the distinct confinement region of the TE and TM polarization in the HNSW. Both FEM and 3D-FDTD simulation confirmed that TM mode was cut-off below the HNSW-width of 210nm. Proof-of-concept devices were subsequently fabricated in a CMOS compatible process and characterized, leading to the first demonstration of plamonic polarizer on the SOI platform. The active region length was found to be optimized at 1μm in terms of energy efficiency, which agrees well with the theoretical prediction. This represents a one-thousand-times length reduction from similar device on the SOI platform. The broadband device response was finally measured. More than 16dB polarization extinction ratio was obtained across 80nm-wavelength-range, with a relatively low insertion loss of 2.2dB. The compact device footprint, coupled with the excellent broadband performance, could provide a simple yet satisfactory solution for the polarization dependent drawback on the SOI platform.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Science and Engineering Research Council of A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), Singapore. The SERC grant number is 092-154-0098.

References and links

1.

J. Zhang, T. Y. Liow, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon waveguide based TE mode converter,” Opt. Express 18(24), 25264–25270 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

C. Manolatou, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “High density integrated optics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(9), 1682–1692 (1999). [CrossRef]

3.

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, and Y. Chen, “Polarization-diversified DWDM receiver on silicon free of polarization-dependent wavelength shift” Proceedings of OFC/NFOEC, 1–3(2012).

4.

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Silicon photonic circuit with polarization diversity,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4872–4880 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007). [CrossRef]

6.

L. Liu, Y. Ding, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “Silicon-on-insulator polarization splitting and rotating device for polarization diversity circuits,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12646–12651 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

S. Lin, J. Hu, and K. B. Crozier, “Ultracompact, broadband slot waveguide polarization splitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151101 (2011).

8.

H. Zhang, S. Das, J. Zhang, Y. Huang, C. Li, S. Chen, H. Zhou, M. Yu, P. G.-Q. Lo, and J. T. L. Thong, “Efficient and broadband polarization rotator using horizontal slot waveguide for silicon photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(2), 021105 (2012). [CrossRef]

9.

J. Chee, S. Zhu, and G. Q. Lo, “CMOS compatible polarization splitter using hybrid plasmonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 20(23), 25345–25355 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

M. Z. Alam, J. S. Aitchison, and M. Mojahedi, “Compact and silicon-on-insulator-compatible hybrid plasmonic TE-pass polarizer,” Opt. Lett. 37(1), 55–57 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

Y. Cui, Q. Wu, E. Schonbrun, M. Tinker, J. Lee, and W. Park, “Silicon-based 2-D slab photonic crystal TM polarizer at telecommunication wavelength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 641–643 (2008). [CrossRef]

12.

Q. Wang and S. Ho, “Ultracompact TM-pass silicon nanophotonic waveguide polarizer and design,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(1), 49–56 (2010). [CrossRef]

13.

T. Ng, M. Khan, A. Al-Jabr, and B. Ooi, “Analysis of CMOS compatible Cu-based TM-pass optical polarizer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(9), 724–726 (2012). [CrossRef]

14.

D. Dai, Z. Wang, N. Julian, and J. E. Bowers, “Compact broadband polarizer based on shallowly-etched silicon-on-insulator ridge optical waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27404–27415 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010). [CrossRef]

16.

S. Zhu, T. Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon-based horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides for on-chip integration,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8888–8902 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Nanoplasmonic power splitters based on the horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031112 (2011). [CrossRef]

18.

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Electro-absorption modulation in horizontal metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(151114), 1 (2011) (Introduction.).

OCIS Codes
(230.3120) Optical devices : Integrated optics devices
(230.5440) Optical devices : Polarization-selective devices
(230.7370) Optical devices : Waveguides
(250.5403) Optoelectronics : Plasmonics

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

History
Original Manuscript: January 18, 2013
Revised Manuscript: March 2, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: March 3, 2013
Published: May 16, 2013

Citation
Ying Huang, Shiyang Zhu, Huijuan Zhang, Tsung-Yang Liow, and Guo-Qiang Lo, "CMOS compatible horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides TE-pass polarizer on silicon-on-insulator platform," Opt. Express 21, 12790-12796 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-10-12790


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References

  1. J. Zhang, T. Y. Liow, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon waveguide based TE mode converter,” Opt. Express18(24), 25264–25270 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. Manolatou, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “High density integrated optics,” J. Lightwave Technol.17(9), 1682–1692 (1999). [CrossRef]
  3. L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, and Y. Chen, “Polarization-diversified DWDM receiver on silicon free of polarization-dependent wavelength shift” Proceedings of OFC/NFOEC, 1–3(2012).
  4. H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Silicon photonic circuit with polarization diversity,” Opt. Express16(7), 4872–4880 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 57–60 (2007). [CrossRef]
  6. L. Liu, Y. Ding, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “Silicon-on-insulator polarization splitting and rotating device for polarization diversity circuits,” Opt. Express19(13), 12646–12651 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Lin, J. Hu, and K. B. Crozier, “Ultracompact, broadband slot waveguide polarization splitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151101 (2011).
  8. H. Zhang, S. Das, J. Zhang, Y. Huang, C. Li, S. Chen, H. Zhou, M. Yu, P. G.-Q. Lo, and J. T. L. Thong, “Efficient and broadband polarization rotator using horizontal slot waveguide for silicon photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(2), 021105 (2012). [CrossRef]
  9. J. Chee, S. Zhu, and G. Q. Lo, “CMOS compatible polarization splitter using hybrid plasmonic waveguide,” Opt. Express20(23), 25345–25355 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Z. Alam, J. S. Aitchison, and M. Mojahedi, “Compact and silicon-on-insulator-compatible hybrid plasmonic TE-pass polarizer,” Opt. Lett.37(1), 55–57 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Cui, Q. Wu, E. Schonbrun, M. Tinker, J. Lee, and W. Park, “Silicon-based 2-D slab photonic crystal TM polarizer at telecommunication wavelength,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(8), 641–643 (2008). [CrossRef]
  12. Q. Wang and S. Ho, “Ultracompact TM-pass silicon nanophotonic waveguide polarizer and design,” IEEE Photonics J.2(1), 49–56 (2010). [CrossRef]
  13. T. Ng, M. Khan, A. Al-Jabr, and B. Ooi, “Analysis of CMOS compatible Cu-based TM-pass optical polarizer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(9), 724–726 (2012). [CrossRef]
  14. D. Dai, Z. Wang, N. Julian, and J. E. Bowers, “Compact broadband polarizer based on shallowly-etched silicon-on-insulator ridge optical waveguides,” Opt. Express18(26), 27404–27415 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 83–91 (2010). [CrossRef]
  16. S. Zhu, T. Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon-based horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides for on-chip integration,” Opt. Express19(9), 8888–8902 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Nanoplasmonic power splitters based on the horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(3), 031112 (2011). [CrossRef]
  18. S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Electro-absorption modulation in horizontal metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(151114), 1 (2011) (Introduction.).

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